Research Article | Open Access
Na Zhang, XiangXiang Zhang, Ming Lei, Yingjie Yang, "Multiagent Collaborative Governance for Targeted Poverty Alleviation from the Perspective of Stakeholders", Complexity, vol. 2020, Article ID 8276392, 21 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8276392
Multiagent Collaborative Governance for Targeted Poverty Alleviation from the Perspective of Stakeholders
As a social problem involving a wide range of objects, targeted poverty alleviation governance needs to clearly define stakeholders and identify their behaviour choices, so as to seek a multiagent collaborative governance strategy, and strive to jointly promote the realization of a targeted poverty alleviation goals in an atmosphere to win-win cooperation and benefit sharing. By constructing a three-subject evolutionary game model of local government, social organization, and poverty group in the process of targeted poverty alleviation, this paper discusses the influence of their behavioural decisions on multisubject collaborative governance of targeted poverty alleviation and selects samples to carry out simulation experiments on the model. The results show that, first, superior government support has little effect on the evolution of tripartite competition, and the conclusion is inconsistent with the general cognition. However, the enhancement of support from local governments and social organizations can effectively promote the transformation of the willingness of the poor groups to cooperate. Second, a modest increase in the punishment of social organizations and poor groups can have a binding effect on the behavioural strategy choices of both sides and ultimately promote the process of targeted poverty alleviation. Third, the increase in the benefits of social organizations and poor groups can significantly improve the willingness of both sides to cooperate, so the “endogenous driving force” of the poor groups should be enhanced to achieve the Pareto optimal state of targeted poverty alleviation.
At the “2015 Poverty Reduction and Development Forum,” President Xi Jinping stated that “we have been committed to mobilizing the whole society to participate, giving full play to China’s institutional advantages, and building a pattern of great poverty alleviation coordinated by the government, society, and market, and forming a social poverty alleviation system with diverse participants that involves cross-regions, cross-departments, cross-units, and the whole society” . To solve the problem of collaborative governance of diverse subjects is the key to poverty alleviation. This not only needs external help from the government and social groups but also needs to rely on the endogenous driving force of the poor groups to get rid of poverty, so as to realize the benign interaction between “inside” and “outside.” At present, in the process of targeted poverty alleviation, the poor groups are interrelated through the realization of poverty alleviation goals, forming a collaborative network. However, all the subjects, from the perspective of their own interests, do not form synergy through poverty alleviation goals. At present, taking targeted measures to alleviate poverty has gone from “fighting alone” to “unity and cooperation.” It is imperative to create a multidimensional interconnected pattern for collaborative governance by multiple subjects. In fact, in the process of targeted poverty alleviation, no substantial progress and breakthroughs have been made in the collaborative governance of diverse subjects, nor has a systematic and comprehensive collaborative mechanism been formed [2, 3]. Therefore, in order to effectively promote the new pattern of coordinated governance of multiple subjects in accurate poverty alleviation, it is necessary to find out the key factors that affect each interest subject and clarify the action path of these key factors, so as to ultimately promote the cooperation of each interest subject. Therefore, the main problems to be solved in this paper are as follows:(1)Analyze the relationship and game strategy selection between local government, social organizations, and poverty group in the process of poverty alleviation and explore the factors influencing the cooperation evolution of local government, social organization, and poverty group taking the support of the local government as environmental factors.(2)Based on the premise of limited rationality, the process precision of poverty alleviation is regarded as a gradual learning process of dynamic construction of precision in the process of poverty alleviation, poverty group in local government, social organization, and the evolutionary game model and found the key influencing factors by setting the parameters and solving the models.(3)The stability strategy selection of the three parties in the process of targeted poverty alleviation is studied by analyzing the evolutionary game equilibrium and stability of local governments, social organizations, and poor groups in the process of targeted poverty alleviation. Then, through the changes of the upper government financial support, the benefit of the poverty group, and other parameters, Matlab is used for simulation analysis, which more intuitively reflects the game evolution trend of local governments, social organizations, and poor group in the process of accurate poverty alleviation and puts forward reasonable countermeasures and suggestions to provide decision-making basis for government departments.
