Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 835138, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/835138
Review Article

New Insights in the Mobilization of Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma Patients

1Department of Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Laikon General Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 17 AgiouThoma, Goudi, 11527 Athens, Greece
2Department of Hematology, 401 Army Forces Hospital, 138 Mesogeion Avenue, 11525 Athens, Greece
32nd Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 1 Rimini Street, Chaidari, 12462 Athens, Greece

Received 18 April 2014; Accepted 12 July 2014; Published 14 August 2014

Academic Editor: Gerassimos Pangalis

Copyright © 2014 Maria K. Angelopoulou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Maximov, “Der lymphozyt als gemeinsame stammzelle der verschiedenen blutelemente in der embryonalen entwicklung und im posfetalen saugetiere,” Folia Haematologica VIII, vol. 8, pp. 125–134, 1909. View at Google Scholar
  2. F. M. Watt and B. L. Hogan, “Out of Eden: stem cells and their niches,” Science, vol. 287, pp. 1427–1430, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  3. E. Fuchs, T. Tumbar, and G. Guasch, “Socializing with the neighbors: stem cells and their niche,” Cell, vol. 116, pp. 769–778, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. R. Schofield, “The relationship between the spleen colony-forming cell and the haemopoietic stem cell,” Blood Cells, vol. 4, no. 1-2, pp. 7–25, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. Yin and L. Li, “The stem cell niches in bone,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 1195–1201, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. K. Chang, L. Raggatt, K. A. Alexander et al., “Osteal tissue macrophages are intercalated throughout human and mouse bone lining tissues and regulate osteoblast function in vitro and in vivo,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 181, no. 2, pp. 1232–1244, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. I. G. Winkler, N. A. Sims, A. R. Pettit et al., “Bone marrow macrophages maintain hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niches and their depletion mobilizes HSCs,” Blood, vol. 116, no. 23, pp. 4815–4828, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Sugiyama and T. Nagasawa, “Bone marrow niches for hematopoietic stem cells and immune cells,” Inflammation and Allergy-Drug Targets, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 201–206, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. J. Kiel, Ö. H. Yilmaz, T. Iwashita, O. H. Yilmaz, C. Terhorst, and S. J. Morrison, “SLAM family receptors distinguish hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and reveal endothelial niches for stem cells,” Cell, vol. 121, no. 7, pp. 1109–1121, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Rafii, F. Shapiro, R. Pettengell et al., “Human bone marrow microvascular endothelial cells support long-term proliferation and differentiation of myeloid and megakaryocytic progenitors,” Blood, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 3353–3363, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Wasnik, A. Tiwari, M. A. Kirkland, and G. Pande, “Osteohematopoietic stem cell niches in bone marrow,” International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 298, pp. 95–133, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Wilson, E. Laurenti, G. Oser et al., “Hematopoietic stem cells reversibly switch from dormancy to self-renewal during homeostasis and repair,” Cell, vol. 135, no. 6, pp. 1118–1129, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Naka and A. Hirao, “Maintenance of genomic integrity in hematopoietic stem cells,” International Journal of Hematology, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 434–439, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. A. Challen and M. H. Little, “A side order of stem cells: the SP phenotype,” Stem Cells, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 3–12, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Matsumoto and K. I. Nakayama, “Role of key regulators of the cell cycle in maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1830, no. 2, pp. 2335–2344, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Bianco, M. C. Rangel, N. P. Castro et al., “Role of Cripto-1 in stem cell maintenance and malignant progression,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 177, no. 2, pp. 532–540, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. F. Egan, D. B. Shackelford, M. M. Mihaylova et al., “Phosphorylation of ULK1 (hATG1) by AMP-activated protein kinase connects energy sensing to mitophagy,” Science, vol. 331, no. 6016, pp. 456–461, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Kim, M. Kundu, B. Viollet, and K. Guan, “AMPK and mTOR regulate autophagy through direct phosphorylation of Ulk1,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 132–141, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. Suda, K. Takubo, and G. L. Semenza, “Metabolic regulation of hematopoietic stem cells in the hypoxic niche,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 298–310, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. A. Cao, A. J. Wagers, H. Karsunky