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Differences in Rhizosphere Microbial Community Structure and Composition in Resistance and Susceptible Wheat to Fusarium Head Blight
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious disease of wheat that threatens wheat production worldwide. In this study, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the rhizosphere soil microbial metagenomes of 4 wheat cultivars with different levels of resistance to FHB. The results showed that there were differences in the diversity, structure, and composition of rhizosphere microorganisms between resistant and sensitive varieties. The rhizosphere soil bacterial diversity of the resistant wheat varieties Su Mai 3 and Yang Mai 16 was higher than that of the susceptible wheat varieties Zheng Mai 9023 and Zhou Mai 20. The diversity of rhizosphere fungi in resistant varieties was lower than that in susceptible varieties, but the abundance was higher than that in susceptible varieties. Variety was found to alter the community structure of wheat rhizosphere microorganisms. Resistant varieties SM3 and YM16 and moderately susceptible variety ZM9023 had similar microbial community structure, while highly susceptible variety ZM20 was significantly different from other varieties. The study is aimed at analyzing the effects of wheat varieties of different resistance to FHB on the composition and abundance of rhizosphere soil microbial community to screen out bacteria or fungi that can be used to control FHB, providing the theoretical basis for FHB biological control.
Commonality of Virulence-Promoting Function in Rhodococcus equi Virulence Associated Proteins (Vaps)
Rhodococcus equi is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen associated with life-threatening bronchopneumonial disease in foals. Key to R. equi’s intracellular survival in host macrophages is the production of virulence associated proteins (Vaps). Numerous vap genes are found on virulence plasmids isolated from different species, and the Vaps share a high degree of sequence identity. VapA has been extensively studied, and although vapK and vapN genes from other R. equi virulence plasmids have been shown to be essential for R. equi intracellular survival, their mode of action is less characterised. We, therefore, examined whether VapK and VapN worked mechanistically in the same way as VapA. Indeed, like VapA, VapK and VapN neutralised lysosomal pH and reduced lysosomal hydrolase activity. A loss of VapA and R. equi virulence could be regained by the presence of either VapK or VapN. The acid-neutralisation activity was also observed to a lesser extent with VapB. There was a differential activity across these virulence-promoting Vaps with the most “acid-neutralising” activity found with VapN, then VapA and K, and finally VapB. These data suggest that VapA production, which is often found in equine infections, can be substituted by VapK and B (produced by plasmids often found in porcine species) or VapN (produced by plasmids often isolated in bovine and human samples). These data imply that the molecular mechanism(s) that VapA uses to neutralise lysosomal acidity should also be seen in VapN and K which will help guide researchers in identifying their precise mode of action and aid the future development of targeted therapeutics.
Analysis of Specific Allergens in the Serum of Patients with Allergic Diseases in the Shanxi Region of China
The aim of this study is to analyze the distribution characteristics of specific allergens based on the immunoglobulin E (IgE) test, performed using the sera of patients with allergic diseases in the Shanxi region of China. Sera from 3141 patients with allergic diseases were analyzed with immunoblotting for IgE antibodies specific to inhaled and ingested allergens. The distribution of allergens and association with factors such as disease profile, sex, age, and cosensitization of the patients who tested positive were analyzed. The most common positive rate of IgE specific to inhaled allergens was mugwort, followed by dust mite mix and common ragweed. The most common positive rate of IgE specific to ingested allergens was crab, followed by egg white and sea fish mix. When analyzed according to disease profile, mugwort was the most common allergen in asthma, rhinitis, and asthma combined with rhinitis. When analyzed by season, the allergens with the highest positive rates included tree mix (willow/poplar/elm), common ragweed, mugwort, and hop pollen from July through September. When analyzed by age, the allergens with the highest positive rates were tree mix, common ragweed, hop, house dust, cow’s milk, mutton/lamb, and peanut in participants aged 0–18 years and egg white in those aged ≥60 years. The radar charts showed cosensitization to multiple allergens. In the Shanxi region, the primary inhaled allergens were mugwort, dust mite mix (1: house dust mite/dust mite), and common ragweed. The primary ingested allergens were crab, egg white, and sea fish mix. There were differences in the positive rates of the allergens between genders, age groups, and seasons, and multiple allergens can cosensitize patients.
