BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death among patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing maintenance dialysis. Renal transplantation offers a survival advantage to patients with end-stage renal disease; it is also associated with a three- to fivefold increase in the risk of developing a neoplasm.OBJECTIVE: To determine the yield of screening colonoscopy among patients with chronic kidney disease who were considered for renal transplantation.METHODS: Patients were included if they were ≥50 years of age, had chronic kidney disease and were being considered for renal transplantation. They underwent a screening colonoscopy that was performed as part of their pretransplant workup. Data from December 2008 to May 2014 were collected retrospectively for all eligible patients.RESULTS: During the study period, 433 patients were considered for renal transplantation. Of these, 170 underwent colonoscopies as part of their pretransplant workup. One was excluded because of previous history of colon cancer. Of the 169 procedures performed, ≥1 polyp(s) was diagnosed in 24%. The most common pathological diagnoses were hyperplastic polyp or normal colonic tissue. Fifteen (37%) patients had tubular adenomas and one patient had a sessile serrated adenoma. Advanced adenomas, defined as villous, tubulovillous or high-grade dysplasia, were found in four patients. Adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in one patient.CONCLUSION: In a population of asymptomatic potential kidney transplant recipients ≥50 years of age, the prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps was 24%. Colonoscopy appeared to be useful as a screening tool in potential transplant recipients.