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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 8584753, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8584753
Review Article

Hydrocephalus after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

1Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
2Brain Research Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA
4Department of Preventive Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA
5Department of Neurology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
6Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Jianmin Zhang; moc.anis.piv@531mjz

Received 18 November 2016; Accepted 1 February 2017; Published 8 March 2017

Academic Editor: Robert M. Starke

Copyright © 2017 Sheng Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hydrocephalus (HCP) is a common complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this review, we summarize the advanced research on HCP and discuss the understanding of the molecular originators of HCP and the development of diagnoses and remedies of HCP after SAH. It has been reported that inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, and oxidative stress are the important causes of HCP, and well-known molecules including transforming growth factor, matrix metalloproteinases, and iron terminally lead to fibrosis and blockage of HCP. Potential medicines for HCP are still in preclinical status, and surgery is the most prevalent and efficient therapy, despite respective risks of different surgical methods, including lamina terminalis fenestration, ventricle-peritoneal shunting, and lumbar-peritoneal shunting. HCP remains an ailment that cannot be ignored and even with various solutions the medical community is still trying to understand and settle why and how it develops and accordingly improve the prognosis of these patients with HCP.