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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 5309328, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5309328
Research Article

Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation by TCDD Modulates Expression of Extracellular Matrix Remodeling Genes during Experimental Liver Fibrosis

1Biomolecular Sciences Ph.D. Program, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725, USA
2Department of Biological Sciences, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725, USA
3Biomolecular Research Center, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725, USA
4Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725, USA

Received 7 May 2016; Revised 26 July 2016; Accepted 4 August 2016

Academic Editor: Kim Bridle

Copyright © 2016 Cheri L. Lamb et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a soluble, ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Increasing evidence implicates the AhR in regulating extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis. We recently reported that TCDD increased necroinflammation and myofibroblast activation during liver injury elicited by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). However, TCDD did not increase collagen deposition or exacerbate fibrosis in CCl4-treated mice, which raises the possibility that TCDD may enhance ECM turnover. The goal of this study was to determine how TCDD impacts ECM remodeling gene expression in the liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated for 8 weeks with 0.5 mL/kg CCl4, and TCDD (20 μg/kg) was administered during the last two weeks. Results indicate that TCDD increased mRNA levels of procollagen types I, III, IV, and VI and the collagen processing molecules HSP47 and lysyl oxidase. TCDD also increased gelatinase activity and mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 3, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MMP-13. Furthermore, TCDD modulated expression of genes in the plasminogen activator/plasmin system, which regulates MMP activation, and it also increased TIMP1 gene expression. These findings support the notion that AhR activation by TCDD dysregulates ECM remodeling gene expression and may facilitate ECM metabolism despite increased liver injury.