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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 518284, 12 pages
Research Article

Prognosis Relevance of Serum Cytokines in Pancreatic Cancer

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
2Department of Health Sciences, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen, Spain
3Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, University of Granada, 18012 Granada, Spain
4Oncology Service, Virgen de las Nieves Hospital, 18014 Granada, Spain
5Department of Computer Architecture and Computer Technology (CITIC-UGR), University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain

Received 4 November 2014; Revised 5 January 2015; Accepted 12 January 2015

Academic Editor: Wen-Bin Wu

Copyright © 2015 Carolina Torres et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The overall survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is extremely low. Although gemcitabine is the standard used chemotherapy for this disease, clinical outcomes do not reflect significant improvements, not even when combined with adjuvant treatments. There is an urgent need for prognosis markers to be found. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential value of serum cytokines to find a profile that can predict the clinical outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer and to establish a practical prognosis index that significantly predicts patients’ outcomes. We have conducted an extensive analysis of serum prognosis biomarkers using an antibody array comprising 507 human cytokines. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox’s proportional hazard models were used to analyze prognosis factors. To determine the extent that survival could be predicted based on this index, we used the leave-one-out cross-validation model. The multivariate model showed a better performance and it could represent a novel panel of serum cytokines that correlates to poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. B7-1/CD80, EG-VEGF/PK1, IL-29, NRG1-beta1/HRG1-beta1, and PD-ECGF expressions portend a poor prognosis for patients with pancreatic cancer and these cytokines could represent novel therapeutic targets for this disease.