Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 503830, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/503830
Review Article

The Impact of Pain Assessment on Critically Ill Patients’ Outcomes: A Systematic Review

1Education Sector, Nursing Services, Ministry of Health, 1 Prodromou & Chilonos Street 17, 1448 Nicosia, Cyprus
2Cyprus University of Technology Department of Nursing, 15 Vragadinou Street, 3041 Limassol, Cyprus

Received 13 March 2015; Accepted 4 June 2015

Academic Editor: Boris Jung

Copyright © 2015 Evanthia Georgiou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Puntillo, C. Pasero, D. Li et al., “Evaluation of pain in ICU patients,” Chest, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 1069–1074, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Sacerdote, M. Bianchi, L. Gaspani et al., “The effects of tramadol and morphine on immune responses and pain after surgery in cancer patients,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 1411–1414, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Y. Skrobik, S. Ahern, M. Leblanc, F. Marquis, D. K. Awissi, and B. P. Kavanagh, “Protocolized intensive care unit management of analgesia, sedation, and delirium improves analgesia and subsyndromal delirium rates,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 451–463, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. L. Kwekkeboom and K. Herr, “Assessment of pain in the critically ill,” Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 181–194, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Jacobi, G. L. Fraser, D. B. Coursin et al., “Clinical practice guidelines for the sustained use of sedatives and analgesics in the critically ill adult,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 119–141, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J.-F. Payen, J.-L. Bosson, G. Chanques, J. Mantz, and J. Labarere, “Pain assessment is associated with decreased duration of mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit: a post hoc analysis of the dolorea study,” Anesthesiology, vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 1308–1316, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. Bair, M. B. Bobek, L. Hoffman-Hogg, L. C. Mion, J. Slomka, and A. C. Arroliga, “Introduction of sedative, analgesic, and neuromuscular blocking agent guidelines in a medical intensive care unit: physician and nurse adherence,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 707–713, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. P. T. Higgins and S. Green, Eds., Glossary Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, Version 5.0.2, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2009, http://handbook.cochrane.org/.
  9. L. Rose, L. Haslam, C. Dale, L. Knechtel, and M. McGillion, “Behavioral pain assessment tool for critically ill adults unable to self-report pain,” The American Journal of Critical Care, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 246–255, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. M. Radtke, A. Heymann, M. Franck et al., “How to implement monitoring tools for sedation, pain and delirium in the intensive care unit: an experimental cohort study,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 1974–1981, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Arbour, C. Gélinas, and C. Michaud, “Impact of the implementation of the critical-care pain observation tool (CPOT) on pain management and clinical outcomes in mechanically ventilated trauma intensive care unit patients: a pilot study,” Journal of Trauma Nursing, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 52–60, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  12. C. Gélinas, C. Arbour, C. Michaud, F. Vaillant, and S. Desjardins, “Implementation of the critical-care pain observation tool on pain assessment/management nursing practices in an intensive care unit with nonverbal critically ill adults: a before and after study,” International Journal of Nursing Studies, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 1495–1504, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Topolovec-Vranic, S. Canzian, J. Innis, M. A. Pollmann-Mudryj, A. W. McFarlan, and A. J. Baker, “Patient satisfaction and documentation of pain assessments and management after implementing the adult nonverbal pain scale,” American Journal of Critical Care, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 345–354, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. A. Williams, S. Martin, G. Leslie et al., “Duration of mechanical ventilation in an adult intensive care unit after introduction of sedation and pain scales,” American Journal of Critical Care, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 349–356, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Chanques, S. Jaber, E. Barbotte et al., “Impact of systematic evaluation of pain and agitation in an intensive care unit,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1691–1699, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. Voigt, J. A. Paice, and J. Pouliot, “Standardized pain flowsheet: impact on patient-reported pain experiences after cardiovascular surgery,” American Journal of Critical Care, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 308–313, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. A. Meehan, M. E. McRae, D. A. Rourke, C. Eisenring, and F. A. Imperial, “Analgesic administration, pain intensity, and patient satisfaction in cardiac surgical patients,” American Journal of Critical Care, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 435–442, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J.-F. Payen and G. Chanques, “Pain assessment in the ICU can improve outcome,” Clinical Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J.-F. Payen, G. Chanques, J. Mantz et al., “Current practices in sedation and analgesia for mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: a prospective multicenter patient-based study,” Anesthesiology, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 687–695, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J.-F. Payen, O. Bru, J.-L. Bosson et al., “Assessing pain in critically ill sedated patients by using a behavioral pain scale,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 2258–2263, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. A. Mularski, “Pain management in the intensive care unit,” Critical Care Clinics, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 381–401, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. McArdle, “Intravenous analgesia,” Critical Care Clinics, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 89–104, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. D. Urden, K. M. Stacy, and M. E. Laugh, Critical Care Nursing Diagnosis and Management, Elsevier, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 6th edition, 2010.
