Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2014 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2014 |Article ID 108037 | 31 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/108037

A Comparative Analysis of Ethnomedicinal Practices for Treating Gastrointestinal Disorders Used by Communities Living in Three National Parks (Korea)

Academic Editor: Rainer W. Bussmann
Received03 Mar 2014
Accepted16 May 2014
Published17 Aug 2014

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to comparatively analyze the ethnomedicinal practices on gastrointestinal disorders within communities in Jirisan National Park, Gayasan National Park, and Hallasan National Park of Korea. Data was collected through participant observations and indepth interviews with semistructured questionnaires. Methods for comparative analysis were accomplished using the informant consensus factor, fidelity level, and internetwork analysis. A total of 490 ethnomedicinal practices recorded from the communities were classified into 110 families, 176 genera, and 220 species that included plants, animals, fungi, and alga. The informant consensus factor values in the disorder categories were enteritis, and gastralgia (1.0), followed by indigestion (0.94), constipation (0.93), and abdominal pain and gastroenteric trouble (0.92). In terms of fidelity levels, 71 plant species showed fidelity levels of 100%. The internetwork analysis between disorders and all medicinal species are grouped in the center by the four categories of indigestion, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and gastroenteric trouble, respectively. Regarding the research method of this study, the comparative analysis methods will contribute to the availability of orally transmitted ethnomedicinal knowledge. Among the methods of analysis, the use of internetwork analysis as a tool for analysis in this study provides imperative internetwork maps between gastrointestinal disorders and medicinal species.

1. Introduction

After the agreement of the Nagoya Protocol, which has highlighted the importance of traditional knowledge of local communities, interest has grown stronger regarding ethnomedicinal knowledge in the world [1]. Ethnomedicinal knowledge plays an extremely vital role in the health care systems of developing countries and is utilized as an alternative for the treatment of disorders without side effects in developed countries [2]. Investigations regarding ethnomedicinal knowledge in local communities have often been conducted to the indigenous communities of Asia, Africa, and South America.

At present, studies on the ethnomedicinal practices of local communities to treat specific disorders have been accomplished, including liver disease [3, 4], birth-related diseases [5, 6], uremia [7], diabetes [8], psychiatric disorders [9], ophthalmology [10], skin disorders [11], stomach issues [11], veterinary medicine [12, 13], and other health conditions. However, research using INA on the ethnomedicinal practices to treat gastrointestinal disorders within local communities has yet to be accomplished.

Investigations for the ethnomedicinal practices of local communities to treat specific disorders in Korea have included respiratory diseases [14], digestive system disorders [15], and pain relief [16] for communities in North Jeolla Province.

National parks in Korea are areas designated to protect the representative ecosystem and the natural/cultural sceneries by the Ministry of Environment and are defined as natural areas of both land and sea. National parks are managed directly by the government and their purpose is to combine both a conservation and a sustainable use of the natural resources within the parks.

Designated as the first national park in 1967, Jirisan National Park spreads across one city and four counties and lies within three provinces. The total area of Jirisan National Park is 485 km2, which makes it the largest mountainous national park in Korea.

Hallasan National Park is located at the heart of Jeju Island, the largest and most beautiful island in Korea. Its total area is 1,849.18 km2 and is located at the southernmost tip of the nation.

Located in the deep inlands of southeastern Korea, Gayasan National Park spreads across one city and four counties and is located within two provinces. The total area of the park is 76.256 km2 and is known as the sacred site of Buddhism.

Accordingly, this research is the first attempt for comparing and analyzing ethnomedicinal practices to treat gastrointestinal disorders of communities in three national parks in Korea. However, up until now, a quantitative analysis for ethnomedicinal knowledge of local communities has relied solely on the consensus of its informants [17, 18] and the recorded fidelity levels [1921].

These methods have limitations on the sufficient interpretation of ethnomedicinal knowledge as a complicated knowledge system embedded within the traditional ethnographical properties. Therefore, a deeper analysis of ethnomedicinal practices in treating specific disorders within the local communities is necessary for obtaining more specific details regarding the internetwork analysis (INA) between disorders and medicinal species.

This research suggests that the applications gained from utilizing the comparative INA for ethnomedicinal practices on gastrointestinal disorders within communities in three national parks will result in further research incorporating INA. The three study areas included in this study are Jirisan National Park (JNP), Gayasan National Park (GNP), and Hallasan National Park (HNP). These regions are included as typical inland and island areas of the southern region in Korea. Among the three national parks, the ethnomedicinal practices of the communities living within HNP were investigated in regard to both medicinal plants [22] and medicinal animals [23].

The results of this study can be utilized to develop functional foods, pharmafoods, and new ethnomedicinal practices for gastrointestinal disorders in these communities and other regions within Korea.

2. Research Area and Method

2.1. Natural and Social Environments of Research Area

The study area consists of the southern region of the Korean peninsula and its many islands, which lie between 33° 06′N to 36° 09′N latitude and 125° 58′E to 128° 18′E longitude (Figure 1). The total population in 2012 of the study area was 1,161,002. The area measures approximately 2,410,434 km2 and includes five provinces, four cities, and eight counties in its administrative district [24]. The annual precipitation is around 1,200~2,300 mm in which the coastal area generally receives more rainfall than the inland regions. The annual average temperature of the inland regions is 13°C, while Jeju Island records 16.2°C [25]. The natural and social environments of the three national parks are summarized in Table 1.


EnvironmentJNPGNPHNP

Location35°13′N~33°27′N 
127°27′E~127°49′E
35°45′N~35°49′N 
128°02′E~128°09′E
33°06′N~34°00′N 
126°08′E~126°58′E
Administrative districtThree provinces, one city, and four countiesTwo provinces, one city, and four countiesOne province and two cities
Population (no.)241,784335,934583,284
Area485 km276.256 km21,849.18 km2
Annual precipitation1,200~1,600 mm1,200~1,600 mm1,584~2,393 mm
Annual average temperature12°C~14°C11°C~13.2°C15.6~16.9°C
Geographical characteristicsThe center of the southern region of KoreaThe southern region of KoreaThe largest volcanic island in Korea
Climatic zone of vegetationBetween a warm temperate zone and a subarctic zoneBetween a warm temperature zone to an alpine or arctic zone

*JNP: Jirisan National Park, GNP: Gayasan National Park, HNP: Hallasan National Park.
2.2. Investigative Method

Field investigations were conducted from March 2009 to November 2012. Proper data was collected using participant observations and indepth interviews, as the informants also became investigators themselves through attending informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observations with semistructured questionnaires [21, 26].

The content of the semistructured questionnaires was composed of diverse information regarding medicinal species used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, including local names, used parts, methods of preparation, manufacturing and administration, dosage, and the usable duration regarding each curable formula [21, 27, 28].

All specimens were collected during their flowering or fruiting seasons and were organized utilizing the normal specimen manufacturing method [20, 27]. The voucher specimens were deposited for preservation in the herbarium of Jeonju University. The precise identification of species mentioned by the informants was performed in accordance with Lee [29], Lee [30], Ahn [31], Lee [32], and Park [33]. Scientific names were confirmed by the National Knowledge and Information System for Biological Species of Korea [34].

2.3. Quantitative Analysis
2.3.1. Informant Consensus Factor (ICF)

The ICF was used to analyze the agreement degree of the informants’ knowledge about each category of disorders [17, 18]. The ICF was calculated using the following formula: where is the number of use reports of informants for a particular gastrointestinal disorder and is the number of species used by all informants for a particular gastrointestinal disorder.

2.3.2. Fidelity Level (FL)

The FL was employed to determine the most important species used for treating certain gastrointestinal disorders by the local practitioners and the elderly people living in the study area [1921]. The FL was calculated using the following formula: where is the number of informants that mentioned the specific species used to treat certain disorders and is the total number of the informants who utilized the species as medicine for treating any given disorder.

2.3.3. Internetwork Analysis (INA)

Internetwork analysis does not focus on the independent characteristics of an individual within the community but considers the results of the interrelationship among each individual of a community. INA has been applied within communities for various ethnographical problems, including ethnogenesis [35] and obesity [3638]. However, the INA had yet to be applied to ethnomedicinal knowledge, although it has been included in relation to its ethnographical properties.

Our research has newly applied this method in order to attain more internetwork information from the treatment of ethnomedicinal practices on gastrointestinal disorders within communities in Korea. The results of the INA of disorders and medicinal species were analyzed using UCINET (Ver. 6.460) and NetDraw (Ver. 2.125) software programs [39, 40].

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Ethnographic Characteristics of the Region

The ethnomedicinal practices for gastrointestinal disorders were recorded by 507 informants (133 men and 374 women) at 185 sites (Figure 1). The average age of the informants was 76 years, with a range in age from 43 to 95, with residents living more than 30 years in the study area. The ethnographical characteristics of the communities are summarized in Table 2.


CharacteristicsJNPGNPHNP

Gender
 Male67 (34.9%)36 (15.6%)31 (36.5%)
 Female125 (65.1%)195 (84.4%)54 (63.5%)
Average age72.9 (44~95)76.8 (52~93)78.4 (43~94)
Educational attainment
 Never attended school138 (71.9%)165 (71.4%)62 (72.9%)
 Attended school54 (28.1%)66 (28.6%)23 (27.1%)
Linguistics The pronunciation between the eastern and western communities on the Jirisan axis depicts dissimilar intonations.Numerous dialects  
different from the inland communities.
Food The local communities in the eastern region of Jirisan widely used the seed powder of Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC. and the leaves of the Isodon japonicus (Burm.) Hara, while local communities in the western region did not consume these foods.Quite diverse from foods of the inland communities in regard to the recipe and ingredients.
Home economy Men usually support their families financially.Women traditionally support their families.

3.2. Analysis of Ethnomedicinal Practices

24 types of gastrointestinal disorders were treated by ethnomedicinal practices, which included abdominal pain, acute gastroenteritis, constipation, and other conditions (Table 3). The 24 types recorded in this study were similar to previous research, which classified 14 types of respiratory system diseases, 29 types of digestive system diseases, and 23 types of pain relief treatments [14, 16, 21]. Among them, 20 types of disorders were recorded in the communities living within JNP, followed by the 16 types of disorders within HNP, and the 11 types of disorders in GNP (Table 4).


DisordersClassificationFamily nameScientific name *Abbreviation **RegionKorean nameUsed partPreparationFL

AnimalAnguillidaeAnguilla japonica Temminck and SchlegelA6JNPBaemjangeoWhole partSimmer50.00
ApidaeApis cerana FabriciusA7JNPJaeraekkulbeolHoneyRaw3.45
BombycidaeBombyx mori L.A12GNP, JNPNuenabangLarva, PupaDecoction and panbroiled100.00
ColumbidaeStreptopelia orientalis LathamA60GNPMetbidulgiMeatSimmer33.33
CongridaeConger myriaster BrevoortA18HNPBungjangeoGallbladderRaw100.00
OsmeridaePlecoglossus altivelis Temminck and SchlegelA45JNPEuneoWhole partSimmer100.00
PercichthyidaeLateolabrax japonicus Cuvier and ValenciennesA30HNPNongeoGallbladderDried, dissolution, powder, and raw85.71
PhasianidaeGallus gallus domesticus L.A25GNP, JNPDakWhole partInfusion23.38
SuidaeSus scrofa L.A62HNPDwaejiGallbladderRaw and maceration40.00
FungiGanodermataceaeGanoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. KarstF2GNPYeongjiWhole partBoiling22.22
PleurotaceaeLentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing.F3JNPPyogoWhole partPorridge100.00
PolyporaceaeFomes fomentarius (L.) Fr.F1JNPMalgupbeoseotWhole partDecoction33.33
ActinidiaceaeActinidia arguta (Siebold and Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq.P4GNPDaraeStemInfusion66.67
AnacardiaceaeRhus javanica L.P106JNPBungnamuGallnutDecoction100.00
Rhus verniciflua StokesP107JNPOnnamuBark, stemInfusion11.43
AraliaceaeAralia cordata var. continentalis (Kitag.) Y.C.ChuP14GNPDokhwalRootInfusion30.00
Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus (Rupr. and Maxim.) S.Y.HuP42JNPOgalpinamuStemDecoction and infusion100.00
AsteraceaeArtemisia princeps Pamp.P17GNP, HNP, JNPSsukAerial part, leaf, whole part, Young leafInfusion, juice, and tea51.13
Cirsium japonicum var. maackii (Maxim.) Matsum.P28GNPEonggeongkwiRootJuice40.00
Zinnia violacea Cav.P141JNPBaegilhongStemInfusion100.00
BrassicaceaeRaphanus sativus L.P102JNPMuRootBoiling and dried100.00
CampanulaceaePlatycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A.DC.P86GNPDorajiRootInfusion100.00
EuphorbiaceaeRicinus communis L.P109HNPPimajaSeedOil1.10
FabaceaeGlycine max (L.) Merr.P50JNPKongSeedFermentation and dissolution15.29
Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.P51GNPGamchoRootInfusion46.15
Pueraria lobata (Willd.) OhwiP97GNPChikFlower, rootDried, decoction, grain syrup, and infusion25.76
Sophora flavescens Solander ex AitonP122GNPGosamRootMaceration6.25
Abdominal painGentianaceaeGentiana scabra BungeP47GNPYongdamRootA sweet drink made from fermented rice and infusion96.00
GeraniaceaeGeranium sibiricum L.P48JNPJwisonipulWhole partDecoction100.00
Geranium thunbergii Siebold and Zucc.P49GNP, HNPIjilpulLeaf, whole partDecoction and infusion76.92
JuglandaceaeJuglans mandshurica Maxim.P58JNPGaraenamuFruitRaw100.00
Platycarya strobilacea Siebold and Zucc.P85GNPGulpinamuStemInfusion100.00
LamiaceaeLeonurus japonicus Houtt.P61GNP, HNP, JNPIngmochoAerial partDecoction, infusion, juice, pill, and taffy88.71
Mentha piperascens (Malinv.) HolmesP69HNPBakhaLeafJuice100.00
Perilla frutescens var. japonica (Hassk.) HaraP77GNPDeulkkaeSeedMixed in honey63.64
PlantSalvia plebeia R.Br.P114GNPBaeamchajeugiWhole partInfusion50.00
LardizabalaceaeAkebia quinata (Houtt.) Decne.P8GNPEureumdeonggulStemInfusion85.71
LiliaceaeAllium scorodorprasum var. viviparum RegelP11HNPManeulBulbJuice42.86
MeliaceaeMelia azedarach L.P68HNPMeolguseulnamuFruitDecoction47.37
PapaveraceaePapaver somniferum L.P74GNP, JNPYanggwibiFruit, leaf, stem, whole partBrewing, decoction, dissolution, dried, grain syrup, infusion, maceration, and raw82.54
PhytolaccaceaePhytolacca esculenta VanHoutteP80GNPJarigongRootInfusion29.41
PlantaginaceaePlantago asiatica L.P84GNPJilgyeongiRootJuice6.90
PoaceaeHordeum vulgare var. hexastichon (L.) Asch.P54GNPBoriMalt, seedDissolution and steep5.52
Oryza sativa L.P72JNPByeoSeedPorridge42.86
Oryza sativa var. terrestris MakinoP73HNPSanduSeedPorridge15.38
Triticum aestivum L.P129HNPMilSeedPill3.85
Zea mays L.P139GNPOksusuStyleInfusion100.00
PunicaceaePunica granatum L.P99GNP, HNPSeongnyunamuFruitExtraction, infusion, and raw50.00
RanunculaceaePulsatilla koreana (Yabe ex Nakai) Nakai ex NakaiP98GNPHalmikkotRootA sweet drink made from fermented rice, grain syrup, and infusion44.78
RosaceaePrunus davidiana (Carriere) Franch.P93GNPSanboksanamuFruitExtraction100.00
Prunus mume Siebold and Zucc.P94GNP, JNPMaesillamuFruitExtraction40.30
Sanguisorba officinalis L.P115HNPOipulRootDecoction22.22
RubiaceaeGardenia jasminoides EllisP45JNPChijanamuFruitDecoction100.00
RutaceaePhellodendron amurense Rupr.P79HNPHwangbyeongnamuBarkBrewing and decoction7.69
Zanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold and Zucc.P138GNPSanchonamuFruitOil21.43
SchisandraceaeSchisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.P117GNPOmijaStemInfusion66.67
SolanaceaeSolanum nigrum L.P121GNPKkamajungAerial partInfusion11.76
TheaceaeCamellia japonica L.P21HNPDongbaengnamuFruitOil40.00
VitaceaeVitis coignetiae Pulliat ex Planch.P135GNPMeoruStemInfusion100.00

AnimalParalichthyidaeParalichthys olivaceus Temminck and SchlegelA41HNPNeopchiGallbladderDried100.00
PercichthyidaeLateolabrax japonicus Cuvier and ValenciennesA30HNPNongeoGallbladderDried14.29
SuidaeSus scrofa L.A62HNPDwaejiGallbladderDried20.00
CucurbitaceaeCucumis sativus L.P35JNPOiLeafRaw100.00
FabaceaeGlycine max (L.) Merr.P50JNPKongSeedFermentation and dissolution8.24
Acute gastroenteritisJuglandaceaeJuglans regia DodeP59JNPHodunamuNutRoast100.00
LiliaceaeAllium scorodoprasum var. viviparum RegelP11JNPManeulBulbRoast35.71
PlantMenispermaceaeCocculus trilobus (Thunb.) DC.P34JNPDaengdaengideonggulStemInfusion12.20
PlantaginaceaePlantago asiatica L.P84JNPJilgyeongiRootJuice13.79
PunicaceaePunica granatum L.P99JNPSeongnyunamuFruitBrewing, juice, and raw50.00
RanunculaceaeAconitum pseudolaeve NakaiP3JNPJinbeomLeaf, rootDecoction100.00

GryllotalpidaeGryllotalpa orientalis BurmeisterA28JNPTtanggangajiWhole partPowder83.33
MantidaeTenodera angustipennis SaussureA64JNPSamagwiEgg sacDecoction50.00
AnimalTenodera aridifolia StollA65JNPWangsamagwiEgg sacDecoction50.00
VespidaeVespa analis parallela AndreA67JNPJommalbeol Hive, imago, larvaBrewing81.82
Vespa crabro flavofasciata CameronA68JNPMalbeol Hive, imago, larvaBrewing87.10
Vespa simillimasimillima SmithA70JNPTeolbomalbeol Hive, imago, larvaBrewing81.82
FungiPolyporaceaeFomes fomentarius (L.: Fr.) Fr.F1JNPMalgupbeoseotWhole partDecoction33.33
AsteraceaeAinsliaea acerifolia Sch.Bip.P7JNPDanpungchwiLeafSeasoned cooked vegetables100.00
BoraginaceaeLithospermum erythrorhizon Siebold and Zucc.P63JNPJichiRootPowder11.11
ConstipationCactaceaeOpuntia ficus-indica var. saboten MakinoP71HNPSonbadakseoninjangStemRaw33.33
EbenaceaeDiospyros kaki Thunb.P41JNPGamnamuFruitFermentation2.40
EuphorbiaceaeRicinus communis L.P109GNP, HNPPimajaFruit, seedOil and panfried43.53
LiliaceaePolygonatum odoratum var. pluriflorum (Miq.) OhwiP87JNPDunggulleRootTea40.00
PlantSmilax china L.P120JNPCheongmiraedeonggulFruitBrewing100.00
MeliaceaeMelia azedarach L.P68HNPMeolguseulnamuRootDecoction21.05
PhytolaccaceaePhytolacca esculenta VanHoutteP80GNPJarigongRootRaw35.29
RosaceaePrunus tomentosa Thunb.P95JNPAengdonamuFruitBrewing100.00
RutaceaeZanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold and Zucc.P138GNPSanchonamuFruitOil14.29
SaururaceaeSaururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill.P116JNPSambaekchoLeafDecoction50.00
TheaceaeCamellia japonica L.P21HNPDongbaengnamuFruitOil40.00

Deficiency of intestinal functionApidaeApis mellifera L.A8JNPYangbongkkulbeolHoneyRaw10.00
AnimalVespidaeVespa analis parallela Andre A67JNPJommalbeol Hive, larvaDecoction and infusion18.18
Vespa crabro flavofasciata CameronA68JNPMalbeol Hive, larvaDecoction and infusion12.90
Vespa simillima simillima SmithA70JNPTeolbomalbeol HiveDecoction and infusion18.18
PlantAsteraceaeArtemisia princeps Pamp.P17JNPSsukLeafTea0.32

AcrididaeAnapodisma beybienkoi Rentz and MillerA5JNPPalgongsanmitdeurimettugiWhole partPanbroiled and powder100.00
Arcyptera coreana ShirakiA9JNPChameorisapsariWhole partPanbroiled and powder100.00
Chorthippus nakazimai FurukawaA17JNPSuyeomchireaemettugiWhole partPanbroiled and powder100.00
Gastrimargus marmoratus ThunbergA26JNPKongjungiWhole partPanbroiled and powder100.00
Locusta migratoria L.A32JNPPulmuchiWhole partPanbroiled and powder100.00
Megaulacobothrus aethalinus ZubowskyA34JNPCheongnalgaeaemettugiWhole partPanbroiled and powder100.00
Mongolotettix japonicus BolivarA36JNPSapsariWhole partPanbroiled and powder100.00
Ognevia longipennis ShirakiA38JNPGinnalgaemitdeurimettugiWhole partPanbroiled and powder100.00
Ognevia sergii Ikonnikovi Rehn and RehniA39JNPWonsanmitdeurimettugiWhole partPanbroiled and powder100.00
Oxya japonica japonica ThunbergA40JNPByeomettugiWhole partPanbroiled and powder100.00
Patanga japonica BolivarA43JNPGaksimettugiWhole partPanbroiled and powder100.00
AnimalShirakiacris shirakii BolivarA58JNPDeunggeomeunmettugiWhole partPanbroiled and powder100.00
Stethophyma magister RehnA59JNPKkeutgeomeunmettugiWhole partPanbroiled and powder100.00
GryllidaeTeleogryllus emma Ohmachi and MatsumuraA63JNPWanggwitturamiWhole partPowder100.00
MegascolecidaeLumbricus rubellus HoffmeisterA33JNPJireongiWhole partSimmer100.00
PhasianidaeGallus gallus domesticus L.A25GNPDakEggInfusion6.49
PyrgomorphidaeAtractomorpha lata MotschulskyA10JNPSeomseogumettugiWhole partPanbroiled and powder100.00
RanidaeRana coreana OkadaA48JNPHanguksangaeguriWhole partSimmer100.00
Rana huanrenensis Fei, Ye, and HuangA49JNPGyegoksangaeguriWhole partSimmer100.00
Rana nigromaculata OkadaA50JNPChamgaeguriWhole partSimmer100.00
Rana temporaria dybowskii ShannonA51JNPBukbangsangaeguriWhole partSimmer100.00
SuidaeSus scrofa L.A62JNPDwaejiHideInfusion10.00
DiarrheaTubificidaeLimnodrilus gotoi HataiA31JNPSiljireongiWhole partSimmer100.00
VespidaeVespa mandarinia CameronA69JNPJangsumalbeol Hive, imago, and larvaDecoction100.00
FungiRamariaceaeRamaria botrytis (Pers.) RickenF4GNPSsaribeoseotWhole partInfusion100.00
AnacardiaceaeRhus verniciflua StokesP107GNPOnnamuStemBurn, dissolution, powder,2.86
AraceaePinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breitenb.P81JNPBanhaCormDecoction50.00
AsteraceaeArtemisia princeps Pamp.P17GNP, HNP, JNPSsukAerial part, leaf, stem, root, and whole partDecoction, extraction, infusion, juice, and moxibustion20.90
Taraxacum platycarpum Dahlst.P125JNPMindeulleWhole partJuice14.29
DioscoreaceaeDioscorea batatas Decne.P39HNPMaRootInfusion, raw6.67
EbenaceaeDiospyros kaki Thunb.P41GNP, HNP, JNPGamnamuFruit and peduncleDecoction, dried persimmon, infusion, and raw30.40
GeraniaceaeGeranium thunbergii Siebold and Zucc.P49HNPIjilpulWhole partDecoction15.38
LamiaceaeLeonurus japonicus Houtt.P61JNPIngmochoAerial partInfusion3.23
LiliaceaeAllium fistulosum L.P9JNPPaRootInfusion100.00
Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng.P12JNPBuchuWhole partInfusion100.00
MalvaceaeHibiscus hamabo Siebold and Zucc.P53HNPHwanggeunRootDecoction100.00
PapaveraceaePapaver somniferum L.P74GNP, JNPYanggwibiFruit, stem, and whole partDecoction and dissolution16.67
PlantPinaceaePinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc.P82JNPSonamuEndodermisInfusion100.00
PlantaginaceaePlantago asiatica L.P84HNPJilgyeongiWhole partDecoction6.90
PoaceaeOryza sativa var. terrestis MakinoP73HNPSanduSeedPorridge76.92
Triticum aestivum L.P129JNPMilSeeddissolution7.69
PolygonaceaeRheum rhabarbarum L.P104HNPDaehwangRootDecoction100.00
Rumex acetosa L.P113HNPSuyeongRootDecoction100.00
PortulacaceaePortulaca oleracea L.P90GNPSoebireumAerial partSeasoned cooked vegetables, seasoned with condiments100.00
RanunculaceaeClematis trichotoma NakaiP33JNPHalmimilmangRootDecoction100.00
Thalictrum aquilegifolium var. sibiricum Regel and TilingP126JNPKkwonguidariLeaf and stemDecoction50.00
RutaceaeZanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold and Zucc.P138GNPSanchonamuFruitOil17.86
ViolaceaeViola mandshurica W. BeckerP131JNPJebikkotWhole partDecoction100.00

AnimalPhasianidaeGallus gallus domesticus L.A25GNPDakEggInfusion5.19
AsteraceaeArtemisia princeps Pamp.P17GNP, HNPSsukAerial part, leaf, and whole partInfusion, juice, and moxibustion6.11
FabaceaeGlycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.P51JNPGamchoRootDecoction and tea15.38
Pueraria lobata (Willd.) OhwiP97JNPChikRootDecoction0.76
DysenteryPlantGeraniaceaeGeranium thunbergii Siebold and Zucc.P49JNPIjilpulLeafDecoction7.69
PolygonaceaeRheum rhabarbarum L.P104JNPDaehwangRootDecoction and tea100.00
RosaceaeSanguisorba officinalis L.P115GNPOipulWhole partInfusion66.67
ViolaceaeViola verecunda A. GrayP132GNPKongjebikkotLeafSeasoned cooked vegetables100.00

EnteritisPlantRanunculaceae Thalictrum aquilegifolium var. sibiricum Regel and TilingP126JNPKkwonguidariLeaf, stemDecoction50.00

EnterotoxinPlantCampanulaceaeAdenophora triphylla var. japonica (Regel) H. HaraP6HNPJandaeRootWarm up in a double boiler100.00
CucurbitaceaeCucurbita moschata DuchesneP36HNPHobakFruitWarm up in a double boiler9.09

GastralgiaPlantAsteraceaeArtemisia princeps Pamp.P17HNPSsukYoung leafJuice1.61

FormicidaeFormica yessensis ForelA24JNPBulgaemiWhole partDecoction100.00
HominidaeHomo sapiens L.A29JNPSaramBoneBurn, pill, and powder100.00
AnimalMuridaeRattus norvegicus BerkenhoutA52JNPJipjwiYoung ratFermentation100.00
PhasianidaeGallus gallus domesticus L.A25JNPDakWhole partDecoction1.30
ScolopendridaeScolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. KochA54JNPJineWhole partDecoction100.00
Gastric cancerFungiTricholomataceaeTricholoma matsutake (S. Ito. and Imai) Sing.F6JNPSongiWhole partInfusion100.00
PlantAsteraceaeAtractylodes ovata (Thunb.) DC.P19JNPSapjuRootDecoction1.52
FabaceaeGlycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.P51JNPGamchoRootDecoction and roast7.69
PoaceaeHordeum vulgare var. hexastichon (L.) Asch.P54JNPBoriSeedDecoction and roast0.69
RutaceaeCitrus unshiu S. Marcov.P30JNPGyulPericarpDecoction50.00
Poncirus trifoliata Raf.P88JNPTaengjanamuFruitDecoction33.33
UlmaceaeUlmus davidiana var. japonica (Rehder) NakaiP130HNP, JNPNeureumnamuRhizodermis and root barkDecoction3.09

Gastric ulcer PlantAsteraceaeAtractylodes ovata (Thunb.) DC.P19JNPSapjuRootDecoction1.52
PoaceaeHordeum vulgare var. hexastichon (L.) Asch.P54GNP, JNPBoriMalt, seedA sweet drink made from fermented rice, powder, roast, and steam2.07
UlmaceaeUlmus davidiana var. japonica (Rehder) NakaiP130GNP, JNPNeureumnamuBarkA sweet drink made from fermented rice, decoction, infusion, and tea11.73

AnacardiaceaeRhus verniciflua StokesP107GNPOnnamuBarkSimmer2.86
AsteraceaeAtractylodes ovata (Thunb.) DC.P19GNPSapjuRootA sweet drink made from fermented rice and powder6.06
EricaceaeRhododendron mucronulatum Turcz. var. mucronulatum P105JNPJindallaeFlowerPanfried66.67
PoaceaeHordeum vulgare var. hexastichon (L.) Asch.P54GNPBoriMalt, seedA sweet drink made from fermented rice1.38
GastritisPlantRanunculaceaeClematis terniflora var. mandshurica (Rupr.) OhwiP32HNPEuariRootTaffy57.14
RosaceaeRosa multiflora Thunb. var. multiflora P111JNPJjillekkotFlower, fruitDecoction, panfried87.50
RutaceaeCitrus unshiu S. Marcov.P30JNPGyulPericarpDecoction25.00
Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC.P137GNPChopinamuFruitOil57.15
UlmaceaeUlmus davidiana var. japonica (Rehder) NakaiP130GNPNeureumnamuBarkA sweet drink made from fermented rice1.23

ApidaeApis cerana FabriciusA7GNPJaeraekkulbeolHoneyDissolution and raw93.10
Apis mellifera L.A8GNP, JNPYangbongkkulbeolHive, honey, larva, whole partDecoction, dissolution, power, and raw90.00
BlattellidaeBlattella germanica L.A11JNPBakwiWhole partPanbroiled and powder100.00
CervidaeCapreolus capreolus L.A13JNPNoruBoneSimmer100.00
Capreolus pygargus tianschanicus SatuninA14HNPNoruBoneSimmer100.00
ColubridaeDinodon rufozonatumrufozonatum CantorA19JNPNeunggureongiWhole partSimmer100.00
Elaphe dione PallasA20JNPNurukbaemWhole partSimmer100.00
Elaphe rufodorsata CantorA21JNPMujachiWhole partSimmer100.00
Elaphe schrenckii StrauchA22JNPGureongiWhole partSimmer100.00
Gloydius ussuriensis EmelianovA27JNPSoesalmosaWhole partSimmer100.00
Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus BoieA53JNPYuhyeolmogiWhole partSimmer100.00
ColumbidaeStreptopelia orientalis LathamA60JNPMetbidulgiWhole partSimmer66.67
CyprinidaeCarassius auratus L.A15JNPBungeoWhole partSimmer100.00
AnimalErinaceidaeErinaceus amurensis SchrenkA23GNPGoseumdochiWhole partInfusion100.00
GryllotalpidaeGryllotalpa orientalis BurmeisterA28JNPTtanggangajiWhole partPowder16.67
MytilidaeMytilus coruscus GouldA37HNPHonghapWhole partDecoction100.00
PhasianidaeGallus gallus domesticus L.A25GNP, HNP, JNPDakDung, whole partInfusion, panbroiled, steep61.04
Phasianus colchicus L.A44JNPKkwongWhole partSimmer100.00
PleuroceridaeSemisulcospira coreana Von MartensA55JNPChamdaseulgiWhole partJuice, panbroiled, powder, and simmer90.91
Semisulcospira forticosta Von MartensA56JNPJureumdaseulgiWhole partJuice, panbroiled, powder, and simmer91.67
Semisulcospira libertina GouldA57JNPDaseulgiWhole partJuice, panbroiled, powder, and simmer91.67
SphingidaeAgrius convolvuli L.A4JNPBakgaksiWhole partInfusion, maceration, and powder100.00
SuidaeSus scrofa L.A61JNPDwaejiGallbladderDried, mixed in liquor, pill, and simmer30.00
VespidaeVespula flaviceps lewisii CameronA71JNPTtangbeolHive, larvaBrewing and decoction100.00
Gloydius blomhoffii brevicaudus StejnegerA2JNPSalmosaWhole partSimmer100.00
Gloydius saxatilis EmelianovA3JNPKkachisalmosaWhole partSimmer100.00
FungiGanodermataceaeGanoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst.F2JNPYeongjiWhole partInfusion11.11
AceraceaeAcer pictum subsp. mono (Maxim.) OhashiP1JNPGorosoenamuSapRaw100.00
ActinidiaceaeActinidia arguta (Siebold and Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq.P4JNPDaraeStemDecoction33.33
Actinidia polygama (Siebold and Zucc.) Planch. ex Maxim.P5JNPGaedaraeStemA sweet drink made from fermented rice100.00
AnacardiaceaeRhus verniciflua StokesP107GNP, HNP, JNPOnnamuBark, resin, stem, young leafDecoction, dissolution, extraction, infusion, raw, and simmer72.14
ApocynaceaeTrachelospermum asiaticum (Siebold and Zucc.) Nakai var. asiaticum P127JNPMasakjulLeaf, stemDecoction100.00
AraliaceaeAralia cordata var. continentalis (Kitag.) Y.C.ChuP14GNPDokhwalRootMaceration, mixed in liquor60.00
Kalopanax septemlobus (Thunb.) Koidz.P60GNPEumnamuStemA sweet drink made from fermented rice and brewing93.33
AsteraceaeArtemisia capillaris Thunb.P16GNPSacheolssukWhole partA sweet drink made from fermented rice, pill, and taffy80.00
Artemisia princeps Pamp.P17GNP, HNPSsukLeaf, whole partDecoction, infusion, juice, moxibustion, and powder12.22
Atractylodes ovata (Thunb.) DC.P19GNP, JNPSapjuRootA sweet drink made from fermented rice, decoction, dried, dissolution, infusion, pill, and powder68.94
Cirsium japonicum var. maackii (Maxim.) Matsum.P28GNP, HNPEonggeongkwiRootDecoction and juice60.00
Petasites japonicus (Siebold and Zucc.) Maxim.P78GNPMeowiLeaf and stemInfusion, wrapped in leaves, seasoned cooked vegetables100.00
Taraxacum platycarpum Dahlst.P125HNP, JNPMindeulleAerial part and whole partDecoction, infusion, and tea85.71
Xanthium strumarium L.P136GNPDokkomariWhole partA sweet drink made from fermented rice and brewing100.00
CactaceaeOpuntia ficus-indica var. saboten MakinoP71HNPSonbadakseoninjangStemRaw66.67
CaprifoliaceaeLonicera japonica Thunb.P64HNPIndongdeonggulFlowerDecoction33.33
CelastraceaeEuonymus alatus (Thunb.) SieboldP43GNP, JNPHwasallamuLeaf and stemDecoction, seasoned cooked vegetables40.54
Euonymus hamiltonianus Wall. var. hamiltonianus P44JNPChambitsallamuStemInfusion100.00
Gastroenteric troubleCrassulaceaeSedum sarmentosum BungeP118GNPDollamulWhole partWatery plain kimchi100.00
CucurbitaceaeCucurbita moschata DuchesneP36GNPHobakFruitInfusion90.91
Trichosanthes kirilowii var. japonica Kitam.P128HNPNoranghaneultariSapSap100.00
DioscoreaceaeDioscorea batatas Decne.P39GNP, JNPMaRootDecoction, maceration, oil, and raw90.00
DioscoreaceaeDioscorea japonica Thunb.P40GNPChammaRootRaw100.00
EbenaceaeDiospyros kaki Thunb.P41GNPGamnamupeduncleInfusion8.00
EricaceaeRhododendron mucronulatum Turcz. var. mucronulatum P105JNPJindallaeFlowerExtraction33.33
EuphorbiaceaeRicinus communis L.P109JNPPimajaSeedOil0.83
FabaceaeCaragana sinica (Buc’hoz) RehderP23GNPGoldamchoRootA sweet drink made from fermented rice100.00
Glycine max (L.) Merr.P50GNP, JNPKongSeedDissolution and fermentation37.65
Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.P51GNP, HNP, JNPGamchoRootDecoction30.77
Pueraria lobata (Willd.) OhwiP97GNP, HNP, JNPChikRootBoiled rice, brewing, decoction, infusion, juice, and maceration46.21
Sophora flavescens Solander ex AitonP122GNP, HNPGosamFruit, rootDecoction, infusion, and raw68.75
LamiaceaeLeonurus japonicus Houtt.P61HNPIngmochoAerial partDecoction6.45
PlantPerilla frutescens var. japonica (Hassk.) HaraP77GNPDeulkkaeSeedSeasoned cooked vegetables36.36
Salvia plebeia R.Br.P114GNP, JNPBaeamchajeugiLeaf, whole partDecoction and infusion50.00
LauraceaeMachilus thunbergii Siebold and Zucc.P66HNPHubangnamuBarkDecoction75.00
LiliaceaeAllium scorodoprasum var. viviparum RegelP11HNPManeulBulbDecoction21.43
Polygonatum odoratum var. pluriflorum (Miq.) OhwiP87HNPDunggulleRootTea40.00
MeliaceaeMelia azedarach L.P68HNPMeolguseulnamuRoot barkTaffy5.26
MenispermaceaeCocculus trilobus (Thunb.) DC.P34GNPDaengdaengideonggulRoot, stemInfusion and maceration78.05
MoraceaeMorus bombycis Koidz. var. bombycis P70JNPSanppongnamuRootDecoction and infusion100.00
OleaceaeLigustrum obtusifolium Siebold and Zucc.P62JNPJwittongnamuFruitDecoction100.00
OrchidaceaeGastrodia elata BlumeP46JNPCheonmaTuberPorridge100.00
PapaveraceaePapaver somniferum L.P74HNPYanggwibiLatexExtraction0.79
PinaceaePinus koraiensis Siebold and Zucc.P83JNPJannamuSeedRaw100.00
PlantaginaceaePlantago asiatica L.P84GNP, HNPJilgyeongiLeaf, petiole, whole partDecoction72.41
PoaceaeHordeum vulgare var. hexastichon (L.) Asch.P54GNP, JNPBoriMalt, seedA sweet drink made from fermented rice, pill, and taffy33.79
Triticum aestivum L.P129GNPMilSeedA sweet drink made from fermented rice and brewing50.00
RanunculaceaeAconitum ciliare DC.P2JNPNotjeotgarangnamulRootInfusion and pill14.29
Clematis florida Thunb.P31JNPWiryeongseonRootDecoction100.00
Clematis terniflora var. mandshurica (Rupr.) OhwiP32HNPEuariRootDecoction42.86
Pulsatilla koreana (Yabe ex Nakai) Nakai ex NakaiP98GNP, JNPHalmikkotRootA sweet drink made from fermented rice, grain syrup, and infusion41.79
RhamnaceaeZiziphus jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) RehderP142GNP, HNPDaechunamuFruitInfusion, simmer100.00
RosaceaePrunus mume Siebold and Zucc.P94JNPMaesillamuFruitExtraction2.99
Rosa davurica Pall.P110JNPSaengyeolgwinamuFruitBrewing100.00
Sanguisorba officinalis L.P115HNPOipulRootDecoction11.11
RutaceaePhellodendron amurense Rupr.P79HNPHwangbyeongnamuInner layer of barkDecoction15.38
Zanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold and Zucc.P138JNPSanchonamuSeedOil21.43
SalicaceaePopulus maximowiczii A. HenryP89GNPHwangcheollamuEndodermisInfusion100.00
SaururaceaeHouttuynia cordata Thunb.P55HNPYangmomilWhole partDecoction100.00
Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill.P116HNPSambaekchoWhole partInfusion50.00
SchisandraceaeSchisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.P117HNPOmijaFruit, root, stemBrewing33.33
ScrophulariaceaeRehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) Libosch. ex Steud.P103JNPJihwangRootBrewing100.00
SolanaceaeLycium chinense Mill.P65GNP, HNPGugijanamuFruitDecoction and tea100.00
UlmaceaeUlmus davidiana var. japonica (Rehder) NakaiP130GNP, HNP, JNPNeureumnamuBark, leaf, endodermis, rhizodermis, root, stemA sweet drink made from fermented rice, boiling, decoction, dried, infusion, powder, simmer, and tea71.60
ZingiberaceaeCurcuma longa L.P38JNPUlgeumRootTea100.00
Zingiber officinale RoscoeP140HNPSaenggangRhizomeSimmer100.00

Gastroptosis PlantAsteraceaeAtractylodes ovata (Thunb.) DC.P19JNPSapjuRootDecoction0.76
GentianaceaeGentiana scabra BungeP47JNPYongdamRootTea4.00
PoaceaeHordeum vulgare var. hexastichon (L.) Asch.P54JNPBoriSeedPowder, roast, and steam0.69

HeartburnPlantAsteraceaeAtractylodes ovata (Thunb.) DC.P19GNPSapjuRootPowder2.27
CelastraceaeEuonymus alatus (Thunb.) SieboldP43GNPHwasallamuLeaf, stemDecoction and seasoned cooked vegetables29.73
RosaceaePotentilla chinensis Ser.P91GNPTtakjikkotRootInfusion and raw50.00
Prunus mume Siebold and Zucc.P94GNPMaesillamuFruitExtraction3.73
UlmaceaeUlmus davidiana var. japonica (Rehder) NakaiP130GNPNeureumnamuBarkTea1.85

Hema fecesAnimalAnguillidaeAnguilla japonica Temminck and SchlegelA6JNPBaemjangeoWhole partSimmer50.00
Cetonia pilifera MotschulskyA16JNPKkonmujiLarvaBrewing100.00
Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis KolbeA46JNPHuinjeombagikkonmujiLarvaBrewing100.00
Protaetia mandschuriensis SchurhoffA47JNPManjujeombagikkonmujiLarvaBrewing100.00
PlantRosaceaeRosa rugosa Thunb. var. rugosa P112JNPHaedanghwaLeaf, rootDecoction100.00

HematemesisPlantTheaceaeCamellia japonica L.P21JNPDongbaengnamuFruitDecoction20.00

HookwormPlantAraceaePinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breitenb.P81JNPBanhaCormDecoction50.00
MeliaceaeMelia azedarach L.P68HNPMeolguseulnamuFruit, leaf, root barkDecoction, taffy26.32

AlgaGelidiaceaeGelidium amansii J. V. Lamour.AL1HNPUmutgasariThallusDecoction100.00
AnimalCobitidae Misgurnus mizolepis GüntherA35GNPMikkurajiWhole partRaw100.00
GadidaeTheragra chalcogramma PallasA66JNPMyeongtaeWhole partDecoction100.00
MantidaeTenodera angustipennis SaussureA64JNPSamagwiWhole partPowder50.00
Tenodera sinensis SaussureA65GNP, JNPWangsamagwiWhole partInfusion, powder50.00
OctopodidaeParoctopus dofleini WulkerA42JNPMuneoWhole partSimmer100.00
PleuroceridaeSemisulcospira coreana Von MartensA55JNPChamdaseulgiWhole partSimmer9.09
Semisulcospira forticosta Von MartensA56JNPJureumdaseulgiWhole partSimmer8.33
Semisulcospira libertina GouldA57JNPDaseulgiWhole partSimmer8.33
SergestidaeAcetes japonicus KishinouyeA1GNPJeotsaeuWhole partFermentation100.00
FungiGanodermataceaeGanoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst.F2GNPYeongjiWhole partInfusion66.67
PolyporaceaeFomes fomentarius (L.: Fr.) Fr.F1JNPMalgupbeoseotWhole partDecoction33.33
ThelephoraceaeSarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. ItoF5JNPNeungiWhole partDecoction, seasoned cooked vegetables, soup100.00
AmaranthaceaeAmaranthus mangostanus L.P13JNPBireumLeafDried persimmon, infusion100.00
Anacardiaceae Rhus verniciflua StokesP107GNP, JNPOnnamuStemInfusion10.71
AraliaceaeAralia cordata var. continentalis (Kitag.) Y. C. ChuP14JNPDokhwalRootDecoction, tea10.00
Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem.P15JNPDureumnamuRootInfusion100.00
Kalopanax septemlobus (Thunb.) Koidz.P60GNPEumnamuStemInfusion6.67
AristolochiaceaeAsarum sieboldii Miq.P18JNPJokdoripulRootInfusion, pill100.00
AspleniaceaePteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum (Desv.) Underw. ex Hell.P96JNPGosariRootDecoction, infusion100.00
AsteraceaeArtemisia capillaris Thunb.P16GNPSacheolssukLeaf, stemDecoction20.00
Artemisia princeps Pamp.P17GNP, JNPSsukLeaf, root, whole partJuice7.72
Atractylodes ovata (Thunb.) DC.P19GNP, JNPSapjuRootBrewing, decoction, infusion, panbroiled, pill, powder18.18
Helianthus annuus L.P52JNPHaebaragiFlowerDecoction100.00
Inula helenium L.P57JNPMokhyangRootDecoction100.00
BalsaminaceaeImpatiens balsamina L.P56GNP, JNPBongseonhwaFlower, root, whole partInfusion100.00
BetulaceaeBetula costata Trautv.P20GNPGeojesunamuSapRaw100.00
BignoniaceaeCatalpa ovata G. DonP26GNPGaeodongStemInfusion100.00
BoraginaceaeLithospermum erythrorhizon Siebold and Zucc.P63GNPJichiRootPanbroiled, steep88.89
CaprifoliaceaeLonicera japonica Thunb.P64JNPIndongdeonggulStemInfusion66.67
CyperaceaeCarex curta Gooden.P24JNPSansachoFruitDecoction100.00
DioscoreaceaeDioscorea batatas Decne.P39JNPMaRootDecoction3.33
EbenaceaeDiospyros kaki Thunb.P41GNP, JNPGamnamuFruit, peduncleDried persimmon, infusion, raw59.20
IndigestionEuphorbiaceaeRicinus communis L.P109GNP, JNPPimajaFruit, seedOil, panfried54.55
FabaceaeGlycine max (L.) Merr.P50JNPKongSeedFermentation, dissolution38.82
Pueraria lobata (Willd.) OhwiP97GNPChikRootClear soup with flour dumplings, juice, tea27.27
Rhynchosia volubilis Lour.P108JNPJwinunikongSeedDecoction100.00
Sophora flavescens Solander ex AitonP122JNPGosamRootDecoction, infusion, juice, maceration, panbroiled25.00
FagaceaeCastanea crenata Siebold and Zucc.P25GNP, JNPBamnamuBark, nutInfusion, tea100.00
LamiaceaeLeonurus japonicus Houtt.P61JNPIngmochoAerial partJuice1.61
Perilla frutescens var. acuta KudoP76JNPSoyeopLeafDecoction100.00
PlantLardizabalaceaeAkebia quinata (Houtt.) Decne.P8JNPEureumdeonggulStemInfusion14.29
LauraceaeMachilus thunbergii Siebold and Zucc.P66JNPHubangnamuBarkDecoction25.00
LiliaceaeAllium microdictyon Prokh.P10JNPSanmaneulRootDecoction50.00
Polygonatum odoratum var. pluriflorum (Miq.) OhwiP87JNPDunggulleRootTea20.00
LoranthaceaeViscum album var. coloratum (Kom.) Ohwi P133JNPGyeousariWhole partA sweet drink made from fermented rice100.00
MenispermaceaeCocculus trilobus (Thunb.) DC.P34GNPDaengdaengideonggulRootJuice9.76
MoraceaeCudrania tricuspidata (Carr.) Bureau ex LavalleeP37JNPKkujippongnamuRootDecoction100.00
Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca esculenta VanHoutteP80GNP, JNPJarigongRootA sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion35.29
PoaceaeHordeum vulgare var. hexastichon (L.) Asch.P54GNP, HNP, JNPBoriMalt, seedA sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, decoction, dissolution, infusion, juice, maceration, steep, tea55.86
Oryza sativa L.P72GNPByeoStemInfusion57.14
Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.P119HNPJoSeedA sweet drink made from fermented rice100.00
Triticum aestivum L.P129GNPMilSeedBrewing, clear soup with flour dumplings, extraction38.46
RanunculaceaeAconitum ciliare DC.P2JNPNotjeotgarangnamulRootDecoction, infusion, pill85.71
Pulsatilla koreana (Yabe ex Nakai) Nakai ex NakaiP98JNPHalmikkotRootGrain syrup5.97
RosaceaeMalus sieboldii (Regel) RehderP67JNPAgeubaenamuFruitDecoction, infusion100.00
Prunus armeniaca var. ansu Maxim.P92GNP, JNPSalgunamuSeedMaceration, raw100.00
Prunus mume Siebold and Zucc.P94GNP, HNP, JNPMaesillamuFruitBrewing, dissolution, extraction49.25
Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) NakaiP100JNPDolbaenamuFruitBrewing100.00
Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Makino) NakaiP101GNPBaenamuFruitInfusion100.00
Rosa multiflora Thunb. var. multiflora P111JNPJjillekkotFruitDecoction12.50
Spiraea prunifolia f. simpliciflora NakaiP124GNPJopamnamuRoot, stemInfusion100.00
RutaceaeCitrus unshiu S. Marcov.P30JNPGyulPericarpDecoction25.00
Phellodendron amurense Rupr.P79GNPHwangbyeongnamuBark, endodermisInfusion, steep76.92
Poncirus trifoliata Raf.P88HNP, JNPTaengjanamuFruitDecoction, simmer66.67
Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC.P137HNP, JNPChopinamuFruitDecoction, oil42.86
Zanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold and Zucc.P138GNP, JNPSanchonamuFruit, seedOil25.00
ScrophulariaceaePaulownia coreana UyekiP75GNPOdongnamuStemInfusion100.00
SolanaceaeSolanum nigrum L.P121GNP, JNPKkamajungAerial part, fruit, leaf, root, whole partDried, infusion, juice88.24
TheaceaeCamellia sinensis L.P22JNPChanamuLeafDecoction100.00
UlmaceaeCeltis sinensis Pers.P27HNPPaengnamuFruitDried, powder100.00
Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (Rehder) NakaiP130GNPNeureumnamuBarkA sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion8.64

Intestinal diseasePlantAsteraceaeCirsium japonicum var. spinossimum Kitam.P29HNPGasieonggeongkwiRootDecoction100.00
RosaceaeSorbus commixta Hedl.P123JNPMagamokFruitBrewing100.00

Stomach
cramp
AnimalPhasianidaeGallus gallus domesticus L.A25JNPDakWhole partSimmer1.30
PlantRanunculaceaePulsatilla koreana (Yabe ex Nakai) Nakai ex NakaiP98HNPHalmikkotLeafRubbing7.46

Stomach problemAnimalPhasianidaeGallus gallus domesticus L.A25JNPDakWhole partSimmer1.30
AsteraceaeAtractylodes ovata (Thunb.) DC.P19GNPSapjuRootPowder2.27
CelastraceaeEuonymus alatus (Thunb.) SieboldP43GNPHwasallamuLeaf, stemDecoction, seasoned cooked vegetables29.73
PoaceaeOryza sativa var. terrestis MakinoP73HNPSanduSeedPorridge7.69
PlantRosaceaePotentilla chinensis Ser.P91GNPTtakjikkotRootInfusion, raw50.00
Prunus mume Siebold and Zucc.P94GNPMaesillamuFruitExtraction3.73
UlmaceaeUlmus davidiana var. japonica (Rehder) NakaiP130GNPNeureumnamuBarkTea1.85

StomachicLiliaceae Allium microdictyon Prokh.P10JNPSanmaneulRootDecoction50.00

VomitingAnimalApidaeApis cerana FabriciusA7GNPJaeraekkulbeolHoneyDissolution, raw3.45
PlantVerbenaceaeVitex rotundifolia L.f.P134HNPSunbiginamuFruitDecoction100.00

*A: animal, P: plant, F: fungi, and AL: alga.
**Region: JNP: Jirisan National Park, GNP: Gayasan National Park, and HNP: Hallasan National Park.

ResultsJNPGNPHNPTotal

Species1667658220
Therapies
(kinds)
27217692490
Used parts32212043
Preparations
(modes)
28342142
Disorders
(types)
20111624

A total of 490 ethnomedicinal practices recorded from the communities were classified into 110 families, 176 genera, and 220 species that included plants, animals, fungi, and alga (Table 4). Among these species, plants totaled 361 ethnomedicinal practices based on 142 species, while animals included 119 ethnomedicinal practices based on 71 species. Fungi recorded 9 ethnomedicinal practices based on six species while alga included one ethnomedicinal practice based on one species. These usage patterns were different from Korean traditional medicine, in which plants are used relatively much more than animals. Research confirms that communities have focused on the functional supplements from these ethnomedicinal practices rather than seeking after an actual cure for their gastrointestinal disorders.

The residents of these communities have applied the ethnomedicinal practices for gastroenteric trouble and indigestion more than any other disorder. Namely, the number of medicinal species and ethnomedicinal practices for gastroenteric trouble consisted of 94 species (42.7% of the total species) and 179 ethnomedicinal practices (36.5% of the total practices). Indigestion used 72 species (32.7% of the total species) and 131 ethnomedicinal practices (26.7% of the total practices) (Table 5).


DiseasesJNPGNPHNPTotal
Number of times mentioned
(species)
Number of times mentioned
(species)
Number of times mentioned
(species)
Number of times mentioned
(species)

Abdominal pain161 (21)516 (32)82 (16)759 (59)
Acute gastroenteritis41 (8)6 (3)47 (11)
Constipation115 (15)142 (3)36 (4)293 (20)
Deficiency of intestinal function19 (5)19 (5)
Diarrhea111 (36)87 (8)39 (9)237 (48)
Dysentery6 (4)42 (4)3 (1)51 (8)
Enteritis2 (1)2 (1)
Enterotoxin2 (2)2 (2)
Gastralgia5 (1)5 (1)
Gastric cancer14 (12)3 (1)17 (12)
Gastric ulcer3 (3)20 (2)23 (3)
Gastritis12 (3)20 (5)4 (1)36 (9)
Gastroenteric trouble238 (54)755 (35)118 (30)1,111 (94)
Gastroptosis3 (3)3 (3)
Heartburn28 (5)28 (5)
Hema feces6 (5)6 (5)
Hematemesis1 (1)1 (1)
Hookworm1 (1)5 (1)6 (2)
Indigestion302 (52)829 (31)21 (7)1,152 (72)
Intestinal ailment2 (1)1 (1)3 (2)
Stomach cramp1 (1)5 (1)6 (2)
Stomach problem6 (4)28 (5)2 (1)31 (7)
Stomachic1 (1)1 (1)
Vomiting1 (1)1 (1)4 (1)5 (2)

Total1,040 (166)2,468 (76)336 (58)3,844 (220)

Also, the number of informants who mentioned gastroenteric trouble and cases of indigestion occupied 28.9%, which totaled 30.0% of the whole, respectively (Table 5). As a result, the communities tended to use ethnomedicinal practices to care for their overall health instead of as a cure for a long-term condition.

For plants, 29 used parts were used in practice, while 14 used parts of animals and one used part of fungi and alga were used in treatment. Preparations of the plants consisted of 41 kinds, with 16 preparations for animals, six preparations for fungi, and one preparation for alga (Table 4). These usage patterns are similar to previous research for other diseases [1416].

3.3. Quantitative Analysis
3.3.1. Informant Consensus Factor (ICF)

The informant consensus factor ranges from 0 to 1, where the increasing values indicate a higher rate of informant consensus among the category of disorders.

The category with the highest degree of consensus from the informants were enteritis and gastralgia (1.0), followed by indigestion (0.94), constipation (0.93), abdominal pain and gastroenteric trouble (0.92), and gastric ulcers (0.91). The lowest degree of consensus was for gastroptosis, enterotoxin, hema feces, and other disorders (Table 6). These results denote that ethnomedicinal practices have been applied more often to minor health issues related to gastrointestinal disorders.


DisordersJNPGNPHNPTotal

Abdominal pain0.88 0.94 0.81 0.92
Acute gastroenteritis0.83 0.60 0.78
Constipation0.88 0.99 0.91 0.93
Deficiency of intestinal function0.78 0.78
Diarrhea0.68 0.92 0.79 0.80
Dysentery0.40 0.93 1.00 0.86
Enteritis1.00 1.00
Enterotoxin++
Gastralgia1.00 1.00
Gastric cancer+0.95 1.00 +
Gastric ulcer+0.91
Gastritis0.82 0.79 1.00 0.77
Gastroenteric trouble0.78 0.95 0.75 0.92
Gastroptosis++
Heartburn0.85 0.85
Hema feces++
Hematemesis++
Hookworm+1.00 0.80
Indigestion0.83 0.96 0.70 0.94
Intestinal ailment1.00+0.50
Stomach cramp+1.00 0.80
Stomach problem0.40 0.851.00 0.80
Stomachic++
Vomiting+1.00 0.75

−: Ailments were not mentioned in each national park.
+: Below 0.40.

Generally, people suffering from serious gastrointestinal disorders have been treated in the hospital using conventional medicine or Korean traditional medicine. However, ethnomedicinal practices have been used to cure minor disorders.

Comparative consideration to results of the ICF among the three national parks and the agreement of consensus (ICF value, 1.00) from the informants in HNP obtained eight disorders, which include dysentery, gastralgia, gastric cancer, gastritis, hookworm, stomach cramps, stomach problems, and vomiting, while JNP and GNP depicted only enteritis and constipation, respectively.

These results confirm that the people of HNP have nearly the same ethnomedicinal knowledge for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders because the communities have been isolated from other communities for many years.

3.3.2. Fidelity Level (FL)

The FL is useful for identifying the informants’ most preferred species in use for treating certain gastrointestinal disorders. This information reveals that the informants had a tendency to rely on one specific species for treating one specific disorder rather than for several different disorders. The FL values in this study varied from 1.0% to 100%.

Generally, a FL of 100% for a specific species indicates that all of the use-reports mentioned the same species for a specific treatment [41].

This study determined 71 species of plants with a FL of 100%, even without considering species that were mentioned more than two times (Table 3). Among them, plants with a FL of 100% in JNP totaled 52 species, followed by 40 species in GNP, and 23 species in HNP.

Disorders containing a higher number of species assessed to a FL of 100% were gastroenteric trouble (19 species) and cases of indigestion (22 species).

Special attention was given to important species (N, Np) with a FL above 100%, regarding the viewpoint of the number of times mentioned and the consensus level for the specific disorders, which include Spiraea prunifolia f. simpliciflora Nakai (224, 224), Impatiens balsamina L. as plants and Acetes japonicus Kishinouye (17, 17) as an animal cure for indigestion, Xanthium strumarium L. and Petasites japonicas (Siebold and Zucc.) Maxim. as plants used for curing gastroenteric trouble, Zinnia violacea Cav. and Platycarya strobilacea Siebold and Zucc. as plants used in treating abdominal pain, and Viola verecunda A. Gray as a plant used in treating dysentery (Table 3).

Through further study, these species possess a much higher potential in being used in the development of new functional supplements for treating specific gastrointestinal disorders.

3.3.3. INA between Gastrointestinal Disorders and Medicinal Species

INA has originally analyzed social phenomenon and trends through the internetwork of components [42]. Our research has attempted to analyze the interrelationship between gastrointestinal disorders and the medicinal species recorded in the communities.

Considering Figure 2 about the internetwork between disorders and the medicinal species within all communities of this study, all medicinal species are grouped in the center for indigestion, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and gastroenteric trouble (Figure 2(a)), respectively. This distribution pattern is similar to the results of JNP and GNP. However, in case of HNP, indigestion is separated from the main disorders groups. This difference caused that the communities of HNP have been separated from the land communities for a long period of time.

In regard to the INA distribution map for JNP, the locations for the disorders of hema feces, intestinal disease, and hematemesis were fairly distinct from the four main disorders groups. Also, the cure for enteritis, hookworm, intestinal disease, stomach cramp, and stomachic is applied for only one medicinal species (Figure 2(b)).

In the case of GNP, gastritis, gastric ulcers, heartburn, and stomach problems were located as a distinct group separated from the four main disorder groups. Because this group consisted of minor stomach ailments having similar inclination, Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC., Potentilla chinensis Ser., Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Siebold, Atractylodes ovate (Thunb.) DC., and Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (Rehder) Nakai worked as possible cures as they possessed a high possibility in containing the same components for treatment (Figure 2(c)).

Within HNP, indigestion, intestinal disease, vomiting, stomach cramps, and enterotoxin were individually distinct from the three main disorder groups. This distribution pattern suggests that the application width of medicinal species to treat each disorder is limited for treating each disorder relative to the other communities (Figure 2(d)).

4. Conclusion

This research is the first study in the world to analyze and compare the ethnomedicinal practices of communities for treating gastrointestinal disorders. As the research method of this study, comparative quantitative analysis will contribute to the availability of orally transmitted ethnomedicinal knowledge. Additionally, the results of this study are confirmed due to the results obtained through investigation by 507 informants within the 185 research sites.

From this research, the recording of 490 ethnomedicinal practices being applied to the use of 220 medicinal species to treat 24 gastrointestinal disorders was extremely valuable. Particularly, the present usage of various medicinal species displays evidence as to which ethnomedicinal practices are continuously transmitted within the communities. However, this present situation is not sustainable because the communities of these study areas consist of an aging society. It has become necessary for appropriate measures to be taken to conserve these ethnomedicinal practices.

Our research suggests that treatment for gastroenteric trouble and indigestion among the gastrointestinal disorders uses ethnomedicinal practices more than any other type of treatment, as the communities used 75.5% of all medicinal species for treating these two diseases, 63.3% of the total number of all ethnomedicinal practices, and mentioned by 58.9% of all informants. Also, these two disorders contained the highest numbers of medicinal species within a FL of 100%. Through further study, the ethnomedicinal practices for these conditions possess a much higher potential in being used in the development of new practices.

According to the number of medicinal species applied to ethnomedicinal practices and the number of disorders treated by these ethnomedicinal practices, the numbers of JNP were much higher than the other two national parks. It is inferred that the region of JNP was the original center of Korean traditional medicine.

On the other hand, the communities of HNP depict a higher degree of agreement in the consensus to ethnomedicinal practices. This data explains that the communities of HNP, as island people, were limited in their movement to other regions and strictly collected large amounts of independent ethnomedicinal knowledge, only sharing within their own communities, which was distinct from the inland communities.

These trends were confirmed by the results of the INA as the internetwork maps of JNP and GNP were similar, while the map of HNP was moderately different. These results are reflected by the three-dimensional patterns of the ethnomedicinal knowledge held within the communities of each national park.

More specifically, the use of INA as a tool of quantitative analysis in this study provides valuable internetwork maps between gastrointestinal disorders and medicinal species.

These maps are important data to understand the specific interrelationships between disease and ethnomedicinal practices in the intra- and intercommunities.

The authors believe that INA is a useful new tool for providing various interpretations to ethnomedicinal knowledge in the intra- and intercommunities. This study provides confidence in that the useful value of INA will extend beyond the existing understanding of ethnomedicinal knowledge for the future research of ethnomedicinal knowledge.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgments

The authors are very grateful to all informants of the study area for sharing their oral traditional knowledge during the fieldwork surveys.

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Copyright © 2014 Hyun Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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