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Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2011, Article ID 541467, 8 pages
Research Article

The Association of the Metabolic Syndrome with PAI-1 and t-PA Levels

1Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
2Division of Heart and Lungs, Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
3Charles E. Schmidt College of Biomedical Science, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA
4Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
5Clinical Affairs and Medical Communications, ConvaTec, Inc., Skillman, NJ 08558, USA
6Departments of Genetics and Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
7Department of Experimental Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands

Received 16 September 2010; Revised 12 January 2011; Accepted 9 February 2011

Academic Editor: Ken Ichi Aihara

Copyright © 2011 Christopher S. Coffey et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. We used a random sample ( 𝑛 = 2 , 4 9 5 ) from the population-based Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease (PREVEND) study population to examine the association of the metabolic syndrome (Met S) with plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen levels. Results. The overall prevalence of the Met S was 18%, was dependent on age and gender, and was positively associated with higher antigen levels of both PAI-1 and t-PA. These significant effects were maintained after adjustment for age, gender, BMI, elevated C-reactive protein, smoking status, urinary albumin excretion, and insulin levels. We found no significant interactions between the Met S and other covariates on PAI-1 and t-PA levels. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates that those with the Met S have significantly higher levels of PAI-1 and t-PA antigen, factors known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.