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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 690438, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/690438
Review Article

Immunomodulatory Effects of dsRNA and Its Potential as Vaccine Adjuvant

1Department of Digestive Diseases, Naval General Hospital, 6 Fucheng Rd., Beijing 100048, China
2Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Naval General Hospital, Beijing 100048, China
3Department of Pathology, Naval General Hospital, Beijing 100048, China
4Sherman Oaks, CA 91411, USA

Received 31 December 2009; Accepted 9 May 2010

Academic Editor: Zhengguo Xiao

Copyright © 2010 Bo Jin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

dsRNA can be detected by pattern recognition receptors, for example, TLR3, MDA-5, NLRP3 to induce proinflammatory cytokines responsible for innate/adaptive immunity. Recognized by endosomal TLR3 in myeloid DCs (mDCs), dsRNA can activate mDCs into mature antigen presenting cells (mAPCs) which in turn present antigen epitopes with MHC-I molecules to naïve T cells. Coadministration of protein and synthetic dsRNA analogues can elicit an antigen-specific Th1-polarized immune response which stimulates the CD8+ CTL response and possibly dampen Th17 response. Synthetic dsRNA analogues have been tested as vaccine adjuvant against viral infections in animal models. However, a dsRNA receptor, TLR3 can be expressed in tumor cells while other members of TLR family, for example, TLR4 and TLR2 have been shown to promote tumor progression, metastasis, and chemoresistance. Thus, the promising potential of dsRNA analogues as a tumor therapeutic vaccine adjuvant should be evaluated cautiously.