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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 676284, 5 pages
Review Article

Cytokine Networks in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

1Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
2Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Wakayama Medical University, 105 Saito Bio Innovation Center, 7-7-20 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085, Japan

Received 9 February 2010; Accepted 21 March 2010

Academic Editor: Brian Poole

Copyright © 2010 Hooi-Ming Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease more prominent in women and characterized by multiple organ damage. Imbalance in cytokine production and cytokine levels correlates with SLE progression, making the understanding of SLE cytokine networks very important for SLE treatment strategy and drug development. In this article, we review cytokine networks that may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE by briefly describing abnormal cytokine production and serum cytokine levels in SLE patients. We also focus on the pathological roles of cytokines and their interactions in immunoregulatory networks and suggest how their disturbances may implicate in pathological conditions in SLE. Finally, we further discuss the influence of estrogen on these cytokine networks.