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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 642916, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/642916
Review Article

The Potential of MicroRNAs in Personalized Medicine against Cancers

1Université Montpellier 1, 5 Bd Henri IV, 34967 Montpellier Cedex 2, France
2Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics at the Child and Family Research Institute, Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V5Z 4H4
3Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier, UMR 5535 CNRS, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
4Université Montpellier 2, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France

Received 7 June 2014; Accepted 6 August 2014; Published 28 August 2014

Academic Editor: Paolo Gandellini

Copyright © 2014 Anne Saumet et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

MicroRNAs orchestrate the expression of the genome and impact many, if not all, cellular processes. Their deregulation is thus often causative of human malignancies, including cancers. Numerous studies have implicated microRNAs in the different steps of tumorigenesis including initiation, progression, metastasis, and resistance to chemo/radiotherapies. Thus, microRNAs constitute appealing targets for novel anticancer therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring their expression or function. As microRNAs are present in a variety of human cancer types, microRNA profiles can be used as tumor-specific signatures to detect various cancers (diagnosis), to predict their outcome (prognosis), and to monitor their treatment (theranosis). In this review, we present the different aspects of microRNA biology that make them remarkable molecules in the emerging field of personalized medicine against cancers and provide several examples of their industrial exploitation.