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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 540416, 9 pages
Review Article

Candidate Genes for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

1Institute of Histology and Embryology, Medical Faculty, University Ljubljana, Korytkova 2, 1105 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2Zavod Srce, Dunajska 106, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Received 24 April 2013; Accepted 29 July 2013

Academic Editor: Borut Peterlin

Copyright © 2013 Daniel Petrovič. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Several candidate genes have been so far implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Since the principal pathogenetic mechanisms for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and PDR are different, the main pathogenetic mechanism in DR is increased vascular permeability, whereas in PDR the crucial pathogenetic mechanisms are fibrosis and neoangiogenesis. Due to that fact, different candidate genes are expected to be involved in the development of either DR or PDR. None of the candidate genes, however, can be fully and solely responsible for the development of PDR and for DR progression into PDR. Epigenetic mechanisms are expected to be involved in the pathogenesis of PDR as well. Gene polymorphisms responsible for PDR and epigenetic mechanisms responsible for PDR are reviewed in this paper.