  24. C. J. Dunwoody, D. A. Krenzischek, C. Pasero, J. P. Rathmell, and R. C. Polomano, “Assessment, physiological monitoring and consequences of inadequately treated acute pain,” Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. S15–S27, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Gélinas, M. Fortier, C. Viens, L. Fillion, and K. Puntillo, “Pain assessment and management in critically ill intubated patients: a retrospective study,” American Journal of Critical Care, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 126–135, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. D. Burry, D. R. Williamson, M. M. Perreault et al., “Analgesic, sedative, antipsychotic, and neuromuscular blocker use in Canadian intensive care units: a prospective, multicentre, observational study,” Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 619–630, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Barr, G. L. Fraser, K. Puntillo et al., “Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 263–306, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. A. Shapiro, J. Warren, A. B. Egol et al., “Practice parameters for intravenous analgesia and sedation for adult patients in the intensive care unit: an executive summary,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1596–1600, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. EPHPP, 2008, http://www.ephpp.ca/tools.html.
  30. M. van Tulder, A. Furlan, C. Bombardier, and L. Bouter, “Updated method guidelines for systematic reviews in the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group,” Spine, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1290–1299, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Armijo-Olivo, C. R. Stiles, N. A. Hagen, P. D. Biondo, and G. G. Cummings, “Assessment of study quality for systematic reviews: a comparison of the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool and the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool: methodological research,” Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 12–18, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Petticrew and H. Roberts, Systematic Reviews in the Social Sciences: A Practical Guide, 2006, http://catdir.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0512/2005011632.html.
  33. J. J. Deeks, J. Dinnes, R. D'Amico et al., “Evaluating non-randomised intervention studies,” Health Technology Assessment, vol. 7, no. 27, pp. 1–173, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. Li, K. Puntillo, and C. Miaskowski, “A review of objective pain measures for use with critical care adult patients unable to self-report,” The Journal of Pain, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 2–10, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. D. E. Papathanassoglou, N. Middleton, and K. Hegadoren, “Sex-dependent disparities in critical illness: methodological implications for critical care research,” Nursing in Critical Care, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 58–62, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. J. W. Devlin, G. Boleski, M. Mlynarek et al., “Motor Activity Assessment Scale: a valid and reliable sedation scale for use with mechanically ventilated patients in an adult surgical intensive care unit,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1271–1275, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. L. Beck, G. L. Towsley, P. H. Berry, K. Lindau, R. B. Field, and S. Jensen, “Core aspects of satisfaction with pain management: cancer patients’ perspectives,” Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 100–115, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. W. Darawad, M. Al-Hussami, A. M. Saleh, and M. Al-Sutari, “Jordanian patients' satisfaction with pain management,” Pain Management Nursing, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 116–125, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Innis, N. Bikaunieks, P. Petryshen, V. Zellermeyer, and L. Ciccarelli, “Patient satisfaction and pain management: an educational approach,” Journal of Nursing Care Quality, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 322–327, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. B. Gordon, T. A. Pellino, C. Miaskowski et al., “A 10-year review of quality improvement monitoring in pain management: recommendations for standardized outcome measures,” Pain Management Nursing, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 116–130, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. Gélinas, “Nurses' evaluations of the feasibility and the clinical utility of the critical-care pain observation tool,” Pain Management Nursing, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 115–125, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Q. Le, C. Gélinas, C. Arbour, and N. Rodrigue, “Description of behaviors in nonverbal critically ill patients with a traumatic brain injury when exposed to common procedures in the intensive care unit: a pilot study,” Pain Management Nursing, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. e251–e261, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. F. P. Rivara, E. J. MacKenzie, G. J. Jurkovich, A. B. Nathens, J. Wang, and D. O. Scharfstein, “Prevalence of pain in patients 1 year after major trauma,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 282–287, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. J. G. Asmundson and J. Katz, “Understanding the co-occurrence of anxiety disorders and chronic pain: state-of-the-art,” Depression and Anxiety, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 888–901, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. E. Davidson, M. A. Harvey, A. Bemis-Dougherty, J. M. Smith, and R. O. Hopkins, “Implementation of the pain, agitation, and delirium clinical practice guidelines and promoting patient mobility to prevent post-intensive care syndrome,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. S136–S145, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus