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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 523481, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/523481
Review Article

Modulation of Acetylation: Creating a Pro-survival and Anti-Inflammatory Phenotype in Lethal Hemorrhagic and Septic Shock

Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma, Emergency Surgery and Surgical Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, 165 Cambridge Street, Suite 810, Boston, MA 02114, USA

Received 20 July 2010; Accepted 16 November 2010

Academic Editor: Patrick Matthias

Copyright © 2011 Yongqing Li and Hasan B. Alam. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a key role in homeostasis of protein acetylation in histone and nonhistone proteins and in regulating fundamental cellular activities. In this paper we review and discuss intriguing recent developments in the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) to combat some critical conditions in an animal model of hemorrhagic and septic shock. HDACIs have neuroprotective, cardioprotective, renal-protective, and anti-inflammatory properties; survival improvements have been significantly shown in these models. We discuss the targets and mechanisms underlying these effects of HDACIs and comment on the potential new clinical applications for these agents in the future. This paper highlights the emerging roles of HDACIs as acetylation modulators in models of hemorrhagic and septic shock and explains some contradictions encountered in previous studies.