In view of this, there are three main differences in this study. First, based on the limited rational perspective of participants, the paper introduces the parameters of government funding, income of poor groups, etc., constructs the evolutionary game model of multiagent collaborative governance for targeted poverty alleviation, and solves the equilibrium strategy. Second, it focuses on the key factors affecting the selection of multiagent collaborative governance strategy. Again, the evolutionary characteristics and evolution trends of the group in the process of precision poverty alleviation and multiagent collaborative governance are observed through simulation. According to this conclusion, it can more accurately and objectively reflect the strategy choice of the game players in reality and has a reference value and guiding significance for the decision-making of multiagent targeted poverty alleviation and collaborative governance.
The rest of the study is arranged as follows. Section 2 discusses the relevant literature of collaborative governance and targeted poverty alleviation and puts forward the innovation of this work. In Section 3, the problem description of the model and the assumption of related parameters are introduced in detail. Section 4 studies the gradual stability of multiagent through the construction and analysis of income function. Section 5 analyzes the evolution characteristics and trend of the group in the process of multiagent collaborative governance through simulation. Section 6 summarizes the research of this paper and puts forward relevant countermeasures and suggestions.
International experience shows that multiagent coordinated governance can improve the level of poverty. Linkov and Trump denoted the criticality of collaborative and multistakeholder governance for major challenges such as poverty , while Newman et al. framed collaborative governance as a function of public participation . Linkov’s work further unpacks the various notations of collaborative and multistakeholder governance for extreme system complexity and uncertainty (Linkov et al.) . Jessoula studied the effectiveness of multiagent collaborative poverty alleviation from the perspective of multilevel social structure in Europe . Khumalo advocated a multistakeholder approach to the challenge of poverty and reconsidered the structural issue of perpetuating poverty . Sharma’s innovative financing mechanisms engaging diverse stakeholders for developing poverty reduction strategies have been engineered as possible neoinstitutional structures to counter the world’s most daunting problems . Ferdinand et al. illustrated the need for multistakeholder partnerships to reduce vulnerability and enhance the resilience of communities through the Caribbean Sea case . Eberlei pointed out that poverty reduction strategy (PRS) is based on the broad participation of internal and external stakeholders, including parliament, civil society organizations, representatives of the private sector, and other stakeholders at the national and local levels .
Most of the research on collaborative governance for targeted poverty alleviation focuses on four aspects, namely, governance dilemma, governance mode, governance path, and governance practice:(1)Research on the dilemma of targeted poverty alleviation and collaborative governance: although the holistic governance theory provides an inspiring idea for the innovation of poverty alleviation work mechanism, there is still a dilemma of “fragmentation” in the coordinated governance of targeted poverty alleviation in China. He and Chen  pointed out that the local government functions in China and the complexity of the rural poor governance lead to the present situation of fragmentation governance of public services, which in turn makes poverty alleviation and the allocation of resources for poverty alleviation “fragmented.” Fu Canliang , based on questionnaires and interview data, examined and analyzed the fragmentation of targeted identification, targeted assistance, targeted management, and targeted assessment in the implementation of targeted poverty alleviation policies. Leng et al.  pointed out that, due to information asymmetry, the practice of targeted poverty alleviation in China is faced with three major problems. That is, the moral hazard between governments at all levels and the objects of assistance, disconnection between supply and demand from the public and the objects of assistance, and fragmentation of poverty alleviation caused by noncoordination of multiple subjects. Yang  believed that the current rural poverty alleviation work in China is confronted with such problems as the lack of benign interaction between institutions, the lack of collaborative participation among the main bodies of poverty alleviation, the lack of collaborative linkage among functional departments, and the lack of effective integration of poverty alleviation resources and the fragmentation of poverty alleviation work performance evaluation, which affect the poverty alleviation effect.(2)Research on the collaborative governance model for targeted poverty alleviation: China’s traditional, unidirectional, passive, and extensive mode of poverty management leads to low poverty alleviation efficiency. Zhuang et al.  proposed the five-in-one poverty governance model of “government-market-society-community-farmer household”, and discussed how to ensure the effective implementation of targeted poverty alleviation from the aspects of accurate identification, assistance, management, assessment, interest connection, and social mobilization. Ma  provided new ideas for the implementation of targeted poverty alleviation in the new era by defining the mission of targeted poverty alleviation in industry and government partners, building partnerships, cultivating mutual trust and implementing incentives, and strengthening the government network governance capacity. Xu et al.  analyzed the game relationship between the poor, the nonpoor, the local government, and the superior government in the process of precise poverty alleviation and proposed to improve the coordination model among the government, market, and society. Lin  proposed to build a diversified poverty alleviation model actively participated by the government, society, and the poor population and to establish and improve the coordination mechanism among poverty alleviation subjects, poverty alleviation resource integration mechanism, and accurate poverty alleviation assessment mechanism. Mo  analyzed the targeted poverty alleviation governance model, transformation from the aspects of poverty alleviation, accurate way of poverty alleviation, precise subjects, and precise process and pointed out that an accurate path to break the management of poverty alleviation is to adhere to the people-centered concept, construct the comprehensive full of precision mechanism, refine government-led diversified participation pattern, and carry out the value orientation of new development concept.(3)Research on the path to coordinated governance of targeted poverty alleviation: in view of the plight of targeted poverty alleviation under the framework of collaborative governance analysis, Chinese experts and scholars have made positive and beneficial discussions on its governance path. Xie and Liu  analyzed the predicaments of poverty in the interprovincial marginal regions and pointed out that it was necessary to introduce the holistic governance analysis framework and adopt holistic governance approaches such as constructing the goal orientation, subject structure, institutional system, and cross-border cooperation of poverty governance in the interprovincial marginal regions. Liu and He  believed that the current targeted poverty alleviation of the association would gradually go towards the coordinated targeted poverty alleviation, and the realization of the coordinated targeted poverty alleviation required the coordination of poverty alleviation information, the coordination of poverty alleviation system, the coordination of poverty alleviation culture, and the cultivation of good social capital. Shen  pointed out that targeted poverty alleviation is essentially a practice of refined social governance, which should also be integrated into governance concepts such as decentralization, cooperation, and participation. Based on the rural system, the government, the public, communities, enterprises, and the object of poverty alleviation should be fully mobilized to solve poverty through factor introduction. He and Liu  pointed out that there was a theoretical fit between the multiple coordinated precision, poverty alleviation, and social capital. Good social capital is the premise and foundation for the realization of multiple coordinated precision poverty alleviation, and it is necessary to transform traditional social capital and invest modern social capital to promote the realization of multiple coordinated precision poverty alleviation. Chen and Li  proposed the path of targeted poverty alleviation under the collaborative system, which established a cross-precise object identification mechanism, searched for the prevention mechanism of poverty alleviation by equalization of basic public services, and innovated the poverty alleviation mechanism by classification management of multiple subjects.(4)Research on the practice of coordinated governance for targeted poverty alleviation: the targeted and holistic governance of poverty alleviation has also made some achievements in practice. Jin and Ding  provided empirical evidences for the construction of multiple collaborative poverty alleviation mechanisms of government, market, and society based on the case study of “Jinsha model.” Guan  took collaborative governance as the analytical framework, deeply analyzed the prominent influencing factors of targeted poverty alleviation work in Guangxi, and promoted the readjustment and deepening of the mechanism and mode of targeted poverty alleviation work from the aspects of process synergy, system synergy, subject synergy, and technology synergy. Wang and Li  believed that it was necessary to coordinate the three poverty alleviation systems of special projects, industry, and society at the two levels of overall promotion and precise individual assistance, so as to find the key path of poverty alleviation and alleviation. Zhan , based on the analytical framework of collaborative governance and on-the-spot investigation of S village, T village, and R village, summarized the difficulties in identifying the poverty-stricken marginal groups, realizing the difficult dynamic management, imprecise assistance, insufficient social participation, and material assessment in the targeted rural poverty alleviation, and put forward the future work for causes of trouble of path optimization. Mu and Pan  started with the mechanism analysis of government-market poverty alleviation development, combined with the practical cases of poverty alleviation development in Guizhou province, and conducted a preliminary discussion on the government-market double-oriented poverty alleviation development mechanism.
