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Disease Markers
Volume 2016, Article ID 4517492, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4517492
Review Article

From Normal Skin to Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Quest for Novel Biomarkers

1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Elias Emergency University Hospital, Bucharest, Romania
2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
3Dermatology Research Laboratory, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, “Carol Davila” Central Military Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania
5Department of Physiology, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
6Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University, Sofia, Bulgaria

Received 7 April 2016; Accepted 25 July 2016

Academic Editor: Simone Ribero

Copyright © 2016 Vlad Voiculescu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Squamous cells carcinoma (SCC) is the second most frequent of the keratinocyte-derived malignancies after basal cell carcinoma and is associated with a significant psychosocial and economic burden for both the patient himself and society. Reported risk factors for the malignant transformation of keratinocytes and development of SCC include ultraviolet light exposure, followed by chronic scarring and inflammation, exposure to chemical compounds (arsenic, insecticides, and pesticides), and immune-suppression. Despite various available treatment methods and recent advances in noninvasive or minimal invasive diagnostic techniques, the risk recurrence and metastasis are far from being negligible, even in patients with negative histological margins and lymph nodes. Analyzing normal, dysplastic, and malignant keratinocyte proteome holds special promise for novel biomarker discovery in SCC that could be used in the future for early detection, risk assessment, tumor monitoring, and development of targeted therapeutic strategies.