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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 761703, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/761703
Review Article

Effect of Environmental Chemical Stress on Nuclear Noncoding RNA Involved in Epigenetic Control

1National Research Council (CNR), Institute for Macromolecular Studies (ISMAC), Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genoa, Italy
2Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Via A. Pastore 1, 16132 Genoa, Italy

Received 23 March 2015; Accepted 11 May 2015

Academic Editor: Diana Bahia

Copyright © 2015 Patrizio Arrigo and Alessandra Pulliero. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In the last decade the role of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) emerges not only as key elements of posttranscriptional gene silencing, but also as important players of epigenetic regulation. New kind and new functions of ncRNAs are continuously discovered and one of their most important roles is the mediation of environmental signals, both physical and chemical. The activity of cytoplasmic short ncRNA is extensively studied, in spite of the fact that their function and role in the nuclear compartment are not yet completely unraveled. Cellular nucleus contains a multiplicity of long and short ncRNAs controlling at different levels transcriptional and epigenetic processes. In addition, some ncRNAs are involved in RNA editing and quality control. In this paper we review the existing knowledge dealing with how chemical stressors can influence the functionality of short nuclear ncRNAs. Furthermore, we perform bioinformatics analyses indicating that chemical environmental stressors not only induce DNA damage but also influence the mechanism of ncRNAs production and control.