Figure 3: Curcumin inhibits NF-κB activation and downregulates NF-κB-regulated gene products in orthotopic pancreatic tumors. (a) EMSA assay performed on orthotopic tumor tissue samples showed the inhibition of NF-κB by curcumin. (b) Immunohistochemical analysis for nuclear COX-2 and VEGF showed the inhibition of COX-2 and VEGF expression in curcumin-treated group, compared to controls (Figure 3(b), lower panels). Percentages indicate the positive staining for the given biomarker. (c) Western blot showing that curcumin inhibits the expression of NF-κB-dependent gene products VEGF, cyclin D1, MMP-9, COX-2, IKKα, and IKKβ in pancreatic tumor tissues. Samples from three animals in each group were analysed, and representative data are shown. β-Actin was used as loading control.