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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 8196256, 9 pages
Review Article

Prothrombotic Fibrin Clot Phenotype in Patients with Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism: A New Risk Factor for Recurrence

Institute of Cardiology, Jagiellonian University School of Medicine and The John Paul II Hospital, Krakow, Poland

Correspondence should be addressed to Anetta Undas

Received 23 January 2017; Revised 27 March 2017; Accepted 4 May 2017; Published 27 June 2017

Academic Editor: Dingeman C. Rijken

Copyright © 2017 Anetta Undas. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Prothrombotic fibrin clot phenotype, involving faster formation of dense meshwork composed of thinner and highly branched fibers that are relatively resistant to plasmin-induced lysis, has been reported in patients with not only myocardial infarction or stroke, but also venous thromboembolism (VTE), encompassing deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and/or pulmonary embolism (PE). Prothrombotic fibrin clot phenotype, in particular prolonged clot lysis time, is considered a novel risk factor for VTE as well as venous thrombosis at unusual location, for example, cerebral sinus venous thrombosis, retinal vein obstruction, and Budd-Chiari syndrome. Growing evidence from observational studies indicates that abnormal fibrin clot properties can predict recurrent DVT and PE and they are involved in serious complications of VTE, for example, thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and postthrombotic syndrome. The purpose of this article is to review our current understanding of the role of fibrin clot structure and function in venous thrombosis with emphasis on clinical issues ranging from prognosis to therapy.