Targeted poverty alleviation (poverty alleviation) has always been the focus of experts and scholars, but relatively few studies have been made on the game in the process of targeted poverty alleviation. (1) The game of poverty alleviation between the government and poor groups or other poverty alleviation subjects. Based on the theoretical perspective of social interaction theory, Fang Jin explored the interactive relationship between the government and social organizations in the field of rural poverty governance by means of the method of cross-comparison analysis in . By establishing the evaluation function of the comprehensive prospect value, Huang Haitang formed a dynamic evolutionary game model between the government and enterprises in the process of poverty alleviation and development and established a reasonable mechanism for poverty alleviation and development by the government and enterprises . Tian et al. analyzed the possible information asymmetry between the government and the poor group, resulting in the emergence of interest conflicts, analyzed the conditions affecting the poverty alleviation cooperation, and tried to find a new poverty alleviation coordination mechanism between the government and the poor group [33, 34]. (2) Poverty alleviation game between multiple subjects. Under the current system of our country, the mode of collaborative poverty alleviation with multisubject participation is gradually formed. It belongs to the stage of participatory poverty alleviation  from 2001 to 2010, relying on policies to emphasize participatory assistance [36, 37]. Subsequently, the participants of poverty alleviation policies are gradually extended by local governments, social organizations, and many other units to implement the mobilization type of poverty alleviation development . At the same time, Liu et al. subdivided the roles of the government into the central government and local government groups, constructed a three-party game between the central government, the local government, and the poor groups, and obtained the strategic profit and loss of each participant in the game [39–43].
It has been proved that the targeted poverty alleviation model featuring multiple linkages involving the participation of poverty groups, governments, and enterprises can promote poverty alleviation, leading to the multisubject poverty alleviation cooperation [44–49]. However, the key problem of multisubject participation in poverty alleviation is to solve the conflict of interest among participants and seek a stable and balanced state. Therefore, the game of poverty alleviation among multiple subjects arises at the historic moment. Yu et al. constructed multiplayer game models based on game theory and analyzed how to formulate a reasonable and scientific accurate poverty alleviation system by using the optimal solution [50–53].
To sum up, in recent years, the research on collaborative governance of multiple subjects has become a hot topic for experts and scholars, and rich research results have been achieved. However, from the perspective of the content of the study, it mainly focuses on the profit and loss analysis of the poverty alleviation strategy involving multiple subjects and does not use game theory to deeply study and solve the conflicts among multiple subjects. In related studies, some scholars have explored the possibility of a collaborative governance models of multiple subjects, but there is still a lack of powerful analytical tools.
3. Problem Description and Parameter Hypothesis
Evolutionary game theory is a theory combining game theory analysis with dynamic evolutionary process analysis, which is defined as a dynamic equilibrium . Nowadays, economists use evolutionary game theory to analyze the influencing factors in the formation of social habits, norms, institutions, or institutions and explain their formation process and have also made remarkable achievements [55–60]. The basic idea of the evolutionary game is that the players are not super rational, and it is impossible to find the optimal equilibrium point in every game. It aims to reach the equilibrium through trial and error by repeated games. Thus, the best strategy for game players is to imitate and improve on the best strategy for themselves and others in the past. Through long-term simulation and improvement, all players tend to a certain stable strategy (as shown in Figure 1).
As described in the evolutionary game model, as a limited rational person, the cooperation and competition between local governments, social organizations, and poverty groups in the process of targeted poverty alleviation need to constantly revise and improve the behavioural strategies through the recognition of the cooperative behaviour rules of targeted poverty alleviation and finally obtain the satisfactory benefits. Therefore, in the practice of targeted poverty alleviation, local governments, social organizations, and poor groups are assumed to be rational people who pursue their own independent interest appeals to maximize their own interests. Under the hypothesis of limited rationality, the cooperative governance model of local government, social organization, and poverty group based on evolutionary game can be constructed to study the cooperative relationship and behavioural strategy.
The subjects involved are as follows.(1)Local government: local government is defined as the general term of a government organization that manages the affairs of a national administrative region. It is the intermediate link between the central government, provincial government, district-level government, township government, and village government, and it is the basic administrative region for the overall economic and social development.(2)Social organization: social organization is one of the three elements of public relations. In a narrow sense, it is a public activity group that achieves a certain goal according to a certain purpose and system. For example, enterprises, factories, schools, and hospitals. According to the type of organization, social organizations can bezx divided into four categories. The specific contents are shown in Table 1.