Ferroptosis Is a Potential Therapeutic Target for Pulmonary Infectious Diseases
Ferroptosis is a new type of iron-dependent cell death caused by lipid peroxide (LPO) accumulation and involved in disease of pulmonary infection. The dysregulation of iron metabolism, the accumulation of LPO, and the inactivation and consumption of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) are the crucial cause of ferroptosis. Pulmonary infectious diseases caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are associated with ferroptosis. Ferroptosis may be a potential therapeutic target for pulmonary infectious diseases. However, the mechanisms by which these infections are involved in ferroptosis and whether pulmonary infectious diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Leishmania spp are related to ferroptosis are unclear. Accordingly, more researches are needed.
G1 Cell Cycle Arrest Is Induced by the Fourth Extracellular Loop of Meningococcal PorA in Epithelial and Endothelial Cells
Neisseria meningitidis is the most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis and is one of the few bacterial pathogens that can breach the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LamR) was previously identified as a receptor mediating meningococcal binding to rodent and human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which form part of the BBB. The meningococcal surface proteins PorA and PilQ were identified as ligands for this receptor. Subsequently, the fourth extracellular loop of PorA (PorA-Loop4) was identified as the LamR-binding moiety. Here, we show that PorA-Loop4 targets the 37 kDa laminin receptor precursor (37LRP) on the cell surface by demonstrating that deletion of this loop abrogates the recruitment of 37LRP under meningococcal colonies. Using a circularized peptide corresponding to PorA-Loop4, as well as defined meningococcal mutants, we demonstrate that host cell interaction with PorA-Loop4 results in perturbation of p-CDK4 and Cyclin D1. These changes in cell cycle control proteins are coincident with cellular responses including inhibition of cell migration and a G1 cell cycle arrest. Modulation of the cell cycle of host cells is likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of meningococcal disease.
Akkermansia muciniphila Ameliorates Lung Injury in Smoke-Induced COPD Mice by IL-17 and Autophagy
Objective. Smoking is a primary hazard factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which induced a decrease in intestinal Akkermansia muciniphila abundance and Th17 imbalance in COPD. This study analyzed the changes of gut microbiota metabolism and Akkermansia abundance in patients with smoking-related COPD and explored the potential function of Akkermansia muciniphila in smoke-induced COPD mice. Methods. Gut microbiota diversity and metabolic profile were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequence and metabolomics in COPD patients. The IL-1β, IL-17, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were tested by ELISA. Lung tissue damage was observed by HE staining. The expression of cleave-caspase 3, trophoblast antigen 2 (TROP2), and LC3 in lung tissues were analyzed by IHC or IF. The p-mTOR, mTOR, p62, and LC3 expression in lung tissues were tested by western blot. Results. The levels of IL-17, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the peripheral blood of COPD patients increased significantly. The number and alpha diversity of gut microbiota were decreased in COPD patients. The abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in gut of COPD patients was decreased, and the metabolic phenotype and retinol metabolism were changed. In the retinol metabolism, the retinol and retinal were significantly changed. Akkermansia muciniphila could improve the alveolar structure and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue, reduce the IL-17, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels in peripheral blood, promote the p-mTOR expression, and inhibit the expression of autophagy-related proteins in smoke-induced COPD mice. Conclusion. The number and alpha diversity of gut microbiota were decreased in patients with smoking-related COPD, accompanied by decreased abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, and altered retinol metabolism function. Gut Akkermansia muciniphila ameliorated lung injury in smoke-induced COPD mice by inflammation and autophagy.