et al., “Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency leads to disrupted response to acute stress in stem cells and progenitors,” Blood, vol. 112, no. 12, pp. 4494–4502, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Bigas and L. Espinosa, “Hematopoietic stem cells: to be or Notch to be,” Blood, vol. 119, no. 14, pp. 3226–3235, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. G. Cipolleschi, P. Dello Sbarba, and M. Olivotto, “The role of hypoxia in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells,” Blood, vol. 82, no. 7, pp. 2031–2037, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Bonig and T. Papayannopoulou, “Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization: updated conceptual renditions,” Leukemia, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 24–31, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Croizat, E. Frindel, and M. Tubiana, “The effect of partial body irradiation on hemopoietic stem cell migration,” Cell and Tissue Kinetics, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 319–325, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. M. Richman, R. S. Weiner, and R. A. Yankee, “Increase in circulating stem cells following chemotherapy in man,” Blood, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1031–1039, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. A. Socinski, S. A. Cannistra, A. Elias, K. H. Antman, L. Schnipper, and J. D. Griffin, “Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor expands the circulating haemopoietic progenitor cell compartment in man,” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 8596, pp. 1194–1198, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. F. Liu, J. Poursine-Laurent, and D. C. Link, “The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor is required for the mobilization of murine hematopoietic progenitors into peripheral blood by cyclophosphamide or interleukin-8 but not Flt-3 ligand,” Blood, vol. 90, no. 7, pp. 2522–2528, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. Bonig and T. Papayannopoulou, “Mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells: general principles and molecular mechanisms,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 904, pp. 1–14, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. F. Liu, J. Poursine-Laurent, and D. C. Link, “Expression of the G-CSF receptor on hematopoietic progenitor cells is not required for their mobilization by G-CSF,” Blood, vol. 95, no. 10, pp. 3025–3031, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. J. Christopher, F. Liu, M. J. Hilton, F. Long, and D. C. Link, “Suppression of CXCL12 production by bone marrow osteoblasts is a common and critical pathway for cytokine-induced mobilization,” Blood, vol. 114, no. 7, pp. 1331–1339, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Levesque, F. Liu, P. J. Simmons et al., “Characterization of hematopoietic progenitor mobilization in protease-deficient mice,” Blood, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 65–72, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. W. Christopherson II, S. Cooper, G. Hangoc, and H. E. Broxmeyer, “CD26 is essential for normal G-CSF-induced progenitor cell mobilization as determined by CD26-/- mice,” Experimental Hematology, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1126–1134, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. I. Petit, M. Szyper-Kravitz, A. Nagler et al., “G-CSF induces stem cell mobilization by decreasing bone marrow SDF-1 and up-regulating CXCR4,” Nature Immunology, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 687–694, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Spiegel, E. Zcharia, Y. Vagima et al., “Heparanase regulates retention and proliferation of primitive Sca-l+/c-Kit+/Lin- cells via modulation of the bone marrow microenvironment,” Blood, vol. 111, no. 10, pp. 4934–4943, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. W. J. Molendijk, A. van Oudenaren, H. van Dijk, M. R. Daha, and R. Benner, “Complement split product C5a mediates the lipopolysaccharide-induced mobilization of CFU-s and haemopoietic progenitor cells, but not the mobilization induced by proteolytic enzymes,” Cell and Tissue Kinetics, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 407–417, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Y. Gong and J. Hoover-Plow, “The plasminogen system in regulating stem cell mobilization,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2012, Article ID 437920, 7 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Lévesque, Y. Takamatsu, S. K. Nilsson, D. N. Haylock, and P. J. Simmons, “Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD106) is cleaved by neutrophil proteases in the bone marrow following hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor,” Blood, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 1289–1297, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. I. G. Winkler, V. Barbier, R. Wadley, A. C. W. Zannettino, S. Williams, and J. Lévesque, “Positioning of bone marrow hematopoietic and stromal cells relative to blood flow in vivo: serially reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells reside in distinct