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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 309129, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/309129
Review Article

Chronic Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s Disease: New Perspectives on Animal Models and Promising Candidate Drugs

1Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 2751, Australia
2Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics Group, School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 2751, Australia
3School of Molecular Bioscience and the Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia
4Centre for Complementary Medicine Research, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 2751, Australia
5Molecular Medicine Research Group, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 2751, Australia

Received 28 February 2014; Revised 14 May 2014; Accepted 14 May 2014; Published 16 June 2014

Academic Editor: Cheng-Hsien Lu

Copyright © 2014 Christopher Millington et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chronic neuroinflammation is now considered one of the major factors in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the most widely used transgenic AD models (overexpressing mutated forms of amyloid precursor protein, presenilin, and/or tau) do not demonstrate the degree of inflammation, neurodegeneration (particularly of the cholinergic system), and cognitive decline that is comparable with the human disease. Hence a more suitable animal model is needed to more closely mimic the resulting cognitive decline and memory loss in humans in order to investigate the effects of neuroinflammation on neurodegeneration. One of these models is the glial fibrillary acidic protein-interleukin 6 (GFAP-IL6) mouse, in which chronic neuroinflammation triggered constitutive expression of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in astrocytes. These transgenic mice show substantial and progressive neurodegeneration as well as a decline in motor skills and cognitive function, starting from 6 months of age. This animal model could serve as an excellent tool for drug discovery and validation in vivo. In this review, we have also selected three potential anti-inflammatory drugs, curcumin, apigenin, and tenilsetam, as candidate drugs, which could be tested in this model.