Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 591703, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/591703
Review Article

Noncoding RNAs as Novel Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer

1Department of Urology, Radboud University Medical Center, Post 267, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
2Department of Urology, Universitätsmedizin Greifswald, Ferdinand-Sauerbruch-Strasse, 17475 Greifswald, Germany
3Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Received 6 June 2014; Accepted 4 August 2014; Published 28 August 2014

Academic Editor: Andreas Doll

Copyright © 2014 C. G. H. Rönnau et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common diagnosed malignant disease in men worldwide. Although serum PSA test dramatically improved the early diagnosis of PCa, it also led to an overdiagnosis and as a consequence to an overtreatment of patients with an indolent disease. New biomarkers for diagnosis, prediction, and monitoring of the disease are needed. These biomarkers would enable the selection of patients with aggressive or progressive disease and, hence, would contribute to the implementation of individualized therapy of the cancer patient. Since the FDA approval of the long noncoding PCA3 RNA-based urine test for the diagnosis of PCa patients, many new noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) associated with PCa have been discovered. According to their size and function, ncRNAs can be divided into small and long ncRNAs. NcRNAs are expressed in (tumor) tissue, but many are also found in circulating tumor cells and in all body fluids as protein-bound or incorporated in extracellular vesicles. In these protected forms they are stable and so they can be easily analyzed, even in archival specimens. In this review, the authors will focus on ncRNAs as novel biomarker candidates for PCa diagnosis, prediction, prognosis, and monitoring of therapeutic response and discuss their potential for an implementation into clinical practice.