nonperfused niches,” Blood, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 375–385, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. Lucas, I. Bruns, M. Battista et al., “Norepinephrine reuptake inhibition promotes mobilization in mice: potential impact to rescue low stem cell yields,” Blood, vol. 119, no. 17, pp. 3962–3965, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Y. Katayama, M. Battista, W. Kao et al., “Signals from the sympathetic nervous system regulate hematopoietic stem cell egress from bone marrow,” Cell, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 407–421, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Spiegel, S. Shivtiel, A. Kalinkovich et al., “Catecholaminergic neurotransmitters regulate migration and repopulation of immature human CD34+ cells through Wnt signaling,” Nature Immunology, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1123–1131, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y. Kawamori, Y. Katayama, N. Asada et al., “Role for vitamin D receptor in the neuronal control of the hematopoietic stem cell niche,” Blood, vol. 116, no. 25, pp. 5528–5535, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. Goichberg, A. Kalinkovich, N. Borodovsky et al., “cAMP-induced PKCζ activation increases functional CXCR4 expression on human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors,” Blood, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 870–879, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. Peled, I. Petit, O. Kollet et al., “Dependence of human stem cell engraftment and repopulation of NOD/SCID mice on CXCR4,” Science, vol. 283, no. 5403, pp. 845–848, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. H. E. Broxmeyer, C. M. Orschell, D. W. Clapp et al., “Rapid mobilization of murine and human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells with AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 201, no. 8, pp. 1307–1318, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. V. Varmavuo, P. Mäntymaa, T. Nousiainen, P. Valonen, T. Kuittinen, and E. Jantunen, “Blood graft composition after plerixafor injection in patients with NHL,” European Journal of Haematology, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 128–135, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. Fruehauf, T. Seeger, P. Maier et al., “The CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 releases a subset of G-CSF-primed peripheral blood progenitor cells with specific gene expression characteristics,” Experimental Hematology, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1052–1059, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. E. Donahue, P. Jin, A. C. Bonifacino et al., “Plerixafor (AMD3100) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilize different CD34+ cell populations based on global gene and microRNA expression signatures,” Blood, vol. 114, no. 12, pp. 2530–2541, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. Gaugler, J. Arbez, S. Legouill et al., “Characterization of peripheral blood stem cell grafts mobilized by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and plerixafor compared with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor alone,” Cytotherapy, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 861–868, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Z. Ratajczak, C. H. Kim, A. Abdel-Latif et al., “A novel perspective on stem cell homing and mobilization: review on bioactive lipids as potent chemoattractants and cationic peptides as underappreciated modulators of responsiveness to SDF-1 gradients,” Leukemia, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 63–72, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. K. Golan, Y. Vagima, A. Ludin et al., “S1P promotes murine progenitor cell egress and mobilization via S1P1-mediated ROS signaling and SDF-1 release,” Blood, vol. 119, no. 11, pp. 2478–2488, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. G. Juarez, N. Harun, M. Thien et al., “Sphingosine-1-phosphate facilitates trafficking of hematopoietic stem cells and their mobilization by CXCR4 antagonists in mice,” Blood, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 707–716, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. T. Kimura, A. M. Boehmler, G. Seitz et al., “The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor agonist FTY720 supports CXCR4-dependent migration and bone marrow homing of human CD34+ progenitor cells,” Blood, vol. 103, no. 12, pp. 4478–4486, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Sobue, K. Hagiwara, Y. Banno et al., “Transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is the main regulator of nerve growth factor-induced sphingosine kinase 1 gene expression of the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 940–949, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. Hoggatt and L. M. Pelus, “Eicosanoid regulation of hematopoiesis and hematopoietic stem and progenitor trafficking,” Leukemia, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1993–2002, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Hoggatt, P. Singh, J. Sampath, and L. M. Pelus, “Prostaglandin E2 enhances hematopoietic stem cell homing, survival, and proliferation,” Blood, vol. 