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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 926713, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/926713
Review Article

Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes: Insights into the Pathogenesis and Its Clinical Application

1Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Key Clinical Center for Metabolic Disease, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai 200233, China
2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Wenzhou Medical University Affiliated First Hospital, Wenzhou 325000, China
3Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, South Branch, Shanghai 200233, China

Received 7 March 2014; Accepted 22 March 2014; Published 17 April 2014

Academic Editor: Jiarui Wu

Copyright © 2014 Xue Sun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

With rapidly increasing prevalence, diabetes has become one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. According to the latest studies, genetic information makes substantial contributions towards the prediction of diabetes risk and individualized antidiabetic treatment. To date, approximately 70 susceptibility genes have been identified as being associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at a genome-wide significant level ( ). However, all the genetic loci identified so far account for only about 10% of the overall heritability of T2D. In addition, how these novel susceptibility loci correlate with the pathophysiology of the disease remains largely unknown. This review covers the major genetic studies on the risk of T2D based on ethnicity and briefly discusses the potential mechanisms and clinical utility of the genetic information underlying T2D.