BioMed Research International

BioMed Research International / 2020 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2020 |Article ID 4748264 |

Ming Yang, Jianghe Luo, Yan Li, Limian Xu, "Systems Pharmacology-Based Research on the Mechanism of Tusizi-Sangjisheng Herb Pair in the Treatment of Threatened Abortion", BioMed Research International, vol. 2020, Article ID 4748264, 15 pages, 2020.

Systems Pharmacology-Based Research on the Mechanism of Tusizi-Sangjisheng Herb Pair in the Treatment of Threatened Abortion

Academic Editor: Robert J. Lee
Received17 Mar 2020
Accepted03 Jul 2020
Published21 Jul 2020


Threatened abortion (TA) is a common complication with high incidence in the first trimester of pregnancy, which will end in miscarriage if not treated properly. The Chinese herbs Cuscutae Semen (Tusizi in Chinese) and Herba Taxilli (Sangjisheng in Chinese) first recorded in the ancient classic medical book Shennong Bencao Jing are effective and widely used as an herb pair for the treatment of TA, while the active ingredients and the functional mechanism of Tusizi-Sangjisheng herb pair treating TA are still unknown. In order to exploit the relationship between those two herbs and TA, systems pharmacology analysis was carried out in this study. A total of 75 ingredients of Tusizi-Sangjisheng were collected from Traditional Chinese Medicine System Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP). 12 bioactive compounds were screened, and 153 directly related targets were predicted by systematic models. Besides, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were used to systematically explore the potential mechanisms of Tusizi-Sangjisheng treating TA. Meanwhile, Compound-Target (C-T), Target-Disease (T-D), and Target-Pathway (T-P) networks were constructed to further quest the underlying functional mechanisms of Tusizi-Sangjisheng. As a result, 31 targets and 3 key pathways were found to be directly related to TA that includes mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K-Akt), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways. The results in this study may provide some valuable clues about the molecular mechanisms of the efficient Chinese herb pair Tusizi-Sangjisheng in the treatment of TA.

1. Introduction

Threatened abortion (TA), defined as vaginal bleeding with or without lower abdominal pain or backache with a closed cervix and an intrauterine viable fetus, is the commonest complication that occurs in early pregnancy [1], especially in 8-12 gestational weeks when the secretion of estrogen and progesterone shifts from corpus luteum to placental [2] (during the shift period, a pregnant woman is prone to go through limited corpus luteum function or an abnormality of placental progesterone production and secretion). TA affects one in five pregnancies, and about half of the cases unfortunately end in miscarriage [3, 4]. Besides, studies have shown that experiencing TA in the first trimester is associated with high risk of experiencing adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as premature rupture of membranes, placenta previa, and low birth weight [5]. TA is the cumulative result of several complicated pathogenic factors. Chromosomal abnormality is the important cause of TA that accounts for about 50-70% of cases [6, 7]. In addition, uterine malformations, cervical incompetence, polycystic ovaries, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, maternal infections, immune dysfunctions such as antiphospholipid syndrome, and exposure to environmental toxins also have association with TA [79].

In clinical practice, targeted and directed treatment should be used to prevent miscarriage when specific causes are identified. For example, combined aspirin and heparin are effective in TA induced by antiphospholipid syndrome while antibiotics are useful for TA induced by bacterial vaginosis [7] and surgical interventions such as cervical cerclage are alternative and efficient for cervical incompetence. However, about half of the women suffering from miscarriage have no certain causes to be identified [10], making the treatment empirical. Generally, bed rest, avoidance of sexual intercourse, and drugs for some specific manifestations are usually prescribed for a woman with symptoms of TA [2, 11]. For instance, increased uterine activity is considered to be related to TA and so tocolytic drugs like magnesium sulfate and phloroglucinol (PHL) are commonly used for treatment [12]. Besides, since low serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone level increases the risk of miscarriage, drugs like exogenous progesterone [13, 14] and estrogen [15] are usually administrated to treat TA. What is more, anti-D immunoglobulin [16] is recommended for RhD-negative women with TA. In China, TA can be mainly attributed to the deficiency of the viscera especially the deficiency of the kidney according to the theories of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Herbs like Cuscutae Semen (Tusizi in Chinese), Herba Taxilli (Sangjisheng in Chinese), Dipsaci Radix (Xuduan in Chinese), and Astragali Radix (Huangqi in Chinese) are used to treat TA for their functions of replenishing the kidney essence (Shen Jing in Chinese) and nourishing the liver [17, 18]. Zeng et al. [19] and Li’s [20] researches based on a data mining method have shown that Cuscutae Semen and Herba Taxilli were frequently prescribed for TA treatment and were always used in combination as an herb pair, indicating the key role of these two herbs in TA treatment and the representative value for other akin herbs to explore the potential mechanisms of action on TA treatment. Cuscutae Semen is the dry seed of Cuscuta australis and Cuscuta chinensis, which has been used for varieties of kidney conditions [21]. It has been reported to have neuroprotection properties in mouse models of Parkinson’s disease [22] and anti-inflammatory properties [23, 24] and also be effective in treating vitiligo [25]. Herba Taxilli is the dry leafy stem and branch of Taxillus sutchuenensis (Lecomte) Danser which grows on various trees and shrubs [26] and has the anti-HCV [27] and antioxidant activities [28]. Generally speaking, herbal medicines own the features of multicomponents and multieffectiveness in treating diseases which makes it hard to clearly clarify the efficiency in a molecular level. Although Tusizi-Sangjisheng is widely used for the treatment of TA, the exact mechanisms of it remain to be further elucidated.

The objective of this study is to systematically explore the functional mechanism of the herb pair Tusizi-Sangjisheng in the molecular level and also to understand the relationship among those small chemicals, their related targets, and diseases. The results of this study may facilitate clarifying the mechanism of the Chinese herb pair Tusizi-Sangjisheng and offer some valuable methods for studying other akin herbs.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Molecular Database and ADME Screening

All compounds of Tusizi-Sangjisheng in this study were collected by using the TCMSP database ( which comprises more than 510 herbal entries registered in Chinese pharmacopoeia with more than 33,000 ingredients. The rational assessment of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties (ADME) of compounds is essential to decide drug candidates. In the present study, two ADME-related models, PreOB (predict oral bioavailability) and PreDL (predict drug likeness) of the drugs, were employed to prescreen the bioactive compounds. Oral bioavailability (%) is considered a key parameter in drug development. Oral drug absorption is mainly about two basic parameters: solubility and gastrointestinal permeability of the drug. In detail, the PreOB model, developed on the basis of a robust in-house system OBioavail 1.1 [29], was performed to predict the OB of the constituents of the herbs. The molecules with suitable % were chosen as candidate compounds for further research. Drug likeness is a concept that is aimed at identifying where virtual or real molecules fall into drug-like chemical space based on one or more physiochemical properties. According to the mean value (0.18) of DL for all 3,206 molecules in DrugBank (, compounds with were selected as the candidate bioactive chemicals in this study. Finally, a total of 75 compounds from Tusizi-Sangjisheng were obtained and 12 bioactive compounds among them were screened.

2.2. Target Identification and Network Construction

Target identification for bioactive compounds is an essential step for drug discovery. Predicting drug-target and drug-pathway interactions could help understand the biological mechanisms from the perspective of network pharmacology. To obtain the related targets of these active compounds, a SysDT [30] model based on Random forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) was employed. The UniProt database ( was used to search the genes of the human species and the corresponding UniProtKB related to the predicted targets of the bioactive molecules. Information on the physiological functions of all targets was obtained from TTD ( and UniProt ( databases. Additionally, to systematically study the effects of herbal medicines and to characterize the therapeutic effects on a pathway level, three visualized networks including Compound-Target (C-T), Target-Disease (T-D), and Target-Pathway (T-P) were constructed. And the obtained target profiles were organized into several pathways by mapping to KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes). All bipartite graphs were drawn by Cytoscape 3.5.1 software [31].

3. Results

3.1. Potential Active Compounds

In this study, a total of 75 compounds of the Tusizi-Sangjisheng (29 for Tusizi and 46 for Sangjisheng) were included. After screening all compounds at the criteria % and , 12 bioactive compounds with excellent ADME properties were obtained and the specific information is shown in Table 1.

IDCompoundOBDLHerb name

MOL001558Sesamin56.550.83Cuscutae Semen
MOL000184NSC6355139.250.76Cuscutae Semen
MOL000098Quercetin46.430.28Herba Taxilli/Cuscutae Semen
MOL000354Isorhamnetin49.600.31Cuscutae Semen
MOL000358Beta-sitosterol36.910.75Cuscutae Semen
MOL000422Kaempferol41.880.24Cuscutae Semen
MOL000953CLR37.870.68Cuscutae Semen
MOL005043Campest-5-en-3beta-ol37.580.71Cuscutae Semen
MOL005440Isofucosterol43.780.76Cuscutae Semen
MOL005944Matrine63.770.25Cuscutae Semen
MOL006649Sophranol55.420.28Cuscutae Semen
MOL000359Sitosterol36.910.75Herba Taxilli

3.2. Drug Targeting and Network Analysis

Traditionally, herbal medicines contain numerous pharmacological compounds, which offer bright prospects for the treatment of complex diseases in a synergistic manner. Network pharmacology has undergone a rapid development in recent years and emerged as an invaluable tool for describing and analyzing complex systems in pharmacology studies. Considering that the multicomponent herbs exert effects on diseases by acting to specific protein targets, drug targeting may shed light on the mechanism of herbs treating TA from the perspective of network pharmacology. In this study, after target fishing by the SysDT [30] model, a total of 153 targets were screened which were targeted by 10 bioactive compounds (two of the 12 bioactive compounds had no direct targets) from Tusizi-Sangjisheng. The detailed information is presented in Table 2.

No.Target nameGene nameUniProt ID

126S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 3PSMD10O75832
272 kDa type IV collagenaseMMP2P08253
378 kDa glucose-regulated proteinHSPA5P11021
5Activator of 90 kDa heat shock protein ATPase homolog 1AHSA1O95433
6Androgen receptorNCOA4Q13772
7Apoptosis regulator BAXBAXQ07812
8Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenaseALOX5P09917
9ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2ABCG5Q9H222
10Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 5BIRC5O15392
11Bcl-2-like protein 1BCL2L1Q07817
12Beta-2 adrenergic receptorADRB2P07550
14Cathepsin DCTSDP07339
16CD40 ligandCD40LGP29965
17Cellular tumor antigen p53TP53P04637
19Coagulation factor VIIF7P08709
20C-reactive proteinCRPP02741
21C-X-C motif chemokine 10CXCL10P02778
22C-X-C motif chemokine 11CXCL11O14625
23C-X-C motif chemokine 2CXCL2P19875
24Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1CDKN1BP46527
25Cytochrome P450 1A1CYP1A1P04798
26Cytochrome P450 1B1CYP1B1Q16678
27Cytochrome P450 3A4CYP3A4P08684
28DDB1- and CUL4-associated factor 5DCAF5Q96JK2
29Dipeptidyl peptidase IVDPP4P27487
30DNA topoisomerase 1TOP1P11387
32Estrogen sulfotransferaseSULT1E1P49888
33ETS domain-containing protein Elk-1ELK1P19419
34G1/S-specific cyclin-D1CCND1P24385
35G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1CCNB1P14635
36Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1GABRA1P14867
37Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1GSTM1P09488
38Heat shock factor protein 1HSF1Q00613
39Heme oxygenase 1HMOX1P09601
40Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit alphaCHUKO15111
41Insulin receptorINSRP06213
42Interleukin-1 alphaIL1AP01583
43Interleukin-1 betaIL1BP01584
48Interstitial collagenaseMMP1P03956
49Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1Mapk1P63085
50mRNA of PKA catalytic subunit C-alphaPRKACAP17612
51Myc protooncogene proteinMYCP01106
53Neutrophil cytosol factor 1NCF1P14598
54Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2NFE2L2Q16236
55Nuclear receptor coactivator 2NCOA2Q15596
56Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphaPPARAQ07869
57Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor deltaPPARDQ03181
58Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gammaPPARGP37231
59Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1SERPINE1P05121
60Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1TNKSO95271
61Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2KCNH2Q12809
62Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1PTGS1P23219
63Protooncogene c-FosFOSP01100
64Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidaseNPEPPSP55786
65RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinaseAKT1P31749
66RAF protooncogene serine/threonine-protein kinaseRAF1P04049
67Ras association domain-containing protein 1RASSF1Q9NS23
68Ras GTPase-activating protein 1RASA1P20936
69Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2ERBB2P04626
70Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3ERBB3P21860
71Retinoic acid receptor RXR-alphaRXRAP19793
72Runt-related transcription factor 2RUNX2Q13950
73Serine/threonine-protein kinase Chk2CHEK2O96017
74Serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1PON1P27169
75Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphaSCN5AQ14524
76Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4SLC2A4P14672
80Transcription factor AP-1JUNP05412
81Transcription factor E2F1E2F1Q01094
82Transcription factor E2F2E2F2Q14209
83Transcription factor p65RELAQ04206
85Type I iodothyronine deiodinaseDIO1P49895
86Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidaseXDHP47989
872,4-Dienoyl-CoA reductase, mitochondrialDECR1Q16698
88Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1ACACAQ13085
89ATP-citrate synthaseACLYP53396
90Coagulation factor XaF10P00742
91Cytochrome P450 2B6CYP2B6P20813
92Endothelin-converting enzyme 1ECE1P42892
93Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenaseG6PDP11413
94NADPH oxidase 1NOX1Q9Y5S8
95NADPH oxidase 3NOX3Q9HBY0
96Nitric oxide synthase, endothelialNOS3P29474
97Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1ACOX1Q15067
98Peroxisomal bifunctional enzymeEHHADHQ08426
99Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1SREBF1P36956
100Aldose reductaseAKR1B10O60218
101Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] BMAOBP27338
103Estrogen receptor betaESRRBO95718
104Glutamate receptor 2GRIA2P42262
105Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14MAPK14Q16539
106Nitric oxide synthase, inducibleNOS2P35228
107Nuclear receptor coactivator 1NCOA1Q15788
108Protooncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase Pim-1PIM1P11309
109Serine/threonine-protein kinase Chk1CHEK1O14757
1105-Hydroxytryptamine 2A receptorHTR2AP28223
111Alpha-1A adrenergic receptorADRA1AP35348
112Alpha-1B adrenergic receptorADRA1BP35368
114Dopamine D1 receptorDRD1Q95136
115Gamma-aminobutyric-acid receptor alpha-3 subunitGABRA3P34903
116Gamma-aminobutyric-acid receptor alpha-5 subunitGABRA5P31644
117Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2CHRM2P08172
118Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3CHRM3P20309
119Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4CHRM4P08173
120Mu-type opioid receptorOPRM1P35372
121Neuronal acetylcholine receptor protein, alpha-7 chainCHRNA7P36544
122Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2CHRNA2Q15822
123Sodium-dependent serotonin transporterSLC6A4P31645
124Transforming growth factor beta-1TGFB1P01137
125Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3AKR1C3P42330
127Apoptosis regulator Bcl-2Bcl2P10417
128Aryl hydrocarbon receptorAhrP30561
129Cytochrome P450 1A2CYP1A2P05177
130Gamma-aminobutyric-acid receptor alpha-2 subunitGABRA2P47869
131Glutathione S-transferase Mu 2GSTM2P28161
132Hyaluronan synthase 2HAS2Q92819
133Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit betaIKBKBO14920
134Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8MAPK8P45983
135Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1CHRM1P11229
136Nitric oxide synthase, endothelialNOS3P29474
137Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2NR1I2O75469
138Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit, gamma isoformPIK3CGP48736
139Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2PTGS2P35354
140Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2B catalytic subunit alpha isoformPPP3CAQ08209
141Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-alpha/betaSTAT1P42224
142Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporterSLC6A2P23975
143Vascular cell adhesion protein 1VCAM1P19320
1444-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrialABATP80404
145Alcohol dehydrogenase 1AADH1AP07327
146Alcohol dehydrogenase 1BADH1BP00325
147Alcohol dehydrogenase 1CADH1CP00326
149CD44 antigenCD44P16070
150Intercellular adhesion molecule 1ICAM1P05362
151Tumor necrosis factorTNFP01375
152Mineralocorticoid receptorNR3C2P08235
153Progesterone receptorPGRP06401

3.2.1. Compound-Target Network

In order to uncover the synergistic effects of multiple components and targets in Tusizi-Sangjisheng, a C-T network analysis was carried out. After excluding 2 bioactive compounds which have no directly related targets, a graph of C-T interactions was drawn (Figure 1) using 10 bioactive compounds and 153 related targets. As shown in Figure 1, the blue squares represent bioactive molecules in Tusizi-Sangjisheng, and pink circles represent the corresponding targets. Among the 10 compounds, quercetin owns the highest degree (), followed by kaempferol, beta-sitosterol, and isorhamnetin, indicating the key roles of these chemicals in Tusizi-Sangjisheng. Targets like prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 (PTGS1), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukins-6 (IL-6), and caspase have a high degree of connectivity, revealing the potential functions of treating TA.

3.2.2. Target-Disease Network

Disease-related genes interact in their products and expression patterns. Disease and disease genes are linked together to form a network through known correlations. A variety of disease network diagrams can be generated from the interdependence of cell networks based on human diseases. In these figures, if the phenotype of a disease is related to a molecule, different phenotypes will be linked [32]. In addition, disorders of human diseases should be viewed as disorders of highly connected networks within cells. These new advances and understandings provide a platform for studying the relationship between known genes and diseases, which means that different diseases may originate from the same gene [33].

Existing data and theories make it possible to use network methods to study diseases from different scales. Complex network systems can visually reveal the complex relationships among diseases, genes, and pathways to a certain extent. Since the application of network models to biology, many researchers have constructed networks of different functions and properties. These network models have shown us their value in biological researches. At present, the research on diseases mainly includes protein-protein relationship networks, metabolic networks, and regulatory networks. We established a Target-Disease network to study protein-protein interactions and to understand the complex mechanism of action of TCM. This network showed that different diseases have common pathological changes and can be cured by the same compound; that is, one compound can correspond to multiple diseases.

The OMIM database ( was used to search target genes related to TA, and the search term was “threatened miscarriage” or “threatened abortion”. The target genes corresponding to the disease is compared with those corresponding to the bioactive compounds, and the common ones are the target genes of the drug in treating TA. A total of 455 targets related to TA were collected through the OMIM database. Comparing it with the 153 targets corresponding to the bioactive compounds of Tusizi-Sangjisheng, 31 common targets preventing miscarriage were obtained. As shown in Figure 2, the outer blue circles represent the targets of Tusizi-Sangjisheng and the inner pink circles represent the targets of TA.

3.2.3. Target-Pathway Network

As concerns the effects of drugs that are related to target proteins and also signaling pathways associated with diseases, Target-Pathway network was drawn to analyze the action mechanism of Tusizi-Sangjisheng. As shown in Figure 3, the network consists of 116 nodes and 381 edges, and all proteins are involved in more than one signal pathway correlation, forming a highly interconnected network.

3.3. GO Analysis

Upload the predicted target genes to the DAVID database (Version 6.8, and perform GO enrichment analysis. We found that these targets are closely related to various biological processes, such as the RNA polymerase II promoter positive regulation of transcription, positive regulation of reactive oxygen metabolic processes, and inflammatory responses to multicellular biological processes.

3.4. Pathway Analysis

The top three pathways with the highest degrees in Figure 4 are mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathway, and the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signal transduction pathway. As shown in Figure 5, the MAPK signal pathway is related to targets TNF, IL1, CACN, CASP, JNK, and MAPK14 and exerts the functions of proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Up to six targets are involved in the PI3K-Akt pathway as important regulators for the cell progression and survival, including CHRM1, CHRM2, p27, CHUK, Myc, and CDK2. And the TGF-β signal pathway acts on TGFB1 and Myc targets.

4. Discussions

4.1. Bioactive Compounds of the Tusizi-Sangjisheng Herb Pair

In this study, we used systematic pharmacology to study Tusizi-Sangjisheng and found that this herb pair has a total of 12 compounds with good OB and DL properties, which are related to 153 target proteins. The most potent compounds in Tusizi-Sangjisheng is quercetin which is followed by kaempferol, β-sitosterol, and isorhamnetin. Quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin are all flavonoids that are abundant in amount and widely distributed in nature. Quercetin is one of the phytochemicals with anticancer and antioxidant activities that widely exists in nuts, teas, vegetables, herbs, and generally diet of people [34, 35]. In addition to the above effects, quercetin still has the anti-inflammatory functions by blocking the secretion of IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α and increasing the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax apoptotic proteins induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) revealing the putative value in preventing miscarriage caused by bacterial infection [3638]. Kaempferol is a typical natural flavonol and has been reported to own many beneficial functions such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiatherogenic, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities [39, 40]. It is well known for its prominent antioxidative activity [39], and the main mechanisms include decreasing the susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to oxidation, inhibiting the release of cytochrome C, scavenging excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibiting the generation of ROS by regulating the level of NOS/NO, reducing the accumulation of toxic lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), and maintaining the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in a normal level [4143]. Isorhamnetin is a flavonoid present in many plants and has been reported to protect against inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in various in vitro and in vivo models using LPS, inflammatory cytokines, and ischemic injury. The anti-inflammatory function of isorhamnetin is regarded to be related to inhibition of NF-κB signaling activity, and its antioxidative effect is associated with ROS blocking [44]. Besides, isorhamnetin also has the anticancer activity by acting on Akt and MAPK signal pathways [45]. β-Sitosterol, one of the several phytosterols, is a natural micronutrient in higher plants possessing numerous physiological effects including antioxidative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and immune modulation activities [46]. Although quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and β-sitosterol have wide pharmacological functions, the detailed correlation with TA is still unclear and needs to be further studied.

4.2. Main Targets of the Tusizi-Sangjisheng Herb Pair
4.2.1. PTGS

PTGS, also known as cyclooxygenase (COX) [47], is a crucial enzyme for the synthesis of prostaglandins (PG) in the body, which can transform arachidonic acid into various types of PGs. There are three known subtypes of PTGS: PTGS1, PTGS2, and PTGS3. PTGS1 exists in most cells and exerts the function of maintaining and regulating the normal physiological activities by synthesizing PG. PG is closely related to physiological processes such as endometrial vascular regeneration, vascular permeability, and establishment of a placental vascular network during pregnancy [48]. COX is considered a key factor in implantation [49]. Studies have shown that the expression level of COX-2 in the women’s endometrium during the midluteal phase of women’s menstrual cycles begins to create the necessary conditions for conception. Once trophoblast invasion occurs, the COX-2 content at the invaded site will increase continuously [50], and IL-1 was found to increase COX-2 expression in endometrial cells at the implantation site [51]. The expression of COX in patients with TA/recurrent miscarriage is lower than that in normal pregnancy, which may interfere the process of embryo implantation through various PG molecules it catalyzes and participate in the pathogenic process of TA.

4.2.2. NOS

NOS is the only rate-limiting enzyme that synthesizes NO. It belongs to isozymes and has three subtypes: neuronal (nNOS/NOS1), inducible (iNOS/NOS2), and endothelial NOS (eNOS/NOS3) [52], among which NOS3 is mainly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and catalyzes the production of intravascular NO. NO is a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system that has the properties of smooth muscle relaxation, platelet inhibition, leukocyte aggregation, and also attenuation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, neurotransmission, and immune defense [53]. NOS3 is also expressed in the placental tissue during pregnancy. It promotes the synthesis of NO to participate in the regulation of blood circulation in the placenta, causing a slight decrease in vascular resistance and blood pressure, which is of great significance for maintaining uterine placental blood flow. Studies have found that the expression of NOS in endothelial cells in the plasma and placenta is increased in women with preeclampsia of its compensatory mechanisms [54, 55]. The hypothesis of the pathogenesis of preeclampsia is that the expression of NOS decreased and NO synthesis reduced, resulting in increased vascular bed resistance and blocked placental blood circulation, while the successful pregnancy during the first trimester depends on the favoring invasion of trophoblasts to the endometrium and the success remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries, and NO plays important roles in this process. Paradisi et al.’s research has shown that serum NO levels in patients with TA are lower than those in normal pregnancy [56], indicating that TA may be associated with decreased NOS expression which is similar to that of preeclampsia. A reduced NO level results in the disturbance of maternal-fetal circulation and further influences the supply of blood and oxygen which may cause TA.

4.2.3. TNF

TNF is a cytokine secreted by macrophages that can directly cause death of tumor cells. TNF-α and TNF-β are the two known types of TNF that can be expressed in immune cells such as T and B cells. IL-6 (interleukin 6), which belongs to the Th2-type cytokine, is a type of cytokine involved in a variety of immune inflammatory responses that could inhibit Th1-mediated immune responses. Th1 immunity causes loss of pregnancy while Th2 immunity helps to maintain pregnancy, so the ratio of Th1/Th2 is crucial for pregnancy. If the balance of Th1/Th2 is broken, TA or miscarriage may occur. TNF-α is mainly expressed by Th1 and NK cells that can kill tumor cells and also attack trophoblast cells and embryonic tissues. A high serum level of TNF-α and inadequate expression of IL-6 in endometrial tissue have been found in patients with recurrent abortion, revealing that the overproduction of TNF or underactivation of IL-6 may cause fetus damage and loss [57, 58]. In this study, the active ingredients in Tusizi-Sangjisheng act on the targets IL-6 and TNF-α to promote the expression of IL-6, increase its level in plasma and decidual tissue, and then inhibit the expression of TNF-α so as to reduce the maternal immune response against the fetus and maintain the normal development of the pregnancy.

4.2.4. Caspase

Caspase is a type of protease and an important mediator of programmed cell death (apoptosis) that includes caspase-1 (containing caspase-1, 4, 5, and 11), caspase-2 (containing caspase-2 and 9), and caspase-3 (containing caspase-3, 6, 7, 8, and 10). Among them, caspase-3 is mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of trophoblast cells and could regulate cell growth and apoptosis by activating the Fas pathway. Apoptosis is essential for the normal physiology of pregnancy during implantation since apoptosis of trophoblast cells is important for the appropriate tissue remodeling of the maternal decidua and invasion of the developing embryo [59, 60]. The overexpression of caspase-3 will cause abnormal apoptosis of trophoblasts, affect embryo development, and result in abortion. Meresman et al.’s study indicated that the expression level of caspase-3 in out-of-phase endometrium abortion patients is higher than that in normal, and the decreased cell proliferation and augmented cell apoptosis were also found [61]. The bioactive components of Tusizi-Sangjisheng may act on caspase-3 and suppress its expression to reduce the apoptosis of trophoblast cells.

4.3. Signal Pathways of the Tusizi-Sangjisheng Herb Pair
4.3.1. MAPK Signal Pathway

MAPK is a class of serine/threonine protein kinases and widely present in various cells. It has important regulatory effects on gene expression. After activation, the protein migrates into the phosphorylated nucleoproteins and membrane receptors, regulating gene transcription and other life events. It consists of four separate signaling cascades: the JNK/SAPK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinases); the ERKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinases); the ERK5 or big MAPK1; and the p38MAPK group of protein kinases. When stimulated by extracellular signals, the MAPK cascade which is an evolutionarily conserved tertiary kinase cascade transduction signal will be activated by a series of complicated chemical reactions, resulting in the successive activation of MAPKKK, MAPKK, and MAPK through the phosphorylation of amino acid residues [62]. Evidences have shown that the MAPK signal pathway is activated in many processes during embryo implantation and is closely related to the invasion and proliferation of trophoblast cells and decidual stromal cells (DSCs) which play key roles in the maintenance of normal pregnancy [63, 64]. Z. Wang et al.’s research demonstrated the abnormal expressions of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domains 1 and 2 (NOD 1 and NOD 2) in villi from recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) patients that then inhibit the invasion and proliferation of trophoblast cells by activating the p38MAPK signal pathway [65]. In addition, inflammation (including sterile inflammation or infectious inflammation induced by bacteria such as bacterial vaginosis) and oxidative stress (smoking) could also activate the p38MAPK signal pathway and thus attenuate the normal development of trophoblast cells [66]. Furthermore, the activation of the JNK and ERK1/2 signal pathway by interleukin (IL)-33 [67] and IL-25 [68] also leads to the enhancement of invasion and proliferation of DSCs. Accordingly, for the similar pathogenesis between RAS and TA, the role of the MAPK signal pathway could also be considered by affecting the invasion and proliferation of trophoblast cells and DSCs even though there is no direct evidence. The total flavones of Cuscutae Semen were found to be effective in suppressing abortion by inhibiting MAPK pathways [69], indicating the potential mechanism of the herb pair Tusizi-Sangjisheng treating TA.

4.3.2. PI3K-Akt Signal Pathway

The PI3K-Akt signal pathway consists of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) and is involved in transcription, protein synthesis, migration, apoptosis, and proliferation activities [70]. Identically, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway also participates in the proliferation and migration of trophoblast cells that are vital for establishing and persisting normal success pregnancy. Evidence has shown that the up-/downregulation of the PI3K-Akt signal pathway is related to the proliferation and migration of trophoblast cells [71]. PI3K signaling is considered to have association with the secretion of several hormones including gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) that are important in the maintenance of normal pregnancy [72]. In addition, PI3K could also regulate insulin signaling via activating the Akt pathway [72]. Generally, obese persons with insulin resistance are often companied by reduced hypothalamic GnRH secretion and decreased fertility [73]. An experimental study also demonstrated that herbal decoctions containing herbs prevent miscarriage and are effective to promote the follicle development and fertility via activation of the PI3K-Akt signal pathway [74]. Accordingly, we assume that Tusizi-Sangjisheng may suppress miscarriage via the PI3K-Akt signal pathway by influencing the expression of sex hormones GnRH/LH and also the proliferation and migration of trophoblast cells.

4.3.3. TGF-β Signal Pathway

TGF-β is a multifunctional cytokine with three isoforms (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3) and acts mainly through Smad pathways [75]. Evidences have proved that TGF-β plays pivotal and dual roles in the regulation of cell growth and apoptosis which is vividly described as a “switch” [76]. During early pregnancy, the uterine cells undergo apoptosis and proliferation for the successful implantation of embryo. Those complex processes are controlled and regulated by several signal pathways, and the TGF-β signal pathway is one of them that could help to maintain normal pregnancy by balancing the proliferation and apoptosis of trophoblast cells [75]. In addition, the TGF-β signal pathway is also involved in immune and inflammatory responses by regulating indoleamine 2,3-dioxygense (IDO) expression to promote immune tolerance of the maternal-fetal interface [77], inhibiting the proliferation of human Th1 memory T cells [78]. At present, there is no direct evidence illustrating the specific relationship among herbs like Cuscutae Semen and the TGF-β signal pathway in TA. Yet we can hypothesize based on the above information that the active ingredients in the herb pair Tusizi-Sangjisheng exert their TA-preventing function by regulating the immune responses in maternal-fetal interface and controlling the normal apoptosis and proliferation of uterine cells through the TGF-β signal pathway.

In normal pregnancy, the balance of the immune microenvironment at the maternal-fetal interface can ensure immune tolerance and protect the embryo from maternal immune rejection. The ability of gestational trophoblasts to proliferate, differentiate, migrate, and invade is crucial for embryo implantation, placenta formation, and embryo growth and development. Trophoblasts are the main cell types of placental tissues that differentiate into extravillous trophoblasts, syncytiotrophoblasts and cell trophoblasts. Extravillous trophoblasts can be further differentiated into cells with high infiltration capacity. Interstitial trophoblast cells and intravascular trophoblast cells then invade the uterine decidua and reshape the spiral arteries of a pregnant uterus, thereby forming placental tissues which provide nutrients for the development of the embryo. Therefore, infiltration of trophoblasts into the uterine decidua is the key step to the success of early pregnancy. If the ability of trophoblasts to proliferate, migrate, and invade is weakened, it will affect the remodeling of decidual tissue blood vessels and the formation of placenta and further develop into pregnancy-dependent complications such as abortion, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. These processes during pregnancy are jointly regulated by many signal transduction pathways. However, the exact regulatory mechanisms are still not very clear. Three key signaling pathways mentioned above were screened by systematic methods in this study revealing that Tusizi-Sangjisheng may effectively reduce miscarriage rates via regulating the normal expression and function of those three signal pathways, correcting under- or overexpression and maintaining normal pregnancy.

5. Conclusions

The putative mechanisms in the molecular level of the commonly used herb pair Tusizi-Sangjisheng treating TA were analyzed by systems pharmacology. 12 bioactive molecules with % and of Tusizi-Sangjisheng were obtained by calculating the ADME properties. Besides, a total of 153 direct targets of 12 bioactive molecules were predicted by systematic models. By constructing a T-D network for analysis, 31 targets mainly containing PTGS1, NOS3, TNF, and caspase were found to be directly related to TA among the corresponding targets of Tusizi-Sangjisheng and TA was considered a complex disease with multifaceted causes that need to be treated from multiple angles by GO analysis. Through the T-P network enrichment analysis, Tusizi-Sangjisheng was found to act on multiple pathways by several active molecules that include MAPK, PI3K-Akt, and TGF-β signaling pathways. The mechanism of Tusizi-Sangjisheng on the treatment of TA may be through regulating the normal expression of the above three signal pathways, correcting the state of under- or overexpression, and maintaining normal pregnancy.

Data Availability

The data used to support the findings of this study are included in the article.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article.


The authors would like to thank Jing Xie (from School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology) for the help with data software operations of this study. This work was supported by the Educational Science Planning Projects in Guangdong Province (Grant number 2018GJK019) and Postgraduate Education Innovation Program in Guangdong Province (Grant number 2020JGXM029).