113, no. 22, pp. 5444–5455, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. K. Angelopoulou, F. N. Kontopidou, and G. A. Pangalis, “Adhesion molecules in B-chronic lymphoproliferative disorders,” Seminars in Hematology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 178–197, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. F. Zohren, D. Toutzaris, V. Klärner, H. Hartung, B. Kieseier, and R. Haas, “The monoclonal anti-VLA-4 antibody natalizumab mobilizes CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells in humans,” Blood, vol. 111, no. 7, pp. 3893–3895, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Y. Vagima, A. Avigdor, P. Goichberg et al., “MT1-MMP and RECK are involved in human CD34+ progenitor cell retention, egress, and mobilization,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 492–503, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. Avigdor, P. Goichberg, S. Shivtiel et al., “CD44 and hyaluronic acid cooperate with SDF-1 in the trafficking of human CD34+ stem/progenitor cells to bone marrow,” Blood, vol. 103, no. 8, pp. 2981–2989, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. T. Papayannopoulou, G. V. Priestley, and B. Nakamoto, “Anti-VLA4/VCAM-1-induced mobilization requires cooperative signaling through the kit/mkit ligand pathway,” Blood, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 2231–2239, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. Czechowicz, D. Kraft, I. L. Weissman, and D. Bhattacharya, “Efficient transplantation via antibody-based clearance of hematopoietic stem cell niches,” Science, vol. 318, no. 5854, pp. 1296–1299, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. O. Kollet, A. Dar, and T. Lapidot, “The multiple roles of osteoclasts in host defense: bone remodeling and hematopoietic stem cell mobilization,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 25, pp. 51–69, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. O. Kollet, A. Dar, S. Shivtiel et al., “Osteoclasts degrade endosteal components and promote mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells,” Nature Medicine, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 657–664, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Y. Takamatsu, P. J. Simmons, R. J. Moore, H. A. Morris, L. B. To, and J. P. Lévesque, “Osteoclast-mediated bone resorption is stimulated during short-term administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor but is not responsible for hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization,” Blood, vol. 92, no. 9, pp. 3465–3473, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. T. Miyamoto, “Role of osteoclasts in regulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells,” World Journal of Orthopaedics, vol. 4, pp. 198–206, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  67. M. K. Angelopoulou, E. Terpos, P. Tsirkinidis et al., “Bone as a regulator of hematopoietic stem cell trafficking: biochemical markers of bone remodeling and angiogenic cytokines in stem cell mobilization,” Experimental Hematology, vol. 37, supplement 1, p. 20 (P002), 2009. View at Google Scholar
  68. S. Shivtiel, K. Lapid, V. Kalchenko et al., “CD45 regulates homing and engraftment of immature normal and leukemic human cells in transplanted immunodeficient mice,” Experimental Hematology, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1161–1170, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. Shivtiel, O. Kollet, K. Lapid et al., “CD45 regulates retention, motility, and numbers of hematopoietic progenitors, and affects osteoclast remodeling of metaphyseal trabecules,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 205, no. 10, pp. 2381–2395, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. G. L. Wang and G. L. Semenza, “Purification and characterization of hypoxia-inducible factor,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 270, no. 3, pp. 1230–1237, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. P. Lévesque, I. G. Winkler, J. Hendy et al., “Hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization results in hypoxia with increased hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor A in bone marrow,” Stem Cells, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1954–1965, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. Tesio, K. Golan, S. Corso et al., “Enhanced c-Met activity promotes G-CSF-induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells via ROS signaling,” Blood, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 419–428, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. J. Watts, S. J. Ings, D. Leverett et al., “ESHAP and G-CSF is a superior blood stem cell mobilizing regimen compared to cyclophosphamide 1.5 g m-2 and G-CSF for pre-treated lymphoma patients: a matched pairs analysis of 78 patients,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 278–282, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. C. H. Moskowitz, J. R. Bertino, J. R. Glassman et al., “Ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide: a highly effective cytoreduction and peripheral-blood progenitor-cell mobilization regimen for transplant eligible patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 