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Case Reports in Otolaryngology publishes case reports and case series in all areas of otolaryngology, including head and neck surgery, facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, maxillofacial surgery, and pediatric otolaryngology.
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A Case of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) Where a Multicystic Nasal Septal Abscess Aided in the Diagnosis
A 69-year-old male patient presented to the hospital with a chief complaint of nasal obstruction. Physical examination revealed swelling of the anterior nasal septum and nasal dorsum and tender indurated oedema of the dorsum of both hands. Blood tests showed an elevated inflammatory response, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a polycystic abscess in the nasal septum. Emergency surgery and histopathology were performed on the day of the initial visit for incisional drainage. Intraoperative findings showed white necrosis between the nasal septal cartilage and nasal septal mucosa, as well as white necrosis and pus accumulation in the periosteum and soft tissue of the piriform aperture and the nasal bone. The patient underwent endoscopic dissection and drained as much as possible, and the abscess and surrounding normal nasal septal mucosa were sampled for diagnostic purposes. The patient was diagnosed with vasculitis based on the clinical findings, pathological examination results, and blood test results. After the diagnosis was confirmed, steroid and cyclophosphamide pulse administration was initiated, and the swelling of the anterior nasal septum and nasal dorsum and the bilateral dorsal indentation oedema improved markedly. The patient is now doing well and will continue to be carefully monitored in the outpatient clinic.
A Case of an Infantile Lingual Leiomyomatous Hamartoma
Lingual leiomyomatous hamartomas are rare lesions of the tongue with largely unknown mechanisms of formation. These lesions are often asymptomatic, though they may present with symptoms, particularly relating to swallow function. Workup should include imaging of the head and neck, and diagnosis should be made histologically. Treatment is surgical excision. This case is a report of a 4-week-old female who presented for evaluation of an asymptomatic 1 × 1 cm dorsal midline tongue mass discovered at birth. The patient was monitored until the age of 9 months, at which time the mass was surgically excised. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course. Pathological analysis yielded a diagnosis of leiomyomatous hamartoma.
Spotted Temporal Lobe Necrosis following Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy Using Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Background. To explore spotted temporal lobe necrosis (TLN) and changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Case presentation: a 57-year-old male was diagnosed with stage III NPC, cT1N2M0, in 2017. He underwent concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) with cisplatin (30 mg/m2) and 5- fluorouracil (5-FU, 500 mg/m2) plus IGRT with 70 Gy in 35 fractions for 7 weeks. The following MRI showed a complete response in the NPC. However, the patient suffered from fainting periodically when standing up approximately 3 years after CCRT. Neck sonography showed mild atherosclerosis (< 15%) of bilateral carotid bifurcations and bilateral small-diameter vertebral arteries, with reduced flow volume. The following MRI showed a 9 mm × 7 mm enhancing lesion in the right temporal lobe without locoregional recurrence, and TLN was diagnosed. The lesion was near the watershed area between the anterior temporal and temporo-occipital arteries. The volume of the necrotic lesion was 0.51 c.c., and the mean dose and Dmax of the lesion were 64.4 Gy and 73.7 Gy, respectively. Additionally, the mean dose, V45, D1 c.c. (dose to 1 ml of the temporal lobe volume), D0.5 c.c. and Dmax of the right and left temporal lobes were 11.1 Gy and 11.4 Gy, 8.5 c.c. and 6.7 c.c., 70.1 Gy and 67.1 Gy, 72.0 Gy and 68.8 Gy, and 74.2 Gy and 72.1 Gy, respectively. Conclusion. Spotted TLN in patients with NPC treated by IGRT may be difficult to diagnose due to a lack of clinical symptoms and radiological signs. Endothelial damage may occur in carotid and vertebral arteries within the irradiated area, affecting the small branches supplying the temporal lobe and inducing spotted TLN. Future research on the relationship between vessels and RT or CCRT and the development of TLN is warranted.
Clinical Controversy Surrounding the Differential Diagnosis of Branchiogenic Carcinoma
Clinical evaluation, differential diagnosis, and management of a neck mass constitute commonly encountered problems for the head and neck surgeon. An asymptomatic neck mass in adults may be the only clinical sign of head and neck cancer. A 50-year-old female patient presented with a painless, slowly enlarging, left lateral neck lump. Ultrasonography described a possible lymph node with cystic degeneration, and fine needle aspiration biopsy only detected atypical cells of squamous epithelium. An open biopsy under general anesthesia was performed. Histopathological findings suggested the diagnosis of lymph node infiltration by squamous cell carcinoma of an unknown primary site, but differential diagnosis also included branchiogenic carcinoma arising in a branchial cleft cyst. A diagnostic algorithm for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of an unknown primary site was followed, including positron emission tomography with computed tomography. The patient underwent panendoscopy and bilateral tonsillectomy, and an ipsilateral p16 positive tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma was detected. Further appropriate management followed. The existence of true branchiogenic carcinoma is controversial. When such a diagnosis is contemplated, every effort should be made to detect a possible primary site. Branchiogenic carcinoma, if exists at all, remains a diagnosis of exclusion.
Unusual Cause of Persistent Epistaxis with Severe Anemia in a Child
Epistaxis in children can be caused by different systemic and local pathologies. Respiratory infections, nasal mucosa dryness, and foreign bodies are some local causes of bleeding from the nose. In developing countries, infestations still contribute a significant proportion of anemia in children. But it is very unusual for leech-causing persistent epistaxis with a consequence of severe anemia. We herein report a rare cause of severe anemia in a 5-year-old child presented to our clinic for persistent epistaxis. A leech was taken out with forceps, and his anemia was treated accordingly.
Disturbed Pitch Perception during Antidepressant Therapy of a Combination of Lithium, Nortriptyline, and Oxazepam: A Rare Unexpected and Undesirable Side Effect for a Violinist
Disturbed pitch perception is a rare but well-known side effect of the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine and its derivates. A patient is presented who used three antidepressants because of depression. After recovering, the medication was continued, but as a violinist, the patient was told that his intonation was too low with the consequence that he was not allowed to participate in the orchestra where he had been for years. After phasing out the medications, his pitch perception returned to normal. This observation is unique as no other examples of this side effect are found in the literature in relation to antidepressants.