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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 858496, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/858496
Review Article

The Harmful Effects of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Extracerebral Organs

1Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, China
2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
3Department of Neurology, The Fifth People’s Hospital, Chongqing 400011, China

Received 18 February 2014; Revised 5 May 2014; Accepted 6 May 2014; Published 7 July 2014

Academic Editor: Chih-Lung Lin

Copyright © 2014 Sheng Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating neurological disorder. Patients with aneurysmal SAH develop secondary complications that are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Aside from secondary neurological injuries, SAH has been associated with nonneurologic medical complications, such as neurocardiogenic injury, neurogenic pulmonary edema, hyperglycemia, and electrolyte imbalance, of which cardiac and pulmonary complications are most common. The related mechanisms include activation of the sympathetic nervous system, release of catecholamines and other hormones, and inflammatory responses. Extracerebral complications are directly related to the severity of SAH-induced brain injury and indicate the clinical outcome in patients. This review provides an overview of the extracerebral complications after SAH. We also aim to describe the manifestations, underlying mechanisms, and the effects of those extracerebral complications on outcome following SAH.