The social organizations studied in this paper belong to the category of competitive profit-making organizations, which will pursue the maximization of their own interests to ensure long-term development.(3)Poverty group: poverty group, in the broad sense, refers to an impoverished household and impoverished village. Generally, according to the definition of the scope of the poverty group, the standard can be divided into Table 2. However, the specific situation should be based on local conditions to visit the investigation, in order to ensure that the specific situation analysis.
3.1. Basic Assumptions
Suppose the game participants and strategies are local government (active cooperation and passive treatment), social organizations (participating in or not participating in poverty alleviation), and poverty groups (active cooperation and passive treatment). There are two behavioural strategies for local government. One is to actively cooperate and comprehensively supervise poverty alleviation. Through self-regulation, social organizations actively participate in poverty alleviation and the poverty groups actively support poverty alleviation. The other is that local governments have taken a passive approach to poverty alleviation with inadequate oversight. There are two behavioural strategies for social organization. One is to actively participate in poverty alleviation and help poverty groups to get rid of poverty as soon as possible. The other is the lack of initiative to help, which means staying out of the situation and failing to play a benign role in the model. Similarly, there are two behavioural strategies for the poverty groups. One is to actively cooperate with the poverty alleviation work of local government and social organizations. The other strategy is that it does not support or cooperate with poverty alleviation work and lacks internal impetus for poverty alleviation.
In addition, local governments, social organizations, and poverty groups are all limited rational persons. In the process of getting rid of poverty, the poor groups pursue the maximization of their own benefits. However, local governments and social organizations need to pay the cost of poverty alleviation in the process of targeted poverty alleviation. If the poverty group is not lifted out of poverty, local governments and social organizations will have to pay a huge cost. Therefore, local governments and social organizations aim to minimize the loss of social benefits. Under the choice of positive and negative treatment strategies of local governments, social organizations and poor groups improve the relevance gains and losses of targeted poverty alleviation through cooperation. Therefore, this paper only studies the situation that social organizations and poor groups will generate negative gains when one party does not cooperate, and the relevance negative gains of local governments at this time can be ignored.
3.2. Setting of Relevant Income Parameters
Local governments, social organizations, and poverty groups are always relatively stable within a certain region, and the probability of local governments choosing cooperative strategies at time is , while the proportion of social organizations and poor groups choosing cooperative strategies is and respectively, which satisfies , , and .
The game relationship in the coordinated governance of multiple subjects of targeted poverty alleviation is relatively complex. There are both cooperation and competition. The factors affecting the choice of behaviour subjects’ strategies involve many aspects. In this paper, the relevant factors of cooperative competition among the government, social organizations, and poverty groups are searched for the literature. The relevant summary is shown in Table 3:
Therefore, according to the existing research results, this paper takes these main factors as the main parameters of the model to build the evolutionary game model of multiagent collaborative governance of targeted poverty alleviation. The relevant benefit parameters are set as follows.
As for the local government, is the support provided by the superior government for the local government to actively alleviate poverty, such as funds, projects, and special subsidies for poverty alleviation; is the cost for local governments in the process of targeted poverty alleviation; When the three parties are active in poverty alleviation, the external benefits brought by local governments due to poverty alleviation is , such as environmental improvement and sustainable industrial development; refers to the loss of opportunity cost when the local government is active in poverty alleviation but other entities do not cooperate.
As for the social organizations, refers to the basic benefits brought by targeted poverty alleviation when selecting cooperative strategies for social organizations, such as increased opportunities and economic effects after poverty alleviation; is the cost for social organizations to choose cooperation in the process of targeted poverty alleviation, such as the support of time and funds for poor groups to get rid of poverty; refers to the support to social organizations in choosing cooperation strategies for local governments. At the same time, if social organizations choose noncooperative strategies, negative benefits , will be generated for themselves and the poor groups (the negative benefits include opportunity costs and other losses).
As for poverty groups, is the basic benefits brought by targeted poverty alleviation when choosing cooperative strategies for poverty groups, such as increased economic income and improved social recognition after poverty alleviation; refers to the cost of choosing cooperation for the poor in the process of targeted poverty alleviation, such as labour and time; is the support for poverty groups in choosing cooperative strategies for local governments; refers to the support given to poor groups in choosing cooperative strategies for social organizations. At the same time, if the poverty group chooses the noncooperative strategy, it will generate negative benefits , to social organizations and itself (the negative benefits include opportunity costs and other losses).
