Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 542687, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/542687
Research Article

Biological Niches within Human Calcified Aortic Valves: Towards Understanding of the Pathological Biomineralization Process

1Department of Earth Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
2Department of Anatomical, Histological, Legal Medicine and Orthopedics Sciences, Section of Human Anatomy, Electron Microscopy Laboratory “Pietro M. Motta”, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Alfonso Borelli 50, 00161 Rome, Italy
3Department of Earth and Geoambiental Sciences, Aldo Moro University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
4Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Corso della Repubblica 79, 04100 Latina, Italy
5Division of Cardiac Surgery, San Bortolo Hospital, Viale Rodolfi 37, 36100 Vicenza, Italy

Received 19 March 2015; Accepted 7 June 2015

Academic Editor: Umberto Benedetto

Copyright © 2015 Valentina Cottignoli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. M. Rayamannan, “Calcific aortic stenosis: lessons learned from experimental and clinical studies,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 29, pp. 162–168, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  2. K. Akat, M. Borggrefe, and J. J. Kaden, “Aortic valve calcification: basic science to clinical practice,” Heart, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 616–623, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. A. Leopold, “Cellular mechanisms of aortic valve calcification,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 605–614, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. F. Weska, C. G. Aimoli, G. M. Nogueira et al., “Natural and prosthetic heart valve calcification: morphology and chemical composition characterization,” Artificial Organs, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 311–318, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Mangialardo, V. Cottignoli, E. Cavarretta, L. Salvador, P. Postorino, and A. Maras, “Pathological biominerals: raman and infrared studies of bioapatite deposits in human heart valves,” Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 1121–1127, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. V. Cottignoli, E. Cavarretta, L. Salvador, C. Valfré, and A. Maras, “Morphological and chemical study of pathological deposits in human aortic and mitral valve stenosis: a biomineralogical contribution,” Pathology Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 342984, 14 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. M. Pasero, A. R. Kampf, C. Ferraris, I. V. Pekov, J. Rakovan, and T. J. White, “Nomenclature of the apatite supergroup minerals,” European Journal of Mineralogy, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 163–179, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Weiner and P. M. Dove, “An overview of biomineralization processes and the problem of the vital effect,” Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 1–29, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  9. J. C. Elliot, “Calcium phosphate biominerals,” Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol. 48, pp. 427–453, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  10. Y. Pan and M. E. Fleet, “Compositions of the Apatite-group minerals: substitution mechanisms and controlling factors,” Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 13–49, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Shimoda, T. Aoba, E. C. Moreno, and Y. Miake, “Effect of solution composition on morphological and structural features of carbonated calcium apatites,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 69, no. 11, pp. 1731–1740, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Z. LeGeros, “Formation and transformation of calcium phosphates: relevance to vascular calcification,” Zeitschrift fur Kardiologie, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 116–124, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. Yao, J. P. LeGeros, and R. Z. LeGeros, “Simultaneous incorporation of carbonate and fluoride in synthetic apatites: effect on crystallographic and physico-chemical properties,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 2169–2177, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. Little, P. Wagner, R. Ray, R. Pope, and R. Scheetz, “Biofilms: an ESEM evaluation of artifacts introduced during SEM preparation,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 213–222, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Baumgartner, J. Hung, J. Bermejo et al., “Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice,” European Journal of Echocardiography, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1–25, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. De Castro, V. Salandin, E. Cavarretta et al., “Epicardial real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in cardiac surgery: a preliminary experience,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 2254–2259, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. B. Coons, “Preparation of biological specimens for scanning electron microscopy compiled by Judith A. Murphy and Godfried M. Roomans Scanning Electron Microscopy, Inc., AMF O'Hare, 1984,” Scanning, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 40, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. P. Lu, V. M. Weaver, and Z. Werb, “The extracellular matrix: a dynamic niche in cancer progression,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 196, no. 4, pp. 395–406, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. J. Bissell and M. A. Labarge, “Context, tissue plasticity, and cancer: are tumor stem cells also regulated by the microenvironment?” Cancer Cell, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 17–23, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. F. J. Schoen and R. J. Levy, “Calcification of tissue heart valve substitutes: progress toward understanding and prevention,” The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 1072–1080, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Gurvitch, A. Cheung, J. Ye et al., “Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation for failed surgical bioprosthetic