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Disease Markers
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 9895721, 7 pages
Research Article

Expressions of Matrix Metalloproteinases 2, 7, and 9 in Carcinogenesis of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

1Department of Pathomorphology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, 15-027 Białystok, Poland
2Department of General Pathomorphology, Medical University of Białystok, 15-269 Białystok, Poland
3Department of Reproduction and Gynecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Białystok, 15-276 Białystok, Poland
4Department of Rehabilitation, Medical University of Białystok, 15-276 Białystok, Poland
52nd Department of General and Gastroenterological Surgery, Medical University of Białystok, 15-276 Białystok, Poland

Received 22 March 2016; Revised 13 May 2016; Accepted 31 May 2016

Academic Editor: Massimiliano Castellazzi

Copyright © 2016 Katarzyna Jakubowska et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly fatal disease, usually diagnosed in an advanced stage which gives a slight chance of recovery. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that participate in tissue remodeling and stimulate neovascularization and inflammatory response. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 in normal ducts, tumor pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells, and peritumoral stroma in correlation with clinicohistopathological parameters. The study material was obtained from 29 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The expressions of MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 were performed by immunohistochemical technique. Microvessel density (MVD) was visualized by special immunostaining. The expressions of MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 were mainly observed in tumor cells and peritumoral stroma. MMP-2 expression in cancer cells was correlated with female gender, stronger inflammation, and histopathological type of cancer (, ; , ; , , resp.). The expression of MMP-7 in tumor cells was found to positively correlate with the presence of necrosis and negatively correlate with MVD (, ; , ). We also showed that positive MMP-9 expression in tumor cells was associated with MVD (, ); however, it was not statistically significant. Our results demonstrate that MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 expressions correlate with various morphological features of the PDAC tumor such as inflammation, necrosis, and formation of the new blood vessels.