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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 235426, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/235426
Research Article

Local Overexpression of V1a-Vasopressin Receptor Enhances Regeneration in Tumor Necrosis Factor-Induced Muscle Atrophy

1DAHFMO Unit of Histology and Medical Embryology, Interuniversity Institute of Myology, Sapienza University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome, Italy
2Institute of Histology and Embryology, Catholic University School of Medicine, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome, Italy

Received 27 January 2014; Revised 22 April 2014; Accepted 23 April 2014; Published 20 May 2014

Academic Editor: Marina Bouché

Copyright © 2014 Alessandra Costa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs during disuse and aging, or as a consequence of chronic diseases such as cancer and diabetes. It is characterized by progressive loss of muscle tissue due to hypotrophic changes, degeneration, and an inability of the regeneration machinery to replace damaged myofibers. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a proinflammatory cytokine known to mediate muscle atrophy in many chronic diseases and to inhibit skeletal muscle regeneration. In this study, we investigated the role of Arg-vasopressin-(AVP-)dependent pathways in muscles in which atrophy was induced by local overexpression of TNF. AVP is a potent myogenesis-promoting factor and is able to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration by stimulating Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase and calcineurin signaling. We performed morphological and molecular analyses and demonstrated that local over-expression of the AVP receptor V1a enhances regeneration of atrophic muscle. By upregulating the regeneration/differentiation markers, modulating the inflammatory response, and attenuating fibrogenesis, the stimulation of AVP-dependent pathways creates a favourable environment for efficient and sustained muscle regeneration and repair even in the presence of elevated levels of TNF. This study highlights a novel in vivo role for AVP-dependent pathways, which may represent an interesting strategy to counteract muscle decline in aging or in muscular pathologies.