Efficacy of Arytenoidectomy after Suture Lateralisation Failure in Patients with Bilateral Vocal Cord ParalysisRead the full article
Case Reports in Otolaryngology publishes case reports and case series in all areas of otolaryngology, including head and neck surgery, facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, maxillofacial surgery, and pediatric otolaryngology.
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A Rare Case of Fungal Necrotising Otitis Externa Centred on the Left Temporomandibular Joint
Introduction. Necrotising otitis externa (NOE) is a rare life-threatening complication of simple otitis externa which can be difficult to diagnose and manage. It is very rarely centred on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Fungi cause NOE in approximately 5–20% of patients, and a high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis, particularly when there is no improvement with prolonged topical and intravenous antibiotic therapy. Objective. To report a novel case of fungal NOE centred on the left TMJ in an immunocompromised adult male with a focus on investigations and optimal management. Case Report. A 67-year-old male with comorbid chronic renal impairment presented to our otolaryngology department with prolonged left otalgia and otorrhoea. Subsequent cross-sectional imaging demonstrated left NOE centred on the TMJ. Poor resolution with prolonged courses of systemic and topical anti-pseudomonal antibiotics prompted maxillofacial surgical input for left TMJ exploration, washout, and biopsy from the joint capsule. The causative organism was identified as Aspergillus flavus on PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with oral posaconazole and repeated topical insertions of amphotericin B-soaked ribbon gauze to the left ear. Discussion. A combination of various imaging modalities including CT, MRI, Tc-99, and gallium-67 are utilised in clinical practice both to diagnose NOE and subsequently monitor disease progression or resolution. Immunocompromised patients with confirmed fungal NOE may require a combination of treatments including surgical debridement and prolonged antifungal therapy for a number of months, if not lifelong, treatment. Initiating empirical antifungal therapy may be justified in some patients. However, this should be judged on a case-by-case basis and guided by discussion with the local microbiology and infectious diseases departments. However, there is no national guideline or consensus regarding treatment of these patients, especially in cases of fungal NOE.
CO2 Laser Division of Neo-Vallecula Improves Dysphagia in the Postlaryngectomy Patient: A Case Series and Review of the Literature
Objectives. To review the literature on neo-vallecula diagnosis and management and to report our findings regarding 3 patients who developed neo-vallecula in the context of free-flap pharyngeal reconstruction following total laryngectomy. Methods. This case series reports three patients who developed a neo-vallecula following a laryngectomy and free-flap pharyngeal reconstruction. All three patients were treated with a CO2 laser endoscopic procedure. Results. Neo-vallecula formation is thought to be related to tension on the neopharyngeal closure or closure technique following total laryngectomy. Diagnosis may be obtained with swallow studies, videofluoroscopy, or endoscopy. Treatment has included external excision and endoscopic procedures such as stapling, harmonic scalpel excision, and laser removal. We utilized an endoscopic approach entailing the use of a CO2 laser to divide the neo-vallecula, and all our patients reported improvement in their dysphagia. Conclusions. Treatment of an anterior neo-vallecula endoscopically using a CO2 laser is an effective way to treat dysphagia in patients following total laryngectomy with free-flap pharyngeal reconstruction.
A Rare and Unexpected Reason for Unilateral Epistaxis: Nasal Septal Schwannoma
Nasal septal schwannoma is a rare tumor. It causes complaints such as nasal congestion, nosebleeds, and headaches. There are many diseases such as nasal polyps, antrochoanal polyp, chronic rhinosinusitis, concha bullosa, inverted papilloma, and retention cyst with schwannoma diagnosis. The diagnosis is made histopathologically, and the treatment is surgery. In this case report, we presented a male patient with septal schwannoma who had nasal obstruction for a year and reviewed the last 20 years of literature on nasal schwannoma.
Accidental Explantation of a Cochlear Implant in a Child Who Developed Cholesteatoma as a Late Complication of Cochlear Implantation
Introduction. Although rare, cholesteatoma can develop as a late complication of cochlear implantation. The electrode array may then be exposed in the external auditory canal surrounded by cholesteatoma debris. Case Report. The cochlear implant of a child was inadvertently explanted by a clinician during a routine aural toilet procedure. The child had previously reported recurrent ear infections, pain, and unexplained implant function degradation. Reimplantation was carried out 2 days later with good postoperative hearing results. Part of the electrode array was observed to be embedded in cholesteatoma. Postreimplantation recovery was complicated by a breakdown of the blind-sac. Discussion. Clinical indicators that could alert the clinician to the possibility of this late complication include recurrent infections, presence of keratotic debris in the external auditory canal, unexplained implant function degradation, and nonauditory stimulation. Although this patient managed to achieve excellent postreimplantation hearing outcomes, a delay in reimplantation surgery following explantation could possibly compromise successful reinsertion of the electrode array. External ear canal overclosure without mastoid cavity obliteration has merit in facilitating CT scan surveillance, but it may increase the risk of the blind-sac breaking down. This case also illustrated how the electrode array could have facilitated propagation of the cholesteatoma from the middle ear to the mastoid. Conclusion. If aural toilet is required in the implanted ear of a cochlear implant recipient, any complaint of hearing change, pain, or discharge should alert the clinician of the possibility of cholesteatoma developing. It warrants prompt evaluation by an experienced otologist in order to prevent accidental explantation. Keywords. Cochlear implant, cochlear implant complications, chronic suppurative otitis media, cholesteatoma, reimplantation, blind-sac, external auditory canal overclosure, mastoid cavity obliteration.
Bilateral Traumatic Facial Paralysis with Hearing Impairment and Abducens Palsy
The temporal bone is often affected in basilar skull fractures. Fractures involving the petrous portion are particularly significant, as they may be associated with neurovascular sequelae. Bilateral facial paralysis secondary to bilateral temporal bone fracture is a rare clinical entity, even more so when associated with other cranial nerve damage such as abducens nerve paralysis and hearing impairment. Only 4 similar cases have been reported in the literature to date. In this paper, we describe a 28-year-old male patient with bilateral facial paralysis, unilateral abducens palsy, and bilateral hearing loss due to bitemporal fractures that developed after a motor vehicle accident. Conservative management was preferred. The 6-month follow-up showed remarkable improvement. This report highlights the effectiveness of conservative management in posttraumatic complete facial and abducens palsy.
Abducens Nerve Paralysis Induced by a Primary Solitary Sphenoid Sinus Mucocele with Broad Osseous Thinning at the Cranial Base
Primary solitary sphenoid sinus mucocele is rare, generally presenting with headaches or eye symptoms at the anatomical site. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman incidentally diagnosed with sphenoid sinus mucocele during a complete medical checkup. Imaging revealed that the cystic wall had developed from the rear sphenoid sinus and had spread expansively to diminish the clivus; however, no symptoms were reported, and the patient was managed with close observation. During the follow-up period, diplopia developed suddenly due to isolated left-sided abducens nerve paralysis. An endoscopic endonasal approach was used to open the frontal cystic wall, and fascia lata and fat were used for cranial base reinforcement to avoid future cerebrospinal fluid leakage, resulting in improvement during the early stages of follow-up. Treatment options for sphenoid sinus mucoceles include close observation or surgery. In our case, we chose surgery because of an acute symptomatic manifestation during observation.