3776–3785, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. K. Angelopoulou, P. Tsirkinidis, and T. Vassilakopoulos, “ESHAP vs IGEV as salvage and mobilizing regimens in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL),” Haematologica, vol. 95, supplement 2, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  76. A. Alegre, J. F. Tomás, C. Martínez-Chamorro et al., “Comparison of peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization in patients with multiple myeloma: high-dose cyclophosphamide plus GM-CSF vs G-CSF alone,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 211–217, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. C. H. Weaver, B. Hazelton, R. Birch et al., “An analysis of engraftment kinetics as a function of the CD34 content of peripheral blood progenitor cell collections in 692 patients after the administration of myeloablative chemotherapy,” Blood, vol. 86, no. 10, pp. 3961–3969, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. L. B. To, J. Levesque, and K. E. Herbert, “How I treat patients who mobilize hematopoietic stem cells poorly,” Blood, vol. 118, no. 17, pp. 4530–4540, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. B. Martín-Antonio, M. Carmona, J. Falantes et al., “Impact of constitutional polymorphisms in VCAM1 and CD44 on CD34+ cell collection yield after administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to healthy donors,” Haematologica, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 102–109, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. K. Angelopoulou, T. P. Vassilakopoulos, O. P. Tsopra et al., “Parameters predicting for successful mobilization and collection of peripheral blood stem cells in patients with haematologic malignacies. A study of 209 patients,” Bone Marrow Transplant, vol. 45, supplement 2, abstract P598, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  81. A. Olivieri, M. Marchetti, R. Lemoli et al., “Proposed definition of “poor mobilizer” in lymphoma and multiple myeloma: an analytic hierarchy process by ad hoc working group Gruppo ItalianoTrapianto di Midollo Osseo,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 342–351, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. I. Pusic, S. Y. Jiang, S. Landua et al., “Impact of mobilization and remobilization strategies on achieving sufficient stem cell yields for autologous transplantation,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1045–1056, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. L. J. Costa, E. T. Alexander, K. R. Hogan, C. Schaub, T. V. Fouts, and R. K. Stuart, “Development and validation of a decision-making algorithm to guide the use of plerixafor for autologous hematopoietic stem cell mobilization,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 64–69, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. F. DiPersio, I. N. Micallef, P. J. Stiff et al., “Phase III prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor compared with placebo plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for autologous stem-cell mobilization and transplantation for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 28, pp. 4767–4773, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. N. Flomenberg, S. M. Devine, J. F. DiPersio et al., “The use of AMD3100 plus G-CSF for autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization is superior to G-CSF alone,” Blood, vol. 106, no. 5, pp. 1867–1874, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. A. Cashen, S. Lopez, F. Gao et al., “A phase II study of plerixafor (AMD3100) plus G-CSF for autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1253–1261, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. C. J. Fowler, A. Dunn, B. Hayes-Lattin et al., “Rescue from failed growth factor and/or chemotherapy HSC mobilization with G-CSF and plerixafor (AMD3100): an institutional experience,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 909–917, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. P. Stiff, I. Micallef, P. McCarthy et al., “Treatment with plerixafor in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma andmultiple myeloma patients to increase the number of peripheral blood stem cells when given a mobilizing regimen of G-CSF: implications for the heavily pretreated patient,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 249–256, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. G. Calandra, J. McCarty, J. McGuirk et al., “AMD3100 plus G-CSF can successfully mobilize CD34+ cells from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease and multiple myeloma patients previously failing mobilization with chemotherapy and/or cytokine treatment: compassionate use data,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 331–338, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J. F. DiPersio, E. A. Stadtmauer, A. Nademanee et al., “Plerixafor and G-CSF versus placebo and G-CSF to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells for autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma,” Blood, vol. 113, no. 23, pp. 5720–5726, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. V. Telonis, T. P. Vassilakopoulos, E. Lalou et al., “Preemptive Use of Plerixafor