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BioMed Research International
Volume 2019, Article ID 1983131, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1983131
Review Article

Exosomes in the Repair of Bone Defects: Next-Generation Therapeutic Tools for the Treatment of Nonunion

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, China
2The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213003, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Jia-Gen Sheng; moc.621@negaijgnehs

Received 13 March 2019; Accepted 22 July 2019; Published 4 August 2019

Academic Editor: Timo Gaber

Copyright © 2019 Jian Lu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nonunion with bone defects, a common complication after long bone fracture, is a major challenge for orthopaedic surgeons worldwide because of the high incidence rate and difficulties in achieving successful treatment. Bone defects are the main complications of nonunion. The conventional biological treatments for nonunion with bone defects involve the use of autologous bone grafts or bone graft substitutes and cell-based therapy. Traditional nonunion treatments have always been associated with safety issues and various other complications. Bone grafts have limited autologous cancellous bone and there is a risk of infection. Additionally, problems with bone graft substitutes, including rejection and stimulation of bone formation, have been noted, and the health of the stem cell niche is a major consideration in cell-based therapy. In recent years, researchers have found that exosomes can be used to deliver functional RNA and mediate cell-to-cell communication, suggesting that exosomes may repair bone defects by regulating cells and cytokines involved in bone metabolism. In this review, we highlight the possible relationships between risk factors for nonunion and exosomes. Additionally, we discuss the roles of exosomes in bone metabolism and bone regeneration.