  1. G. Makrydimas, N. J. Sebire, D. Lolis, N. Vlassis, and K. H. Nicolaides, “Fetal loss following ultrasound diagnosis of a live fetus at 6-10 weeks of gestation,” Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 368–372, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  2. A. Sotiriadis, S. Papatheodorou, and G. Makrydimas, “Threatened miscarriage: evaluation and management,” BMJ, vol. 329, no. 7458, pp. 152–155, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  3. C. Everett, “Incidence and outcome of bleeding before the 20th week of pregnancy: prospective study from general practice,” BMJ, vol. 315, no. 7099, pp. 32–34, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  4. H. Carp, “A systematic review of dydrogesterone for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage,” Gynecological Endocrinology, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 422–430, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  5. J. L. Weiss, F. D. Malone, J. Vidaver et al., “Threatened abortion: a risk factor for poor pregnancy outcome, a population- based screening study,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 190, no. 3, pp. 745–750, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  6. J. L. Simpson, “Causes of fetal wastage,” Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 10–30, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. J. C. Tien and T. Y. Tan, “Non-surgical interventions for threatened and recurrent miscarriages,” Singapore Medical Journal, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 1074–1090, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
  8. R. L. Lede and L. Duley, “Uterine muscle relaxant drugs for threatened miscarriage,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, article D2857, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. Q. Xu, J. Chen, Z. Wei et al., “Sex hormone metabolism and threatened abortion,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 23, pp. 5041–5048, 2017. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  10. B. Stray-Pedersen and S. Stray-Pedersen, “Etiologic factors and subsequent reproductive performance in 195 couples with a prior history of habitual abortion,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 140–146, 1984. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  11. A. Aleman, F. Althabe, J. M. Belizán, and E. Bergel, “Bed rest during pregnancy for preventing miscarriage,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, article CD003576, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  12. S. Yuan, F. Gao, Z. Xin et al., “Comparison of the efficacy and safety of phloroglucinol and magnesium sulfate in the treatment of threatened abortion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Medicine, vol. 98, no. 24, article e16026, 2019. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  13. H. J. Lee, T. C. Park, J. H. Kim, E. Norwitz, and B. Lee, “The influence of oral dydrogesterone and vaginal progesterone on threatened abortion: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2017, Article ID 3616875, 10 pages, 2017. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  14. M. F. Greene, “Progesterone for threatened abortion,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 380, no. 19, pp. 1867-1868, 2019. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  15. C. E. Lim, K. K. Ho, N. C. Cheng, and F. W. Wong, “Combined oestrogen and progesterone for preventing miscarriage,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 9, article CD009278, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  16. L. Weinberg, “Use of anti-D immunoglobulin in the treatment of threatened miscarriage in the accident and emergency department,” Emergency Medicine Journal, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 444–447, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  17. J. Ding, X. Tan, K. Song et al., “Bushen Huoxue recipe alleviates implantation loss in mice by enhancing estrogen–progesterone signals and promoting decidual angiogenesis through FGF2 during early pregnancy,” Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 9, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  18. F. Qu and J. Zhou, “Treating threatened abortion with Chinese herbs: a case report,” Phytotherapy research, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 915-916, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  19. Z. Dan, M. Jing-feng, T. Hui, F.-t. Wu, and O. Chao-feng, “Research on medication rules of traditional Chinese medicine in treating threatened abortion based on association rule,” Chin. Med. J. Res. Prac, vol. 32, pp. 61–64, 2018. View at: Google Scholar
  20. S. Li, “Exploration on the medication rules of threatened abortion of famous-aged Chinese doctors based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance auxiliary platform,” Beijing university of Chinese medicine, vol. 69, 2019. View at: Google Scholar
  21. J.-L. Tang, B.-Y. Liu, and K.-W. Ma, “Traditional Chinese medicine,” The Lancet, vol. 372, no. 9654, pp. 1938–1940, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  22. M. Ye, S. g. Lee, E. S. Chung et al., “Neuroprotective effects of Cuscutae Semen in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 150153, 11 pages, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  23. S. Y. Kang, H. W. Jung, M.-Y. Lee, H. W. Lee, S. W. Chae, and Y.-K. Park, “Effect of the semen extract of _Cuscuta chinensis_ on inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia,” Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 573–581, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  24. J.-C. Liao, W.-T. Chang, M.-S. Lee et al., “Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Cuscuta chinensis seeds in mice,” The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 223–242, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  25. B. Yang, Q. Yang, X. Yang, H.-B. Yan, and Q.-P. Lu, “Hyperoside protects human primary melanocytes against H2O2-induced oxidative damage,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 4613–4619, 2016. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  26. M. R. Li, L. Q. Li, and P. Li, “Flavonoids of Taxillus sutchuenensis (Lecomte) Danser and T. sutchuenensis var. duclouxii (Lecomte) Kiuined,” Zhong yao tong bao (Beijing, China: 1981), vol. 12, pp. 34–59, 1987. View at: Google Scholar
  27. L. Yang, J. Lin, B. Zhou, Y. Liu, and B. Zhu, “Activity of compounds from Taxillus sutchuenensis as inhibitors of HCV NS3 serine protease,” Natural Product Research, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 487–491, 2016. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  28. S. Chan, S. Li, C. Kwok et al., “Antioxidant activity of Chinese medicinal herbs,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 587–595, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  29. X. Xu, W. Zhang, C. Huang et al., “A novel chemometric method for the prediction of human oral bioavailability,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 6964–6982, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  30. H. Yu, J. Chen, X. Xu et al., “A systematic prediction of multiple drug-target interactions from chemical, genomic, and pharmacological data,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 5, article e37608, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  31. P. Shannon, A. Markiel, O. Ozier et al., “Cytoscape: a software environment for integrated models of biomolecular interaction networks,” Genome Research, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 2498–2504, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  32. M. Vidal, M. E. Cusick, and A. L. Barabási, “Interactome networks and human disease,” Cell, vol. 144, no. 6, pp. 986–998, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  33. K. I. Goh, M. E. Cusick, D. Valle, B. Childs, M. Vidal, and A. L. Barabási, “The human disease network,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 104, no. 21, pp. 8685–8690, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  34. D. Metodiewa, A. K. Jaiswal, N. Cenas, E. Dickancaité, and J. Segura-Aguilar, “Quercetin may act as a cytotoxic prooxidant after its metabolic activation to semiquinone and quinoidal product,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 26, no. 1-2, pp. 107–116, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  35. R. Shafabakhsh and Z. Asemi, “Quercetin: a natural compound for ovarian cancer treatment,” Journal of Ovarian Research, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 55, 2019. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  36. S. Chen, H. Jiang, X. Wu, and J. Fang, “Therapeutic effects of quercetin on inflammation, obesity, and type 2 diabetes,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2016, 5 pages, 2016. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  37. Y. Li, J. Yao, C. Han et al., “Quercetin, inflammation and immunity,” Nutrients, vol. 8, no. 3, p. 167, 2016. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  38. W. Xiaodan, Y. Yongping, Y. Liu, L. Mu, and Z. Xiuhui, “Effect of quercetin on the expression of Bcl-2/Bax apoptotic proteins in endometrial cells of lipopolysaccharide-induced-abortion mice,” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 737–742, 2016. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  39. S.-P. Deng, Y.-L. Yang, X.-X. Cheng, W.-R. Li, and J.-Y. Cai, “Synthesis, spectroscopic study and radical scavenging activity of kaempferol derivatives: enhanced water solubility and antioxidant activity,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 20, no. 4, p. 975, 2019. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  40. J. Wang, X. Fang, L. Ge et al., “Antitumor, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of kaempferol and its corresponding glycosides and the enzymatic preparation of kaempferol,” PLoS One, vol. 13, no. 5, p. e0197563, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  41. E. Ruiz, E. Padilla, S. Redondo, A. Gordillo-Moscoso, and T. Tejerina, “Kaempferol inhibits apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle induced by a component of oxidized LDL,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 529, no. 1-3, pp. 79–83, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  42. Y. C. Tu, T. W. Lian, J. H. Yen, Z. T. Chen, and M. J. Wu, “Antiatherogenic effects of kaempferol and rhamnocitrin,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 24, pp. 9969–9976, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  43. W. Liao, L. Chen, X. Ma, R. Jiao, X. Li, and Y. Wang, “Protective effects of kaempferol against reactive oxygen species-induced hemolysis and its antiproliferative activity on human cancer cells,” European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 114, pp. 24–32, 2016. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  44. S. Y. Kim, C. Jin, C. H. Kim et al., “Isorhamnetin alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in BV2 microglia by inactivating NF-κB, blocking the TLR4 pathway and reducing ROS generation,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 682–692, 2019. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  45. S. Hu, L. Huang, L. Meng, H. Sun, W. Zhang, and Y. Xu, “Isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer via Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 6745–6751, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  46. M. S. Bin Sayeed, S. M. R. Karim, T. Sharmin, and M. M. Morshed, “Critical analysis on characterization, systemic effect, and therapeutic potential of beta-sitosterol: a plant-derived orphan phytosterol,” Medicines, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 29, 2016. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  47. K. W. Makar, E. M. Poole, A. J. Resler et al., “COX-1 (PTGS1) and COX-2 (PTGS2) polymorphisms, NSAID interactions, and risk of colon and rectal cancers in two independent populations,” Cancer Causes & Control, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 2059–2075, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  48. I. Chakraborty, S. K. Das, J. Wang, and S. K. Dey, “Developmental expression of the cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-2 genes in the peri-implantation mouse uterus and their differential regulation by the blastocyst and ovarian steroids,” Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 107–122, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  49. B. H. Shah and K. J. Catt, “Roles of LPA3 and COX-2 in implantation,” Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 397–399, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  50. A. J. Habenicht, M. Goerig, J. Grulich et al., “Human platelet-derived growth factor stimulates prostaglandin synthesis by activation and by rapid de novo synthesis of cyclooxygenase,” Journal of clinical investigation, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 1381–1387, 1985. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  51. A. Raz, A. Wyche, N. Siegel, and P. Needleman, “Regulation of fibroblast cyclooxygenase synthesis by interleukin-1,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 263, p. 3022, 1988. View at: Google Scholar
  52. K. NASEEM, “The role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular diseases,” Molecular Aspects of Medicine, vol. 26, no. 1-2, pp. 33–65, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  53. K. Bian, M. F. Doursout, and F. Murad, “Vascular system: role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular diseases,” The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 304–310, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  54. S. T. Davidge, P. N. Baker, and J. M. Roberts, “NOS expression is increased in endothelial cells exposed to plasma from women with preeclampsia,” American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 269, no. 3, pp. H1106–H1112, 1995. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  55. M. S. Ghabour, A. L. W. Eis, D. E. Brockman, J. S. Pollock, and L. Myatt, “Immunohistochemical characterization of placental nitric oxide synthase expression in preeclampsia,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 173, no. 3, pp. 687–694, 1995. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  56. R. Paradisi, R. Fabbri, C. Battaglia, F. Facchinetti, and S. Venturoli, “Nitric oxide levels in women with missed and threatened abortion: results of a pilot study,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 744–748, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  57. E. Arslan, M. Çolakoğlu, Ç. Çelik et al., “Serum TNF-α, IL-6, lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibody in women with and without a past history of recurrent miscarriage,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 270, no. 4, pp. 227–229, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  58. M. J. Jasper, K. P. Tremellen, and S. A. Robertson, “Reduced expression of IL-6 and IL-1α mRNAs in secretory phase endometrium of women with recurrent miscarriage,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 74–84, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  59. B. Huppertz, D. Hemmings, S. J. Renaud, J. N. Bulmer, P. Dash, and L. W. Chamley, “Extravillous trophoblast apoptosis – a workshop report,” Placenta, vol. 26, pp. S46–S48, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  60. G. Mor and V. M. Abrahams, “Potential role of macrophages as immunoregulators of pregnancy,” Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E., vol. 1, no. 1, p. 119, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  61. G. F. Meresman, C. Olivares, S. Vighi, M. Alfie, M. Irigoyen, and J. J. Etchepareborda, “Apoptosis is increased and cell proliferation is decreased in out-of-phase endometria from infertile and recurrent abortion patients,” Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E., vol. 8, no. 1, p. 126, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  62. G. Pearson, F. Robinson, T. Beers Gibson et al., “Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways: regulation and physiological functions,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 153–183, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  63. A. J. M. Paliga, D. R. Natale, and A. J. Watson, “p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) first regulates filamentous actin at the 8-16-cell stage during preimplantation development,” Biology of the Cell, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. 629–640, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  64. F. Tebar, P. Villalonga, T. Sorkina, N. Agell, A. Sorkin, and C. Enrich, “Calmodulin regulates intracellular trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor and the MAPK signaling pathway,” Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 2057–2068, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  65. Z. Wang, M. Liu, X. Nie et al., “NOD1 and NOD2 control the invasiveness of trophoblast cells via the MAPK/p38 signaling pathway in human first-trimester pregnancy,” Placenta, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 652–660, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  66. R. Menon and J. Papaconstantinou, “p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK): a new therapeutic target for reducing the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes,” Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1397–1412, 2016. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  67. W. T. Hu, M. Q. Li, W. Liu, L. P. Jin, D. J. Li, and X. Y. Zhu, “IL-33 enhances proliferation and invasiveness of decidual stromal cells by up-regulation of CCL2/CCR2 via NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling,” Molecular Human Reproduction, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 358–372, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  68. Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, M. Q. Li et al., “Interleukin-25 induced by human chorionic gonadotropin promotes the proliferation of decidual stromal cells by activation of JNK and AKT signal pathways,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 257–263, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  69. H. W. Wu, Y. H. Feng, D. Y. Wang et al., “Effect of total flavones from Cuscuta chinensis on anti-abortion via the MAPK signaling pathway,” Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2018, article 6356190, pp. 1–12, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  70. B. Yang, J. Song, H. Sun et al., “PSMB8 regulates glioma cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis through modulating ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways,” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, vol. 100, pp. 205–212, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  71. Z. Li, G. Zhou, L. Jiang, H. Xiang, and Y. Cao, “Effect of STOX1 on recurrent spontaneous abortion by regulating trophoblast cell proliferation and migration via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 120, no. 5, pp. 8291–8299, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  72. M. Acosta-Martínez, “PI3K: an attractive candidate for the central integration of metabolism and reproduction,” Frontiers in Endocrinology, vol. 2, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  73. K. J. Brothers, S. Wu, S. A. DiVall et al., “Rescue of Obesity-Induced Infertility in Female Mice due to a Pituitary- Specific Knockout of the Insulin Receptor,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 295–305, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  74. M. Xin, J. He, Y. Zhang et al., “Chinese herbal decoction of Wenshen Yangxue formula improved fertility and pregnancy rate in mice through PI3K/Akt signaling,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 3082–3090, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  75. Z. Latifi, H. R. Nejabati, S. Abroon et al., “Dual role of TGF-β in early pregnancy: clues from tumor progression,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 100, no. 6, pp. 1417–1430, 2019. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  76. M. B. Sporn, “TGF-β: 20 years and counting,” Microbes and Infection, vol. 1, no. 15, pp. 1251–1253, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  77. W. Liu, Y. Huang, G. Huang et al., “Relationship of SOCS3 and TGF-β with IDO expression in early pregnancy chorionic villi and decidua,” Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 4817–4824, 2017. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  78. U. Holzer, M. Rieck, and J. Buckner, “Lineage and signal strength determine the inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) on human antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 memory cells,” Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 241–251, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2020 Ming Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

More related articles

 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.