in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases undergoing hematopoietic stem cell mobilization,” Bone Marrow Transplant, vol. 48, supplement 2, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  92. P. Wuchter, D. Ran, T. Bruckner et al., “Poor mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells-definitions, incidence, risk factors, and impact on outcome of autologous transplantation,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 490–499, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. F. Lefrère, L. Mauge, D. Réa et al., “A specific time course for mobilization of peripheral blood CD34+ cells after plerixafor injection in very poor mobilizer patients: impact on the timing of the apheresis procedure,” Transfusion, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 564–569, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. S. Schmitt, N. Weinhold, K. Dembowsky et al., “First results of a Phase-II study with the new CXCR4 antagonist POL6326 to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in multiple myeloma (MM),” Blood (ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts), vol. 116, p. 824, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  95. A. Nagler, A. Shimoni, I. Avivi et al., “BKT140 is a novel CXCR4 antagonist with stem cell mobilization and antimyeloma effects: an open label first human trial in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing stem cell mobilization for autologous transplantation,” ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts. Blood, vol. 116, p. 2260, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  96. A. Peled, M. Abraham, I. Avivi et al., “The high-affinity CXCR4 antagonist BKT140 is safe and induces a robust mobilization of human CD34+ cells in patients with multiple myeloma,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 20, pp. 469–479, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  97. D. T. Chung, L.-W. Chang, Y.-H. Huang et al., “TG-0054, a novel and potent stem cell mobilizer, displays excellent PK/PD and safety profile in Phase I trial,” Blood, vol. 114, p. 866, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  98. M. Scheller, F. Schwoebel, D. Vossmeyer, and A. Leutz, “Rapid and efficient mobilization of murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells with Nox-A12, a new Spiegelmers(R)-based CXCR4/SDF-1(CXCL12) antagonist,” ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts, vol. 118, p. 2995, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  99. A. Ghobadi, M. Holt, J. Ritchey, and J. F. DiPersio, “The effect of bortezomib (B) alone or in combination with other agents for stem cell mobilization in mice,” Blood (ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts), vol. 120, p. 583, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  100. R. Niesvizky, T. M. Mark, M. Ward et al., “Overcoming the response plateau in multiple myeloma: a novel bortezomib-based strategy for secondary induction and high-yield CD34+ stem cell mobilization,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1534–1546, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. S. Brunner, M. Zaruba, B. Huber et al., “Parathyroid hormone effectively induces mobilization of progenitor cells without depletion of bone marrow,” Experimental Hematology, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 1157–1166, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. K. K. Ballen, E. J. Shpall, D. Avigan et al., “Phase I trial of parathyroid hormone to facilitate stem cell mobilization,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 838–843, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. T. Papayannopoulou and B. Nakamoto, “Peripheralization of hemopoietic progenitors in primates treated with anti-VLA4 integrin,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 90, no. 20, pp. 9374–9378, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. H. Bonig, K. L. Watts, K. Chang, H. Kiem, and T. Papayannopoulou, “Concurrent blockade of a4-integrin and CXCR4 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell mobilization,” Stem Cells, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 836–837, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. D. Jing, U. Oelschlaegel, R. Ordemann et al., “CD49d blockade by natalizumab in patients with multiple sclerosis affects steady-state hematopoiesis and mobilizes progenitors with a distinct phenotype and function,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1489–1496, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. C. E. Forristal, B. Nowlan, V. Barbier, I. G. Winkler, G. Walkinshaw, and J-P. Levesque, “FG-4497, a pharmacological stabilizer of HIF-1{alpha} protein, synergistically enhances hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) mobilization in response to G-CSF and plerixafor,” ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts, vol. 120, p. 216, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  107. S. Fukuda, H. Bian, A. G. King, and L. M. Pelus, “The chemokine GROβ mobilizes early hematopoietic stem cells characterized by enhanced homing and engraftment,” Blood, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 860–869, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus