Depression and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Expression Pattern of Calbindin Immunoreactivity in Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus of Patients Who Underwent Epilepsy Surgery with and without Comorbid Depression
Hippocampal sections from postmortem control (a) and TLE with HS (b–i). PL: polymorphic layer; ML: molecular layer; GL: granular cell layer. (a) Qualitative analysis of postmortem control shows homogeneous CB+ granular cell morphology and staining and the absence of GL dispersion and/or ectopic localization. (b–e) Qualitative examination of dentate gyrus sections from TLE patients showed lower CB+ cell density among all dentate gyri (cases 5, 6, 14, and 15 of Table 1). (f–i) Qualitative examination of dentate gyrus sections from TLE+D patients showed a pattern with a reduced number of CB+ granular cells predominantly among basal layers (basal granule cells are predominantly CB negative), with a great proportion of strong CB+ cells located in outer layers, with CB-positive arborization (CB+ sprouted cells), ectopic localization (inner molecular layers), higher CB+ content (higher staining intensity and CB+ area), and longer apical CB+ sprouted fibers projecting into ML (arrows). Basal CB+ sprouted processes are also observed (cases 20, 21, 23, and 24 of Table 1). Magnification (20x), scale bar 30 μm.