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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 427038, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/427038
Review Article

Regulation of Synthesis and Roles of Hyaluronan in Peritoneal Dialysis

1Wales Kidney Research Unit, School of Medicine, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK
2Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Ziemssenstrasse 1, 80336 München, Germany
3Klinikum Kempten, Robert-Weixler-Strasse 50, 87439 Kempten, Germany

Received 22 June 2015; Accepted 16 August 2015

Academic Editor: Robert Beelen

Copyright © 2015 Timothy Bowen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hyaluronan (HA) is a ubiquitous extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan composed of repeated disaccharide units of alternating D-glucuronic acid and D-N-acetylglucosamine residues linked via alternating β-1,4 and β-1,3 glycosidic bonds. HA is synthesized in humans by HA synthase (HAS) enzymes 1, 2, and 3, which are encoded by the corresponding HAS genes. Previous in vitro studies have shown characteristic changes in HAS expression and increased HA synthesis in response to wounding and proinflammatory cytokines in human peritoneal mesothelial cells. In addition, in vivo models and human peritoneal biopsy samples have provided evidence of changes in HA metabolism in the fibrosis that at present accompanies peritoneal dialysis treatment. This review discusses these published observations and how they might contribute to improvement in peritoneal dialysis.