3.3. Construction of Payment Function
Based on the above assumptions, the income matrix of local governments, social organizations, and poverty groups can be obtained, as shown in Table 4.
4. Evolutionary Stability Strategy Analysis
4.1. Construction of Revenue Function
Suppose that represents the expected return when the local government chooses the cooperative strategy, represents the expected return when the local government chooses the noncooperative strategy, and represents the average expected return of the local government. According to the above analysis, there are
Suppose that represents the expected return when social organizations choose cooperative strategy, represents the expected return when social organizations choose noncooperative strategy, and represents the average expected return of social organizations. According to the above analysis, there are
Suppose that represents the expected return when the poverty group chooses the cooperative strategy, represents the expected return when the poverty group chooses the noncooperative strategy, and represents the average expected return of the average poor group. According to the above analysis, there are
4.2. Dynamic Replication Equation for a Three-Party Game
According to the Malthusian equation, the dynamic replication equation for the local government to choose cooperative strategy is as follows:
The dynamic replication equation for social organization to choose cooperative strategy is as follows:
The dynamic replication equation for cooperative strategy among the poverty groups is as follows:
The following three-dimensional dynamic system (I) can be obtained from the replicated dynamic equations of local governments, social organizations, and poverty groups:
Theorem 1. The three-dimensional dynamic system (I) mentioned above must have pure strategic equilibrium points, which are, respectively, (1, 1, 1), (1, 1, 0), (1, 0, 1), (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 1), (0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1), and (0, 0, 0). Meanwhile, there are six possible equilibrium points for a single pure strategy, namely, (0, , ), (, 0, ), (, , 0), (1, , ), (, 1, ), and (, , 1). The first equilibrium point exists if and . The conditions for the existence of other equilibrium points can be obtained.
Proof. For the three-dimensional dynamic system, if or , or , and or , there will be . Therefore, (1, 1, 1), (1, 1, 0), (1, 0, 1), (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 1), (0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1), and (0, 0, 0) are the equilibrium points for the system. If , , and , when and , then there is . Therefore, if and , then (0, , ) is the equilibrium point of the three-dimensional dynamical system. Similarly, the equilibrium points of the other 5 single pure strategies can be proved.
Theorem 2. There may be one equilibrium point of hybrid strategy in a three-dimensional dynamic system (I), which satisfies .
Proof. For a three-dimensional dynamic system (I), if , , and , when , , and , then there is . Solve equation (1) and can be obtained, which is the possible equilibrium point of the three-dimensional dynamic system (I):
4.3. Stability Analysis of Evolutionary Game
According to the above analysis, the financial support of the superior government, the negative return caused by noncooperation, and the difference between their own benefits and costs are the key factors influencing the game behaviour choice of the three parties.
In order to analyze the asymptotic stability of the tripartite main body, take the derivative of each replicate dynamic equation of the three-dimensional dynamic system (I), then
According to the basic nature of the evolutionary game, is substituted in formula (2). When , are the stable strategies that should be adopted by local governments, social organizations, and poverty groups. The following is an analysis of the asymptotic stability of the three-party game players.(1)Analysis on the gradual stability of local governments: If , then there is . That is to say, the local government’s strategic choices are stable, that is, the proportion of local government’s strategic choices will not change with the time passing by. If , let , and and are the two stable points for . It can be obtained from equation (2) that the derivative of is . There is , . Therefore, is the equilibrium points of the strategies of local governments. This means that the support provided by the superior government and the external benefits of local governments and , when the three main bodies are active in poverty alleviation, the support of local governments to social organizations and poverty groups and , and the costs that local governments need to pay in the process of targeted poverty alleviation are important factors influencing the strategic choice of local governments. The support of local governments for social organizations and poor groups and is the focus that local governments should consider. At this time, the support for social organizations and poverty groups may be rewarded in various ways through poverty alleviation, but at this time, local governments only consider the loss of interest in the game process. Obviously, the local government is always cautious in the process of strategy selection. If the local government believes that the support for social organizations and poverty groups is beyond its means, it will prompt the local government to choose the noncooperative strategy. Similarly, if , then and , so is the equilibrium points of the local government strategy. This shows that the income gained by the local governments to choose cooperation when the higher-level government support and incentives less than the extraincome of noncooperative strategy. That is to say, at this time, the support and externality benefit from the government at a higher level are not enough to make up for its poverty alleviation costs (costs, support for the organization, and society), the noncooperative strategy is the evolutionary stable strategy of the local government.(2)Analysis of the progressive stability of social organizations: If , then there is , that is to say, the social organization’s strategic choice is at a stable state, that is, the proportion of social organization’s strategic choice will not change with the time going by. If , let , then and are two stable points. At this point, it can be seen from equation (2) that the derivative of is and and . Therefore, is the equilibrium point of social organization strategy. This shows that the local government’s support for social organizations , the basic benefits gained by social organizations when they choose to help the poverty, the support of social organizations when they choose to cooperate with poor groups and the cost of poverty alleviation , and the loss of opportunity cost when they do not cooperate in poverty alleviation are very important factors influencing the strategic choice of social organizations. In fact, in the process of targeted poverty alleviation, the cost of poverty alleviation paid by social organizations is not high, while once the poor groups get rid of poverty, the benefits of social organizations are various. Therefore, it is worth paying attention to the establishment of an appropriate antipoverty incentive mechanism for social organizations. Similarly, if , then and , so is the balance point of social organization strategy. This shows that the income gained by the social organization choose cooperation (local government support, their basic income, poverty alleviation, and no cooperation opportunity cost) is less than noncooperative extraincome. That is to say, at this point, the local government for their support and their basic income is insufficient to make up for its poverty alleviation costs (costs support for poverty), and the noncooperative strategy is the evolutionary stable strategy of local government.(3)Analysis of the gradual stability of poverty groups: If , then there is . That is to say, the poverty group’s strategic choice is in a stable state, that is, the proportion of the poverty group’s strategic choice will not change with the passage of time. If , let , then and are the two stable points of . At this point, the derivative of from equation (2) is . There is and . Therefore, is the equilibrium point of the strategy of the poverty group. This shows that the support of local governments and social organizations for poverty groups and , the basic benefits gained by poor groups when they choose to help the poor, the cost of poverty alleviation , and the loss of opportunity cost when they do not cooperate in poverty alleviation are important factors influencing the strategic choice of poverty groups. Poverty groups play a very important role in the process of poverty alleviation, and the basic income and the impact of strategy selection are inseparable with local government and social organizations. Therefore, the basic income of the poverty group, local government, and social organizations play an important role in the targeted poverty alleviation. Similarly, if , then and , so is the equilibrium point of the strategy of the poverty group. It shows that the income gained by the poverty choosing cooperative strategy (the support of local government and social organizations, their basic income from poverty alleviation, and opportunity cost from noncooperative strategy) is less than the extra income from noncooperative strategy. When the local government and social organizations for their support and their basic income are not enough to make up for its poverty alleviation costs (costs), the cooperation strategy is poor at this time from the evolutionary stable strategy.
Combined the initial states and strategy choices if local government and poverty, when , , while the support from the local government is more important to both local government and the poverty groups, as long as the local government can help reduce costs for poverty alleviation poverty group, at the same time increase the opportunity cost the poverty groups choose noncooperative strategy, and it will promote the cooperative strategy selection of local governments and poverty groups. As a matter of fact, the financial support from local governments can play a role for poverty alleviation in a certain stage, and it is not a long-term solution. Local governments should be committed to helping poor groups reduce the cost of poverty alleviation and, at the same time, build incentive mechanisms including policies to continue to enjoy the benefits after “lifting off the poverty cap”.
Combining the initial states with strategic choices of social organizations and poverty groups, when , , the opportunity cost of the targeted antipoverty noncooperative strategy has a great impact on the strategic choice of both sides. Therefore, targeted poverty alleviation cooperation between social organizations and poverty groups can reduce the loss of opportunity cost. Meanwhile, the support of local governments is also the key to the realization of targeted poverty alleviation cooperation between social organizations and poor groups. Therefore, it is urgent to establish a precise cooperation mechanism for poverty alleviation with local government as the leading role, social organizations as the guide, and poor groups as the main body.
5. Numerical Simulation and Simulation
Relevant parameters were set through the research group’s statistical data of the questionnaire survey for the third-party assessment of targeted poverty alleviation in Xinjiang in 2018. Xinjiang is a contiguous poverty-stricken region designated by the state, and the four prefectures in southern Xinjiang are among the three regions and three prefectures designated by the state for poverty alleviation.
At present, there are 588.7 thousand households, 2.3147 million poverty people, 2,131 poverty villages, and 13 counties broken away from poverty at the end of 2018, which has decreased the poverty household to 204.4 thousand, the poverty population to 817.1 thousand, the poverty villages to 1,537, and the poverty counties to 22. In this paper, taking a county as an example, the calculation results of various parameters are as shown in Table 5.
Data source: the third party assessment questionnaire data statistics in Xinjiang targeted poverty alleviation in 2018.
Precise poverty alleviation work is a wide-ranging, huge-investment, and complex-situation system engineering, with dynamic, multidimensional, relativity, and diversity characteristics, involving many relevant interest groups [61–66]. Under the condition of limited rationality, this paper studies the evolutionary game model of multiagent collaborative governance of local governments, social organizations, and poor groups in the process of targeted poverty alleviation. Through the analysis of evolutionary stability strategies, we obtain the support of social organizations and local governments, the cooperative benefits of social organizations and poor groups, and the negative benefits of noncooperation between social organizations and poor groups are the key factors that affect the cooperation of tripartite evolutionary games. Different from the existing related research, this paper uses the survey data and the actual interview data to make a dynamic evolution analysis on the strategy choice of local government, social organizations, and the poor groups and simulates the path of different stakeholders to form the interest balance in the real situation. The main contribution of this article is to be able to choose model setting and simulate realistic effects from a multiagent collaborative governance equilibrium strategy more practically and fully demonstrate the actual situation of poverty alleviation work in a county in Xinjiang.
The main conclusions are as follows:(1)Increasing the support of social organizations and local governments will affect the evolution of tripartite competition, but the support should be appropriate, too much blood transfusion-type support from the higher government cannot promote poverty alleviation groups to maintain the active poverty alleviation state and poverty groups to maintain active poverty alleviation state. Therefore, the higher level government should adopt the gradient strategy to reduce direct input, strive for the rational allocation of resources to maximize the effectiveness, and avoid the waste of resources.(2)Increasing the negative benefits of social organizations and poverty groups will affect the evolution of tripartite competition. As rational people, each game subject will try to reduce their own losses. If the negative return (penalty) is increased moderately, the participants will consider the cost and choose the cooperative strategy to pursue the benefit. Therefore, moderately increasing the negative income of social organizations and poverty groups can restrain the behavioural strategies of both sides and promote the process of poverty alleviation. However, the appropriate range of punishment is still pending question.(3)Increasing the basic economic benefits of social organizations and poverty groups will significantly affect the evolution of tripartite competition. Whether poverty groups choose to actively lift themselves out of poverty depends on the stimulus of economic benefits brought by poverty alleviation. The social organizations in this paper belong to for-profit organizations and are eager to use their own advantages to get additional economic growth. Considering the cost of poverty alleviation paid by social organizations and giving reasonable compensation to social organizations through some policy incentives can promote the good operation of social organizations.
The above research conclusions have a certain reference value for the multisubject collaborative governance of targeted poverty alleviation. The countermeasures and suggestions are as follows. Firstly, we should clearly establish a gradient subsidy support mechanism to avoid direct input. Secondly, the participation of multiple agents is promoted by means of a dual mechanism of punishment and incentive. Thirdly, the supervision and evaluation system of social organizations should be improved to clearly define the power and responsibility relationship between government and social organizations. Fourthly, strengthen the publicity and guidance of social organizations and institutional buildings and actively respond to the participation of the whole people in poverty alleviation. This paper only considers the evolutionary game model involved with three parties, and the cooperative governance of more parties should be further discussed in the future.
The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 41801119), Royal Society, NSFC International Exchanges Project (Grant no. IEC\NSFC\170391), Social Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 18FGL003), Key Project of National Language Commission (Grant no. ZDI135-67), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded project (Grant no. 2018M631220), Excellent Youth Foundation of Xinjiang Scientific Committee (Grant no. 2017Q071), Foundation of Shihezi University (Grant no. RCSX201754), and Ministry of Education Foundation of Humanities and Social Sciences (Grant no. 19YJA630039).
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