Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 830837, 8 pages
Review Article

Therapies for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Current Approaches and Pharmacologic Agents in Development

1Retinal Imaging Research and Reading Center, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
2Ocular Imaging Research and Reading Center, Stanley M. Truhlsen Eye Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 3902 Leavenworth Street, Omaha, NE, USA
3Department of Ophthalmology, Retina Service, University of São Paulo Medical School, 05403-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Received 12 August 2013; Accepted 30 September 2013

Academic Editor: Daniel Petrovič

Copyright © 2013 Mostafa Hanout et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


As one of the leading causes of blindness, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has remained at the epicenter of clinical research in ophthalmology. During the past decade, focus of researchers has ranged from understanding the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the angiogenic cascades to developing new therapies for retinal vascular diseases. Anti-VEGF agents such as ranibizumab and aflibercept are becoming increasingly well-established therapies and have replaced earlier approaches such as laser photocoagulation or photodynamic therapy. Many other new therapeutic agents, which are in the early phase clinical trials, have shown promising results. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the available treatment modalities for neovascular AMD and then focus on promising new therapies that are currently in various stages of development.