Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 171674, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/171674
Review Article

Hemodynamic and Biologic Determinates of Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes in Renal Failure Patients

Department of Medicine, Nephrology Section, The University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC5100, Chicago, IL 60637, USA

Received 20 March 2015; Accepted 24 May 2015

Academic Editor: Umberto Benedetto

Copyright © 2015 Mary Hammes. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. US Renal Data System, USRDS 2014 Annual Data Report: Atlas of Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease in the United States, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Disease, Bethesda, Md, USA, 2014.
  2. R. L. Pisoni, L. Zepel, F. K. Port, and B. M. Robinson, “Trends in US vascular access use, patient preferences, and related practices: an update from the US DOPPS practice monitor with international comparisons,” The American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 905–915, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. M. Sachdeva, A. Hung, O. Kovalchuk, M. Bitzer, and M. H. Mokrzycki, “The initial vascular access type contributes to inflammation in incident hemodialysis patients,” International Journal of Nephrology, vol. 2012, Article ID 917465, 8 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. S. Dixon, “Why don't fistulas mature?” Kidney International, vol. 70, no. 8, pp. 1413–1422, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. E. Miller, A. Tolwani, C. P. Luscy et al., “Predictors of adequacy of arteriovenous fistulas in hemodialysis patients,” Kidney International, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 275–280, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. A. Rodriquez, L. Armandans, E. Ferrer et al., “The function of permanent vascular access,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 402–408, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. J. H. M. Tordoir, P. Rooyens, R. Dammers, F. M. van der Sande, M. de Haan, and T. I. Yo, “Prospective evaluation of failure modes in autogenous radiocephalic wrist access for haemodialysis,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 378–383, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Roy-Chaudhury, L. M. Spergel, A. Besarab, A. Asif, and P. Ravani, “Biology of arteriovenous fistula failure,” Journal of Nephrology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 150–163, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. K. Lazarides, G. S. Georgiadis, G. A. Antoniou, and D. N. Staramos, “A meta-analysis of dialysis access outcome in elderly patients,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 420–426, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. M. Dember, G. J. Beck, M. Allon et al., “Effect of clopidogrel on early failure of arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis: a randomized controlled trial,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 299, no. 18, pp. 2164–2171, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. S. Dixon, G. J. Beck, M. A. Vasquez et al., “Effect of dipyridamole plus aspirin on hemodialysis graft patency,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 21, pp. 2191–2201, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. A. Besarab, K. Jariatul, and F. Stan, “Vascular access monitoring and surveillance,” in Interventional Nephrology, A. Asif, A. K. Agarwal, A. S. Yevzlin, S. Wu, and G. Bethard, Eds., pp. 121–141, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  13. D. K. Rajan, T. W. I. Clark, N. K. Patel, S. W. Stavropoulos, and M. E. Simons, “Prevalence and treatment of cephalic arch stenosis in dysfunctional autogenous hemodialysis fistulas,” Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 567–573, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. S. Yevzlin, M. R. Chan, Y. T. Becker, P. Roy-Chaudhury, T. Lee, and B. N. Becker, “Venopathy at work: recasting neointimal hyperplasia in a new light,” Translational Research, vol. 156, no. 4, pp. 216–225, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Roy-Chaudhury, B. S. Kelly, M. A. Miler et al., “Venous neointimal hyperplasia in polytetrafluoroethylene dialysis grafts,” Kidney International, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 2325–2334, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  16. G. E. Smith, R. Gohil, and I. C. Chetter, “Factors affecting the patency of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 849–855, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. C. Rothuizen, C. Wong, P. H. A. Quax, A. J. van Zonneveld, T. J. Rabelink, and J. I. Rotmans, “Arteriovenous access failure: more than just intimal hyperplasia?” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1085–1092, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. Hahn and M. A. Schwartz, “Mechanotransduction in vascular physiology and atherogenesis,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 53–62, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. M. Corpataux, E. Haesler, P. Silacci, H. B. Ris, and D. Hayoz, “Low-pressure environment and remodelling of the forearm vein in Brescia-Cimino haemodialysis access,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1057–1062, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. Jia, L. Wang, F. Wei et al., “Effects of wall shear stress in venous neointimal hyperplasia of arteriovenous fistulae,” Nephrology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 335–342, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. The cardiovascular system: blood vessels, http://www.highlands.edu/academics/divisions/scipe/biology/faculty/harnden/2122/notes/cvbv.htm.
  22. T. Lee, N. Safdar, M. J. Mistry et al., “Preexisting venous calcification prior to dialysis vascular access surgery,” Seminars in Dialysis, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 592–595, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Lee, M. Somarathna, A. Hura et al., “Natural history of venous morphologic changes in dialysis access stenosis,” The Journal of Vascular Access, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 298–305, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. I. Lazich, A. Chang, S. Watson, P. Dhar, R. S. Madhurapantula, and M. Hammes, “Morphometric and histological parameters in veins of diabetic patients undergoing brachiocephalic fistula placement,” Hemodialysis International, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. M. S. Hammes, M. E. Boghosian, K. W. Cassel, B. Funaki, and F. L. Coe, “Characteristic differences in cephalic arch geometry for diabetic and non-diabetic ESRD patients,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 2190–2194, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Jaberi, D. Schwartz, R. Marticorena et al., “Risk factors for the development of cephalic arch stenosis,” Journal of Vascular Access, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 287–295, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. J. Jackson, E. L. Aitken, R. Kasthuri, and et al, “Venous outflow stenosis of the brachiocephalic fistula: a single entity, or is the cephalic arch different?” Journal of Vascular Medicine & Surgery, vol. 2, no. 154, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. L. Aldámiz-Echevarría and F. Andrade, “Asymmetric dimethylarginine, endothelial dysfunction and renal disease,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 11288–11311, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. K. Liao, “Linking endothelial dysfunction with endothelial cell activation,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 540–541, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. P. Cooke, “Asymmetrical dimethylarginine: the Uber Marker?” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 15, pp. 1813–1819, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. S. Hammes, S. Watson, F. L. Coe, F. Ahmed, E. Beltran, and P. Dhar, “Asymmetric dimethylarginine and whole blood viscosity in renal failure,” Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 245–255, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. F. Mihout, N. Shweke, N. Bigé et al., “Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) induces chronic kidney disease through a mechanism involving collagen and TGF-β1 synthesis,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 223, no. 1, pp. 37–45, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C.-C. Wu, S.-C. Wen, C.-W. Yang, S.-Y. Pu, K.-C. Tsai, and J.-W. Chen, “Plasma ADMA predicts restenosis of arteriovenous fistula,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 213–222, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. S. Oemar, M. R. Tschudi, N. Godoy, V. Brovkovich, T. Malinski, and T. F. Lüscher, “Reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and production in human atherosclerosis,” Circulation, vol. 97, no. 25, pp. 2494–2498, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. G. dela Paz and P. A. D'Amore, “Arterial versus venous endothelial cells,” Cell and Tissue Research, vol. 335, no. 1, pp. 5–16, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. Shimokawa and A. Takeshita, “Rho-kinase is an important therapeutic target in cardiovascular medicine,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1767–1775, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. Sawada, H. Itoh, K. Ueyama et al., “Inhibition of Rho-associated kinase results in suppression of neointimal formation of balloon-injured arteries,” Circulation, vol. 101, no. 17, pp. 2030–2033, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. A. Nath, S. K. R. Kanakiriya, J. P. Grande, A. J. Croatt, and Z. S. Katusic, “Increased venous proinflammatory gene expression and intimal hyperplasia in an aorto-caval fistula model in the rat,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 162, no. 6, pp. 2079–2090, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Stracke, K. Konner, I. Köstlin et al., “Increased expression of TGF-β1 and IGF-I in inflammatory stenotic lesions of hemodialysis fistulas,” Kidney International, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 1011–1019, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. Widimsky, Z. Straka, P. Stros et al., “One-year coronary bypass graft patency: a randomized comparison between off-pump and on-pump surgery angiographic results of the PRAGUE-4 trial,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 22, pp. 3418–3423, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. U. N. Khot, D. T. Friedman, G. Pettersson, N. G. Smedira, J. Li, and S. G. Ellis, “Radical artery bypass grafts have an increased occurrence of angiographically severe stenosis and occlusion compared with left internal mammary arteries and saphenous vein grafts,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 17, pp. 2086–2091, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S.-M. Yuan, Y.-Q. Wang, Y. Shen, and H. Jing, “Transforming growth factor-β in graft vessels: histology and immunohistochemistry,” Clinics, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 895–901, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. L. Del Vecchio, F. Locatelli, and M. Carini, “What we know about oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis—clinical effects, potential treatment, and prevention,” Seminars in Dialysis, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 56–64, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. N. Huynh, B. K. Chacko, X. Teng et al., “Effects of venous needle turbulence during ex vivo hemodialysis on endothelial morphology and nitric oxide formation,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 2158–2166, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. M. Donnelly and R. M. Marticorena, “When is a new fistula mature? The emerging science of fistula cannulation,” Seminars in Nephrology, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 564–571, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. F. Weiss, V. Scivittaro, and J. M. Anderson, “Oxidative stress and increased expression of growth factors in lesions of failed hemodialysis access,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 970–980, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. F. C. van Bussel, B. C. van Bussel, A. P. Hoeks et al., “A control systems approach to quantify wall shear stress normalization by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery,” PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 2, Article ID e0115977, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. S. Manini, K. Passera, W. Huberts, L. Botti, L. Antiga, and A. Remuzzi, “Computational model for simulation of vascular adaptation following vascular access surgery in haemodialysis patients,” Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1358–1367, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. D. M. Hoganson, C. J. Hinkel, X. Chen, R. K. Agarwal, and S. Shenoy, “Validation of computational fluid dynamics-based analysis to evaluate hemodynamic significance of access stenosis,” The Journal of Vascular Access, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 409–414, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. M. Boghosian, K. Cassel, M. Hammes et al., “Hemodynamics in the cephalic arch of a brachiocephalic fistula,” Medical Engineering and Physics, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 822–830, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. G. Genek, C. T. Altay, T. Unek, A. Sifil, M. Seçil, and T. Camsari, “Can primary failure of arteriovenous fistulas be anticipated?” Hemodialysis International, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 296–305, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. L. S. Lauvao, D. M. Ihnat, K. R. Goshima, L. Chavez, A. C. Gruessner, and J. L. Mills Sr., “Vein diameter is the major predictor of fistula maturation,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1499–1504, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. K. Kono, H. Fujii, N. Miyoshi et al., “Coronary plaque morphology using virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound analysis in hemodialysis patients,” Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 44–50, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. Y. Marie, A. Guy, K. Tullett, H. Krishnan, R. G. Jones, and N. G. Inston, “Patterns of blood flow as a predictor of maturation of arteriovenous fistula for haemodialysis,” The Journal of Vascular Access, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 169–174, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. W. C. Jennings, S. W. Galt, S. Shenoy et al., “The venous window needle guide, a hemodialysis cannulation device for salvage of uncannulatable arteriovenous fistulas,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1024–1032, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. C. Basile, C. Lomonte, L. Vernaglione, F. Casucci, M. Antonelli, and N. Losurdo, “The relationship between the flow of arteriovenous fistula and cardiac output in haemodialysis patients,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 282–287, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus