Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 836397, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/836397
Research Article

Upregulation of Relaxin after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rabbits

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan

Received 9 March 2014; Accepted 24 June 2014; Published 16 July 2014

Academic Editor: Chih-Lung Lin

Copyright © 2014 Yuichiro Kikkawa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. F. Kassell, T. Sasaki, A. R. T. Colohan, and G. Nazar, “Cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Stroke, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 562–572, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. X. Wang, Y. M. Li, W. Q. Li, C. G. Huang, Y. C. Lu, and L. J. Hou, “Effect of clazosentan in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 10, Article ID e47778, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Bani, “Relaxin: a pleiotropic hormone,” General Pharmacology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 13–22, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. O. D. Sherwood, “Relaxin's physiological roles and other diverse actions,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 205–234, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. N. Wilkinson, T. P. Speed, G. W. Tregear, and R. A. D. Bathgate, “Evolution of the relaxin-like peptide family,” BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 5, article 14, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. R. Kompa, C. S. Samuel, and R. J. Summers, “Inotropic responses to human gene 2 (B29) relaxin in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI): effect of pertussis toxin,” The British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 137, no. 5, pp. 710–718, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. S. Samuel, X. Du, R. A. D. Bathgate, and R. J. Summers, “‘Relaxin’ the stiffened heart and arteries: the therapeutic potential for relaxin in the treatment of cardiovascular disease,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 529–552, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. A. D. Bathgate, M. L. Halls, E. T. van der Westhuizen, G. E. Callander, M. Kocan, and R. J. Summers, “Relaxin family peptides and their receptors,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 405–480, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. A. Bathgate, R. Ivell, B. M. Sanborn, O. D. Sherwood, and R. J. Summers, “International union of pharmacology LVII: recommendations for the nomenclature of receptors for relaxin family peptides,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 7–31, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Y. Hsu, K. Nakabayashi, S. Nishi et al., “Activation of orphan receptors by the hormone relaxin,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5555, pp. 671–674, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. P. Conrad and J. Novak, “Emerging role of relaxin in renal and cardiovascular function,” The American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 287, no. 2, pp. R250–R261, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Bani, “Relaxin as a natural agent for vascular health,” Vascular Health and Risk Management, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 515–524, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Novak, L. J. Parry, J. E. Matthews et al., “Evidence for local relaxin ligand-receptor expression and function in arteries,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 2352–2362, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. A. Vodstrcil, M. Tare, J. Novak et al., “Relaxin mediates uterine artery compliance during pregnancy and increases uterine blood flow,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 4035–4044, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. M. Bolstad, R. A. Irizarry, M. Åstrand, and T. P. Speed, “A comparison of normalization methods for high density oligonucleotide array data based on variance and bias,” Bioinformatics, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 185–193, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. C. Gentleman, V. J. Carey, D. M. Bates et al., “Bioconductor: open software development for computational biology and bioinformatics,” Genome Biology, vol. 5, article R80, no. 10, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. C. Gentleman, V. Carey, W. Hüber, R. Irizarry, and R. Dudoit, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Solutions Using R and Bioconductor, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  18. M. Yamaguchi-Okada, S. Nishizawa, M. Koide, and Y. Nonaka, “Biomechanical and phenotypic changes in the vasospastic canine basilar artery after subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 2045–2052, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Takeya, K. Loutzenhiser, M. Shiraishi, R. Loutzenhiser, and M. P. Walsh, “A highly sensitive technique to measure myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation: the first quantification in renal arterioles,” American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology, vol. 294, no. 6, pp. F1487–F1492, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Matsuo, Y. Kikkawa, M. Hokama et al., “Gene expression profiling and bioinformatic analysis of rabbit Basilar artery after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Journal of Neurology and Neurophysiology, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  21. Y. Kikkawa, K. Kameda, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, and K. Hirano, “Impaired feedback regulation of the receptor activity and the myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity contributes to increased vascular reactiveness after subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1637–1650, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. M. Willcox, A. J. S. Summerlee, and C. L. Murrant, “Relaxin induces rapid, transient vasodilation in the microcirculation of hamster skeletal muscle,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 218, no. 2, pp. 179–191, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Fisher, M. MacLean, I. Morecroft et al., “Is the pregnancy hormone relaxin also a vasodilator peptide secreted by the heart?” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 292–295, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. Li, Z. L. S. Brookes, and S. Kaufman, “Acute and chronic effects of relaxin on vasoactivity, myogenic reactivity and compliance of the rat mesenteric arterial and venous vasculature,” Regulatory Peptides, vol. 132, no. 1–3, pp. 41–46, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. A. Vodstrcil, O. Shynlova, J. W. Verlander, M. E. Wlodek, and L. J. Parry, “Decreased expression of the rat myometrial relaxin receptor (RXFP1) in late pregnancy is partially Mediated by the Presence of the conceptus,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 818–824, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. X. L. Moore, A. Hong, and X. J. Du, “α1-Adrenergic activation upregulates expression of relaxin receptor RXFP1 in cardiomyocytes,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1160, pp. 285–286, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Dilraj, J. H. Botha, V. Rambiritch, R. Miller, and J. R. van Dellen, “Levels of catecholamine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Neurosurgery, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 42–51, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. Dschietzig, C. Bartsch, G. Baumann, and K. Stangl, “Relaxin-a pleiotropic hormone and its emerging role for experimental and clinical therapeutics,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 38–56, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. Ren, Z. Yu, L. Xiu, M. Wang, and H. Liu, “Elevated serum levels of human relaxin-2 in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 19, no. 15, pp. 2412–2418, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Dschietzig, C. Richter, C. Bartsch et al., “The pregnancy hormone relaxin is a player in human heart failure,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 2187–2195, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus