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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 108516, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/108516
Review Article

Vitamin B6-Dependent Enzymes in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum: A Druggable Target?

1Unit for Drug Discovery, Department of Parasitology, Institute of Biomedical Science, University of São Paulo, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes 1374, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2Multi User Center for Biomolecular Innovation, Department of Physics, São Paulo State University, UNESP/IBILCE, C. Postal 136, 15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil
3Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology, Heart Institute (InCor), Avenida Doctor Eneas de Carvalho Aguiar 44, 05403-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Received 17 May 2013; Revised 24 October 2013; Accepted 28 November 2013; Published 9 January 2014

Academic Editor: Ashley M. Buckle

Copyright © 2014 Thales Kronenberger et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Malaria is a deadly infectious disease which affects millions of people each year in tropical regions. There is no effective vaccine available and the treatment is based on drugs which are currently facing an emergence of drug resistance and in this sense the search for new drug targets is indispensable. It is well established that vitamin biosynthetic pathways, such as the vitamin B6 de novo synthesis present in Plasmodium, are excellent drug targets. The active form of vitamin B6, pyridoxal 5-phosphate, is, besides its antioxidative properties, a cofactor for a variety of essential enzymes present in the malaria parasite which includes the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, synthesis of polyamines), the aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT, involved in the protein biosynthesis), and the serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT, a key enzyme within the folate metabolism).