valves,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 58, no. 21, pp. 2196–2209, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Y. Speer and C. M. Giachelli, “Regulation of cardiovascular calcification,” Cardiovascular Pathology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 63–70, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Jastrzebska, I. Mróz, B. Barwiński, J. Zalewska-Rejdak, A. Turek, and B. Cwalina, “Supramolecular structure of human aortic valve and pericardial xenograft material: atomic force microscopy study,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 249–256, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. I. Suvorova, P. A. Buffat, P. Layrolle, J. M. Bouler, and G. Dacolsi, “Electron diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy in the characterization of calcium phosphate precipitation from aqueous solutions under biomineralization conditions,” European Cells and Materials, vol. 1, pp. 27–42, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. Ren, Y. Ding, X. Ge, X. Lu, K. Wang, and Y. Leng, “Growth of one-dimensional single-crystalline hydroxyapatite nanorods,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 349, no. 1, pp. 75–82, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Gómez-Morales, M. Iafisco, J. M. Delgado-López, S. Sarda, and C. Drouet, “Progress on the preparation of nanocrystalline apatites and surface characterization: overview of fundamental and applied aspects,” Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 1–46, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. Sato, Y. Hotta, T. Nagaoka, M. Yasuoka, and K. Watari, “Agglomeration control of hydroxyapatite nano-crystals grown in phase-separated microenvironments,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 41, no. 17, pp. 5424–5428, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Rodríguez-Clemente, A. López-Macipe, J. Gómez-Morales, J. Torrent-Burgués, and V. M. Castaño, “Hydroxyapatite precipitation: a case of nucleation-aggregation-agglomeration-growth mechanism,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1351–1356, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Tavafoghi Jahromi, G. Yao, and M. Cerruti, “The importance of amino acid interactions in the crystallization of hydroxyapatite,” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, vol. 10, no. 80, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. Kumon, E. Matsuura, N. Nagaoka et al., “Ectopic calcification: importance of common nanoparticle scaffolds containing oxidized acidic lipids,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 441–450, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. Wang, T. Azaïs, M. Robin et al., “The predominant role of collagen in the nucleation, growth, structure and orientation of bone apatite,” Nature Materials, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 724–733, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. V. S. Carvalho, E. A. dos Santos, and C. X. Resende, “Effect of surface charge on the apatite mineralization process,” Key Engineering Materials, vol. 493-494, pp. 513–518, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. Zhu, Y. Masuda, and K. Koumoto, “The effect of surface charge on hydroxyapatite nucleation,” Biomaterials, vol. 25, no. 17, pp. 3915–3921, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. A. Campbell, G. E. Fryxell, J. C. Linehan, and G. L. Graff, “Surface-induced mineralization: a new method for producing calcium phosphate coatings,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 111–118, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Y. Oaki, A. Kotachi, T. Miura, and H. Imai, “Bridged nanocrystals in biominerals and their biomimetics: classical yet modern crystal growth on the nanoscale,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 1633–1639, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. Imai, “Self-organized formation of hierarchical structures,” Topics in Current Chemistry, vol. 270, pp. 43–72, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Weiner, “Biomineralization: a structural perspective,” Journal of Structural Biology, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 229–234, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Weiner and L. Addadi, “Crystallization pathways in biomineralization,” Annual Review of Materials Research, vol. 41, pp. 21–40, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Bertazzo, E. Gentleman, K. L. Cloyd, A. H. Chester, M. H. Yacoub, and M. M. Stevens, “Nano-analytical electron microscopy reveals fundamental insights into human cardiovascular tissue calcification,” Nature Materials, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 576–583, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Takeuchi, C. Ohtsuki, T. Miyazaki et al., “Heterogeneous nucleation of hydroxyapatite on protein: structuraleffect of silksericin,” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, vol. 3, pp. 373–378, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  41. S. G. Rees, D. T. Hughes Wassell, R. J. Waddington, and G. Embery, “Interaction of bone proteoglycans and proteoglycan components with hydroxyapatite,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1568, no. 2, pp. 118–128, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. L. Boskey, L. Spevak, S. B. Doty, and L. Rosenberg, “Effects of bone CS-proteoglycans, DS-decorin, and DS-biglycan on hydroxyapatite formation in a gelatin gel,” Calcified Tissue International, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 298–305, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. L. Boskey, “Matrix proteins and mineralization: an overview,” Connective Tissue Research, vol. 35, no. 1–4, pp. 357–363, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. E. Ewence, M. Bootman, H. L. Roderick et al., “Calcium phosphate crystals induce cell death in human vascular smooth muscle cells: a potential mechanism in atherosclerotic plaque destabilization,” Circulation Research, vol. 103, no. 5, pp. e28–e34, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Sciarretta, D. Yee, P. Ammann et al., “Role of NADPH oxidase in the regulation of autophagy in cardiomyocytes,” Clinical Science, vol. 128, no. 7, pp. 387–403, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar