Table 3: Reported ethnomedicinal uses of the non-conventional food plants shown in Table 1.

Serial numberSpeciesReported ethnomedicinal usesReported pharmacological activities

1Abroma augusta L.Root juice taken orally by tribal and rural people in West Rarrh region of West Bengal, India, for blood dysentery, diarrhea, and night wetting [56]; powder of bark and roots consumed thrice a day with boiled water by the Khamti tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, India, for urinary problems [57]; flowers taken orally by the Tonchongya tribe of Bandarban district, Bangladesh, for mental sickness [58]; stem juice to be taken orally, advised by folk medicinal practitioners in Begumganj, Noakhali district, Bangladesh, for irregular menstruation, painful menstruation, and burning sensations in the uterus [59]; root juice taken orally as uterine tonic by ethnic communities of Tinsukia district of Assam, India [60]; leaf juice orally taken, advised for diabetes by folk medicinal practitioners of Vasu Bihar village, Bogra district, Bangladesh [61]; crushed stems taken orally in Vitbilia village of Pabna district, Bangladesh, for treatment of debility and infertility in women due to uterine problems [62]; leaf juice taken orally for diabetes and root juice for sexual disorder by the Garo tribal community of Netrakona district, Bangladesh [63]; leaf juice taken orally for heatstroke in Brahmanbaria district, Bangladesh [64].Antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, hypolipidemic, antifungal, antibacterial, insecticidal, uterine disorders [65].

2Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC.Whole plant used by ethnic groups in Sialkot district, Pakistan, for headache, dizziness, snake bite, and vomiting of blood [66]; plant along with leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis tied with a piece of cloth by ethnic groups of Disoi valley forest area of the Jorhat district of Assam, India, for bone fracture and wounds [67]; dried leaves used for treatment of jaundice by Palliyar tribals in Sirumalai Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India [68]; root, stem, and leaf decoction taken orally by the tribals of Bargarh district, Orissa, India, for blood dysentery [69]; whole plant used for treatment of wounds by different tribal communities of Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka, India [70]; leaves and whole plants local tribal people of Kaptipada Forest Range, Orissa, India, for treatment of fevers, ophthalmia, gonorrhea, and pruritis [71]; whole plant used by the local people of Amarkantak region, Madhya Pradesh, India, for burning sensation, diarrhea, skin disease, dyspepsia, hemorrhoids, liver and spleen diseases, and fever [72]; plant juice orally used against chronic dysentery in Jajpur district, Odisha, India [73]; leaves used in Noakhali district, Bangladesh, for treatment of gonorrhea, low semen count, and leucorrhea [59]; leaves used by local Irula tribals of Kalavai village, Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India, for treatment of headache, hepatitis, and asthma [74]; leaves used by people of Alagar Hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India, for treatment of eyesight [75]; leaf juice used by the Nath people of Assam, India, to increase lactation in nursing mothers and for treatment of hair and stomach trouble [76]. Anti-inflammatory [77] hematinic [78], wound healing [79], antidiabetic [80].

3Amaranthus spinosus L.Leaves are boiled in cow milk and orally taken in Kikuku village, Muleba district, Tanzania, for treatment of peptic ulcers [81]; fresh root infusion along with salt orally taken for throat infections by the Tripuri tribes of Tripura State, India [82]; root paste applied topically for eczema or abscesses in Jajpur district, Odisha, India [73]; root paste topically used by Hooralis tribe in Sathyamangalam forests of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India, for wounds and blisters [83]; decoction of whole plant orally taken for treatment of HIV/AIDS at Tokombere (far north Cameroon) [84]; ash of whole plant taken orally for treatment of kidney stones; fresh leaves are cooked along with chicory plant and fenugreek and taken orally for low blood pressure and black cataract of eye by local communities in arid regions of Pakistan [85]; leaf juice along with leaf juice of Mangifera indica and whole plant juice of Sida rhombifolia used by the Tripura tribal community of Comilla district, Bangladesh, for treatment of jaundice [86]; root, bark, and stem orally taken in Kurigram district, Bangladesh, for stoppage of urination and defecation [87]; upper parts of the plant used as a febrifuge by the tribes of Lalganj block of district Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh, India [88]; used for menorrhagia, gonorrhea (roots), and snake bite (roots) and to increase milk flow in cows (stems) by the Nath people of Assam, India [76].Antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimalarial, analgesic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antifertility, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic [89].

4Amaranthus tricolor L.Whole plant used in Kurigram district, Bangladesh, for treatment of anemia and “meho” (diabetes) [87]; whole plant used in Ivanur Panchayat in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India, to improve eye power [90]; curry prepared from green leaves taken orally to stop diarrhea; seeds taken orally for general gastric problems; seeds fried in butter taken orally to lessen pregnancy pains by the Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in North Sikkim, India [91]; whole plant used by the local people of Mansoora, Malegaon, India, as astringent and for treatment of menorrhagia, diarrhea, and dysentery [92]; leaf paste applied topically by ethnic communities of Tinsukia district, Assam, India, for cuts and wounds [60]; leaf paste used to cure wounds in Darikal Gaon of Tezpur in Assam, India [93]; leaves cooked and eaten as vegetable as treatment for anemia in Semiliguda block of Koratpur district, Odisha, India [94]. Hepatoprotective, nutritive, blood tonic [95].

5Amaranthus viridis L.Whole plants and stems used for treatment of bronchitis, piles, leucorrhea, breast abscess, menorrhagia by local tribal people of Kaptipada Forest Range, Orissa, India [71]; used for boils (roots) and malnutrition in pregnant mothers (leaves and stems are cooked and eaten) in Kurigram district, Bangladesh [87]; root decoction used by tribals of Samahni Valley, Pakistan, to control menstrual problems and backbone ache during pregnancy [96]; plant used against cough, inflammation, high blood pressure, and as urinative by people in arid regions of Pakistan [85]; leaves used against stomach colic and as laxative by tribals of Darjeeling Hills, India [97]; leaves taken orally for dysentery, as a diuretic, and to alleviate internal fever in Nizamabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India [98]; used against snake bite (stem) and scorpion sting (leaf) by the Nath people of Assam, India [76]; whole plant used in Bhopal district, India, for treatment of stone diseases [99]; tender shoots taken as vegetable to improve eyesight by the ethnic communities of Tinsukia district, Assam, India [60]; leaf juice taken orally for chronic dysentery in villages of Natore and Rajshahi districts, Bangladesh [100]. Antinociceptive, antipyretic, blood tonic [95].

6Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.Peduncle juice taken orally thrice daily for snake bites in West Rarrh region of West Bengal, India [56]; latex applied topically as treatment of skin disease, wound, and scorpion sting in Jorhat district, Assam, India [67]; leaves used for skin diseases, ulcer, asthma, and diarrhea in Tamil Nadu, India [101]; ash of rind spine applied topically on throat or tongue for treatment of ulcers in Nasik district, Maharashtra, India [102]; used against bloating (unripe fruit), constipation (ripe fruits), edema, ulcers (leaf ash), skin diseases (topical application of young leaf and roots), asthma, and diarrhea in Noakhali district (oral administration of young leaves and roots), Bangladesh [59]; used against gastrointestinal disorders in Iloilo, the Philippines (plant parts not mentioned) [103].Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticariogenic, antifungal, antineoplastic, antidiabetic, wound healing [104].

7Bombax ceiba L.Stem bark used for treatment of herpes infection in Coastal Karnataka, India [105]; skin diseases, female diseases, and snake bite in Manipur, India (plant part used not mentioned) [106]; leaves are soaked in water and the decoction used for taking a bath for treatment of body pain by the Orang Asli in Kampung Bawong, Perak, West Malaysia [107]; decoction of root used by the people of Kadhi areas of Khushab, Punjab, Pakistan, to kill abdominal worms [108]; leaf paste applied topically for treatment of snake bite by the Mullu kuruma tribe of Wayanad district, Kerala, India [109]; seed used by tribals of Chitteri Hills, India, to treat diabetes [110]; flower paste applied topically by the Chakma communities of Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, for treatment of boils [111]; roots of the plant taken orally with seeds of Hyptis suaveolens by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh, against gonorrhea [112]; used in Samba district of Jammu and Kashmir against diarrhea, dysentery, menorrhagia, stomach complaints, diabetes, menstrual disorders, and for conception, and as an aphrodisiac (plant part used not mentioned) [113]; root used against diabetes by the tribes of Pedabayalu Mandalam, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India [114]; used against urinary problems (fruits) and diarrhea (stem bark juice) by the Gond tribe of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India [115]. Aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer, anti-HIV, anti-Helicobacter pylori, antiangiogenic, analgesic, antioxidant, hypotensive, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial [116].

8Caryota urens L.Decoction of root used as a galactagogue by nursing mothers in Tinsukia district, Assam, India [60]; inflorescence juice and nut exudates used for asthma, as a mild laxative, and as a coolant by the aboriginals of Kalrayan and Shervarayan Hills, Easten Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India [117]; toddy prepared from plant sap used by the Gonds of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India, to heal urinary problems [115]; ash prepared by burning old leaves is orally taken with honey for treatment of tympanitis (inflammation of middle ear) by the tribals of Similipal Bioreserve, Orissa, India [118]. Antioxidant [119].

9Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.Leaves either eaten as paste or cooked and eaten as vegetable against hepatic diseases like jaundice, cirrhosis, and liver injury by the Halam tribe of Tripura State, India [120]; whole plant juice orally taken for syphilis and ulcer by the Chakma tribal communities of Chittagong Hill Tracts region, Bangladesh [111]; used against leucorrhea and eczema by the Malasars tribal healers of Velliangiri Hills, India (plant part used not mentioned) [121]; whole plant cooked and eaten for treatment of stomach disorder by the Boro tribe of Manas National Park, Assam, India [122]; whole plant used for treatment of herpes in Coastal Karnataka, India [105]; decoction of stems and leaves taken orally for cough relief and crushed leaves and stems applied to burns by the Kalanguya tribe in Tinoc, Ifugao, Luzon, Phillipines [123]; leaves are grounded with fresh turmeric and applied against skin diseases by the Kurichyas tribe in Kannur district, Kerala, India [124]; whole plant used against fever and sunstroke by the Manavalakuruchi people of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India [125]; paste of whole plant used against carbuncle; crushed leaves are mixed with resin from Artocarpus heterophyllus and taken orally with fire-roasted Channa punctatus fish for treatment of piles by the Tai-Khamyang tribe of Assam, India [126]; leaf juice taken orally for blood purification, blood clots, and appendicitis by the Kani tribals in Pechiparai forests of Southern western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India [127]; leaf juice used by the tribal communities of Chitrakoot, Madhya Pradesh, India, against rickets in children [128]; used against syphilis, mental disorders, and skin diseases by the Baiga tribals in Amarkantak Meikal forest of Madhya Pradesh, India (plant part not mentioned) [129]; leaves used against rheumatism and dysentery by tribals and local inhabitants of Rajouri-Poonch of Jammu and Kashmir State, India [130]; plant juice orally taken by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh, against excessive bleeding during menstruation [112]; raw roots and leaves are taken orally with routine food by the Aka tribe of West Kameng district, Arunachal Pradesh, India, to improve appetite during jaundice [131]; dried and powdered whole plants orally taken against azoospermia and streptospermia in Bansoa, West Cameroon [132]; decoction of whole plant applied topically along with coconut oil against wounds by the Malayali tribes of Pachamalai Hills, Tamil Nadu, India [133]. Antiulcer, wound healing, antitumor, memory enhancing, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, radioprotective, antidepressant, antipsoriatic, antitubercular, antileprotic, antifilarial, antiviral, antiprotozoal, sedative, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory [134].

10Chenopodium album L.Whole plant used as laxative to cure constipation by the inhabitants of northern part of Nara desert, Pakistan [135]; decoction of leaves and stems cooked as vegetable and taken orally against tuberculosis, jaundice, fevers, glottis pain, flu, phlegm, dropsy, inflammation, kidney, and gall bladder stones, and as diuretic, blood purifier, and caloric among local communities in arid regions of Pakistan [85]; whole plant used against jaundice by inhabitants of Jalalpur Jattan, Punjab, Pakistan [136]; whole plant used against anemia and constipation by tribals and local inhabitants of Rajouri-Poonch of Jammu and Kashmir State, India [130]; decoction of whole plant used as diuretic and for women’s sterility in traditional medicine of east Anatolia, Turkey [137]; whole plant used against rheumatism/arthritis in Betul district, Madhya Pradesh, India [138]; whole plant used against jaundice and liver diseases in Mandi Bahaudin district, Pakistan [139]; seeds used as stimulant, diuretic, carminative, and antispasmodic by tribes of Hamirpur valley, Himachal Pradesh, India [140]; used in Bhopal district, India, for treatment of stone diseases (plant part used not mentioned) [99]; cooked leaves used in urinary troubles, and colic pain; leaf extract used in piles, coughs, and worms; stem used in kidney stone, hepatic disorder, jaundice, and as a galactagogue; whole plant used as laxative; root powder used in spermatorrhea in Sialkot district, Pakistan [141]; tender shoots used against constipation and coughs by ethnic communities of Tinsukia district, Assam, India [60]; whole plant except root for prevention of hemorrhoids (piles) in Chuadanga district, Bangladesh [142]. Antipruritic, antinociceptive [143].

11Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott.Whole plant along with bulb of Allium sativum and bark of Cinnamomum verum is cooked with turmeric and ginger followed by separation of the liquid portion, which is then orally taken against rheumatism and debility in Dinajpur and Thakurgaon districts, Bangladesh [144]; tubers are fried in mustard oil and taken as vegetable against rheumatic pain and paralysis in three villages of Kurigram district, Bangladesh [87]; leaves used by tribals of Chitteri Hills, India, to cure piles [110]; leaves used against jaundice by the Tai-Khamyangs of Assam, India [126]; leaves fried in castor oil used for relieving joint pain by the Gond tribe of Bhandara district, Maharashtra, India [145]; raw leaves are orally taken by the Paliyan and Pulayan tribes of lower Palni Hills of Tamil Nadu, India, against stone formation in the urinary tract and for frequent urination [146]; rhizome paste applied in cuts, burns, and scorpion stings by ethnic groups of Disoi valley forest area of the Jorhat district of Assam, India [67]; paste prepared from tuber is used topically against swellings and cooked rhizome is eaten for helmintic infestations by the Kattunayakas tribes of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India [147]; whole plant used against severe jaundice, constipation, and as a digestive aid in Shitol Para village of Jhalokati district, Bangladesh [148]. Hypoglycemic, antifungal anticancer, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, nervine tonic [149].

12Corchorus capsularis L.Fresh leaf decoction administered orally against stomach ache in children in North Bengal, India [150]; leaf juice orally taken to cure dysentery by tribals of Bargarh district, India [69]; seeds and leaves used as stomachic by Bhil tribe of Bibdod, Madhya Pradesh, India [151]; seeds used as stomachic by the tribes of Pedabayalu Mandalam, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India [114]. Cardioprotective, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive [152].

13Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) BurkillTuber is applied as poultice on swellings by ethnic communities of Tinsukia district of Assam, India [60].Antioxidant [153].

14Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw.Boiled young fronds are taken with boiled rice as laxative by the Adi tribes of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh, India [154]; roots are boiled in water till the volume is 1/4th of the original volume; 3 mL of the decoction is taken with 2 mL honey on an empty stomach for 15 days against spermatorrhea by tribal communities in Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa, India [155]; decoction of rhizome is orally taken against haemoptysis and coughs by tribal communities of Poba Reserved Forest, Assam, India [156]; juice obtained from a handful of leaves is orally taken to get relief from cold and coughs by inhabitants of Kolli Hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India [157]; macerated roots are used against skin disorders in Rajbari district, Bangladesh [158]; macerated bark of roots orally taken for detoxification of medicine overdosage by the Tonchongya tribe in Bandarban district, Bangladesh [159]; leaves used to treat headache by indigenous people of Manokwari, West Papua [160]. Antioxidant, central nervous system stimulant [161].

15Ehretia acuminata R. Br.Extract of leaves mixed with water and taken orally once daily for 2-3 days against dysentery by Chorei tribes of southern Assam, India [162].None reported.

16Enhydra fluctuans Lour.Leaf and twig extract taken with equal amount of Ipomoea aquatica and Jussiaea repens administered orally at a dose of 1 teaspoon thrice daily for 1 week by the Chakma community of Tripura State, India, as hepatoprotective [120]; 1/2 cup of leaf infusion orally taken as remedy against gonorrhea by tribals of Mayurbhanj district of North Orissa, India [163]; stem used against ulcer, gastric, and whole plant against constipation by different tribes of Cachar district, Assam, India [164]; extract obtained from boiled plants used as antidiabetic by the Meitei-Pangal community of Thoubal district of Manipur, northeast India [165]; one teaspoon leaf juice mixed with equal amounts of Centella asiatica and cucumber juice orally taken against hypertension and excess bile secretion by the Tripuri and Reang tribes of Tripura State, India [166]; leaves used for headache, eye diseases, hookworm infection, and bile disorder by inhabitants of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa, India [167]; leaf and stem juice taken orally before meals as treatment for diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh [168]; tender shoots orally taken as a laxative by ethnic communities in Tinsukia district, Assam, India [60]; whole plants cooked and eaten as vegetable against edema in any part of the body by the Garo community of Tangail district, Bangladesh [169]; plant juice used against gonorrhea; leaf juice applied topically for prickly heats, and leaf juice orally taken against spermatorrhea by tea garden tribes of Darrang and Udalguri districts, Assam, India [170].Central nervous system depressant activity [171], hepatoprotective [172], antioxidant [173].

17Ficus hispida L.Exudate from roots taken orally by ethnic groups in Disoi Valley Reserve Forest of Jorhat district, Assam, India, against diabetes, and curry prepared from leaf is taken in jaundice [67]; fruits used as hepatoprotective by some ethnic communities of Tripura State, India [120]; 50 g dried stem bark is boiled in water with 100 g dried stem and root bark of Ficus benghalensis; the decoction is taken once a day for a period of 6 weeks against diabetes by the Palliyar tribals in Sirumalai Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India [68]; fruits and bark used against leprosy, for blood purification, and for increasing lactation by Kani tribals of Agasthiyarmalai Biosphere Reserve, southern Western Ghats, India [174]; leaves and seeds used by Kavirajes of Chalna area, Khulna district, against diuretic, vomiting, and dermatitis [175]; fruits orally taken as anxiolytic in Natore and Rajshahi districts, Bangladesh [100]; stem used for cure of wounds by tribals in Buldhana district, India [176]; paste of fruits rubbed by tribal communities to treat headache in Jalgaon district, North Maharashtra, India [177]; leaves used against ringworm by the tribes of Paderu Mandalam, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India [114]. Antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory [178].

18Glinus oppositifolius (L.) A. DC.Whole plant paste applied topically against skin diseases by traditional healers of South Orissa, India [179]; used against gastrointestinal disorders in Ashuganj of Brahmanbaria district, Bangladesh (plant part used not mentioned) [64]; whole plant juice used in Noakhali district, Bangladesh for improvement of appetite and as digestive aid; whole plant juice along with castor oil is applied to ears to cure ear ache; whole plant juice applied topically for itch, and skin diseases [59]; leaves are cooked and eaten for keeping the body cool in Pirojpur district, Bangladesh [180]; extract or curry of fresh leaves taken orally against skin diseases; leaf extract applied topically on wounds by inhabitants of three districts of West Bengal, India [181]. Antioxidant, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiprotozoal [182], antioxidant, antihyperglycemic [183].

19Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.Fresh leaf paste is applied on wounds and boils by the Yanadi tribe of Sriharikota Island, Andhra Pradesh, India [184]; fried leaves are orally taken for head reeling; leaf juice along with cow “ghee” (clarified butter) is taken for gonorrhea; leaf juice is taken as blood purifier and purgative in South Orissa, India [179]; crude extract of leaves applied to wounds and boils by the Chorei tribes of Southern Assam, North Eastern India [162]; juice obtained from macerated whole plant is orally taken as antidote to poisoning and against chicken pox in Kurigram district, Bangladesh [87]; whole plant used in digestive problems and liver diseases by rural people of “Chatara” block of Sonebhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India [185]; leaves are orally taken for leucorrhea and to increase lactation in nursing mothers in Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district, Bangladesh [148]; used against gastrointestinal disorders in Iloilo, Philippines (plant part used not mentioned) [103]; leaf juice used in jaundice, urinary trouble, and nervous hindrance by the Nath people of Assam, India [76]; tender shoots used in diabetes and as galactagogue by ethnic communities of Tinsukia district, Assam, India [60]. Antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, antimicrobial, antiulcer, nootropic, antiepileptic, central nervous system depressant, anxiolytic, hypolipidemic, diuretic, analgesic, antiscorpion venom [186].

20Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.Leaves are orally taken as blood tonic and leaves are mixed with salt to treat whitlow in Nigeria [187]; leaves are topically applied against boils by the Bench ethnic group of Ethiopia [188]; tubers used by tribals in Chitteri Hills, India, to treat diabetes [110]; leaves used for treating gingivitis and toothache in animals in Shitol Para village, Jhalokati district, Bangladesh [148]; roots used as aphrodisiac by tribes of Lalganj block of Mirzapur district, Uttar Pradesh, India [88]; used as digestive (tender leaves eaten boiled) by the Karbi tribe of Anglong district, Assam, India [189]; boiled tubers with skin on are orally taken for kidney problems in Oyo State, Nigeria [190]; leaves orally taken against diabetes in Yoruba medicine of south western Nigeria [191]. Antioxidant, antidiabetic, wound healing, antiulcer, antibacterial, antimutagenic [192].

21Leucas aspera (Willd.) LinkLeaves used against gastritis in Sialkot district, Pakistan [66]; paste of plant used against pain and inflammation; decoction of plant orally taken with 1-2 seeds of Syzygium aromaticum for chronic phlegmatic fever in northern part of Nara Desert, Pakistan [135]; leaf and twig juice taken orally by the Chakma tribe of Tripura State, India, against childhood jaundice and liver cirrhosis [120]; plant extract taken orally with plant extract of Phyllanthus amarus and boiled leaves of Eclipta prostrata and buttermilk twice a day for a period of one week against jaundice by the Palliyar tribes of India [68]; leaves used against gastritis in Jalalpur Jattan, Gujrat district, Pakistan [136]; leaves boiled in water and the vapor inhaled to cure headache and fever by traditional healers of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu, India [193]; leaf juice mixed with common salt taken orally by Kani tribals in India to cure indigestion in children [127]; whole plant are boiled in mustard oil and topically applied for treatment of severe pain in Faridpur and Rajbari districts, Bangladesh [194]; leaves and flowers used for treatment of colic in Greater Khulna Division, Bangladesh [195], macerated root is orally taken with table salt for excessive menstrual bleeding by the Tongchongya tribal community of Roangchaari in Bandarban district, Bangladesh [196]; leaves are rubbed over scorpion bitten area in Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu, India [197]; leaf juice mixed with water is orally taken against scabies; root juice mixed with goat’s milk is taken three times a day for four days to cure poisonous bites by villagers in Kumaragiri Hills, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India [198].Antifungal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant [199].

22Malva verticillata L.Roots used by local inhabitants against urinary complaints in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary in Western Himalaya, India [200]; dried and powdered roots used against dandruff, febrile illness, and headache by local inhabitants Bale Mountains National Park, Southeastern Ethiopia [201]; root decoction is orally taken against urinary tract infection by the Bhotia tribal community of in Indian Central Himalaya region [202]; leaves are eaten as vegetable against stomach ailments by ethnic communities of Tinsukia district, Assam, India [60].Antidiabetic [203].

23Marsilea minuta L.Leaf juice taken with curd for insomnia and leaves fried in “ghee” (clarified butter) taken orally for epilepsy by rural people of Jajpur district, Odisha, India [73]; dried and powdered leaves taken with hot water in case of diabetes by the Valayian tribal people of Alagarkoil Hills of Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India [204]; whole plant used by tribals against body ache in Jharkand, India [205]; whole plant used in coughs, spastic conditions of leg muscles, insomnia, and as sedative by local and tribal people of Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India [206]; decoction of leaves taken with ginger to cure cough and bronchitis by village people of Rajasthan, India [207]; whole plants used in cough and spastic condition of leg muscle; whole plant paste taken with curd prepared from black cow’s milk for epilepsy and leaf juice dropped in nostrils of nose for cure of migraine by tribals of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa, India [155]; leaves used against diabetes by Irula tribe of Kalavai village, Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India [74]; whole plant juice taken orally against gastrointestinal disorders by a Christian community residing in Mirzapur village of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh [208]; fresh leaves and petiole juice used against migraine by tribals of Hadoti plateau, southeastern Rajasthan, India [209]. Hepatoprotective [210], antistress [211], antitussive, expectorant [212], antidiabetic [213], antiaggressive [214], antitumor [215].

24Moringa oleifera Lam.Leaves taken orally to reduce body heat; flowers advised to be taken as food to increase sperm production in men and to treat indigestion and eye diseases by traditional healers in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, India [193]; decoction of leaves, barks, seeds, and roots used for treatment of skin diseases, headache, rheumatism, and inflammation and as a detoxifying agent by villagers around Kimboza forest reserve in Morogoro, Tanzania [216]; seed powder taken with a glass of lukewarm water against indigestion and flatulence in North Bengal, India [150]; fresh leaf juice orally taken against menstrual pain in rural areas of Kerala, India [217]; bark used for fever and fits; leaves used against constipation; flowers used against coughs and male sterility and fruits used against infertility in men and women in Tamil Nadu, India [101]; fresh juice of root bark used against dental caries in Coastal Dakshina Kannada, India [218]; leaf, flower, and bark used against stomach pain and to increase fertility by Kani tribals of Pechiparai Hills, Tamil Nadu, India [127]; decoction of bark along with barks of Alstonia scholaris, Mangifera indica and Aegle marmelos used for treatment of jaundice by folk medicinal practitioners in Bangladesh [219]; seeds used for treatment of epilepsy by folk medicinal practitioners of Brahmanbaria, Narsinghdi, and Rajshahi districts of Bangladesh [220]; bark decoction taken orally against puerperal fever, pain, jaundice, and debility in villages of Sylhet district, Bangladesh [221]; stems are taken orally against rheumatism; flowers are cooked like vegetable and eaten as treatment for chicken pox by the Pahan tribe of Natore district, Bangladesh [222]; leaf juice taken orally against diabetes by the Garo tribal community of Netrakona district, Bangladesh [63]. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihyperlipidemic, antifertility, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antiulcer, central nervous system depressant [223].

25Musa paradisiaca L.Root tincture is used against weak erection; stem juice taken orally for low sperm count, and two roasted unripe fruits taken orally daily as an aphrodisiac by the IFA Nkari people of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria [224]; juice extract of leaf sheath used against snake venom by the Kani tribes of Agasthiyarmalai Biosphere reserve, India [174]; fruits taken orally with leaf and stem juice of Basella rubra and sugar to prevent excessive bleeding following childbirth in Kurigram district, Bangladesh [87]; fruits used for treating diarrhea and dysentery by the Zou tribe of Churachandpur district, Manipur, India [225]; ripe fruit taken orally with “lightning bugs” to enhance female fertility in Dhemaji district, Assam, India [226]. Antidiarrheal, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, antiallergic, antisnake venom [227].

26Musa sapientum L.Root tincture taken orally against weak erection and as an aphrodisiac by the IFA Nkari people of Nigeria [224]; leaves steeped in hot water and taken orally thrice daily for one week by the Kanuri tribe of northeastern Nigeria to treat anemia, yellow fever, and malaria [228]; fruits used in Thailand as a laxative [229]; stem and leaves used for memory enhancement and antiaging in Sagamu, Nigeria [230]; inflorescence used against bad dreaming, bed wetting by children, insanity and unusual behavior, and headache by the Tai-Khamyangs of Assam, India [126]; leaf and stem juice taken orally against fever by villagers of Vasu Vihar village, Bogra district, Bangladesh [61]; leaf juice applied to ears for ear ache due to cold, and root juice taken orally for helminthiasis in Dhamrai, Bangladesh [231]; exudates of rotten root applied to wounds by the Igede people of Nigeria [232]; fruits with black pepper are taken orally for respiratory problems and flowers are used in diabetes and genital disorders, while plant is used dysentery, high blood pressure, and rheumatic pain in Sonebhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India [185]. Antidiarrheal, antiulcer, antimicrobial, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, diuretic, wound healing, antiallergic [227].

27Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.Rhizome extract used against dysentery in Buldhana district, Maharashtra, India [233]; paste of young leaves along with fruits of Phyllanthus emblica applied on forehead to get relief from headache; flower petal decoction is orally taken against diarrhea; young flower paste is used as a cardiotonic and for fever and liver ailments; dried seed powder taken with cow milk against headache; young seed paste applied topically for skin diseases; powdered root taken for ringworms; root paste taken in lemon juice for piles in South Orissa, India [179]; dried flower powder taken with ghee orally for treatment of piles by the Mullu kuruma tribe of Wayanad district, Kerala, India [109]; flower juice used by tribals in Chitteri Hills, India, to treat diabetes [110]; rhizomes used by tribals of Pedabayalu Mandalam, Andhra Pradesh, India, to treat dysentery [114]; tuber is eaten raw as treatment for gastrointestinal problems by villagers of Gingee Hills, Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu, India [234]; whole plant used in heart trouble, urinary diseases, bleeding piles, and as nerve tonic; seeds used during pregnancy and also used as diuretic, sedative, and expectorant (plant part used not mentioned) in Sonebhadra district, India [185]; seed powder is taken with honey for 40 days by Gond tribe of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India, for infertility [115]; decoction of red-flowered plant orally taken on an empty stomach once a day by tribals of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa, India, for treatment of blood dysentery [118]. Anti-ischemic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antifertility, antiarrhythmic, antifibrosis, antiviral, antiproliferative, immunomodulatory (seeds), antidiarrheal, hypoglycemic, sedative, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, immunomodulatory (rhizome), hypoglycemic, antioxidant, aldose reductase inhibitory, antibacterial, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, antiplatelet (flower), cardioprotective, antiviral, antioxidant, lipolytic, hypocholesterolemic, antiobesity, hepatoprotective, anticancer (leaves) [235].

28Nymphaea pubescens Willd.Rhizome extract taken with sugar candy taken orally twice a day for 3 days against leucorrhea by tribes of Kinwat forest, Nanded district, Maharashtra, India [236]; paste of rhizomes and seeds of Piper nigrum applied externally on neck against goiter by tribals of Boudh district, Odisha, India [237]; decoction of rhizome of red-flowered plant used against blood dysentery; rhizome juice taken for leucorrhea; powdered rhizome with honey taken for piles, dysentery, and dyspepsia; root juice taken to keep stomach cool and get relief from burning sensations during urination; root paste of red-flowered plant taken for menorrhagia; root paste along with flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, bark of Ficus religiosa, and seeds of Sesamum indicum taken for abortion [179]; root is tied on waste of pregnant woman to prevent abortion by the Tharu tribe of Devipatan division, India [238]; roots used against dysentery by tribes of Pedabayalu Mandalam, Visakhapatnam district, India [114]. Hepatoprotective [239], anticancer [240].

29Oxalis corniculata L.Leaves used against diarrhea and dysentery in Gujrat district, Pakistan [136]; plant paste filtered and used as eye drop against eye diseases by ethnic groups of Disoi Valley Reserve Forest, India [67]; leaves used against dysentery by tribes of Mirzapur district, India [88]; leaf juice with curd is orally taken against diarrhea and dysentery by the Mullu kuruma tribe of Wayanad district, India [109]; used against stomach complaints, piles, colic, and dysentery in Manipur, India (plant part used not mentioned) [106]; extract of aerial vegetative portion taken with sugar against abdominal pain and diarrhea by the Tai Ahom tribe of Dibrugarh district, Assam, India [241]; whole plant used against oral ailments in Dharwad district, Karnataka, India [242]; leaf paste is applied over forehead to treat headache; leaves are consumed as salad for indigestion and loss of appetite by the Khamti tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, India [57]; stem, bark, and root used against dyspepsia, piles, anemia, and tympanitis by tribals of Kaptipada Forest Range, India [71]; whole plant juice is orally taken against dog bite and snake bite by the Khatriya and Kashya clans of the Bagdi people of Rajbari district, Bangladesh [243]. Antiinflammatory, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, antifungal, antiulcer,
antinociceptive, anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic,
abortifacient, antimicrobial,
wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiamebic, antiepileptic [244].

30Raphanus sativus L.Roots used against jaundice in Bangladesh [245]; used against whooping cough in Tunisia and Italy (plant part used not mentioned) [246]; leaves and roots orally taken against acidity in Firozabad district, India [247]; used against syphilis in Samahni Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan [248]; used against coughs in Jalgaon district, India [249]; roots used against urinary trouble by tribes of Pedabayalu Mandalam, Visakhapatnam district, India [114]; roots are consumed to regularize digestive complaints in Buldhana district, India [233]; fresh leaf juice is orally taken with sugar candy and butter milk to cure piles in Dharmabad Taluka of Nanded district, India [250]; fresh roots or leaves are eaten raw against urinary complaints and as a diuretic by tribes of Northeast Gujarat, India [251]; seeds are taken orally against sexual debility by natives of Bargarh district, Orissa, India [252]. Antihypertensive, antiobesity, antidiabetic, constipation, cough [253].

31Saccharum spontaneum L.Whole plant used for improvement of appetite and treatment of abdominal pain in Gujrat district, Punjab, Pakistan [136]; pulp of crushed leaves used against pus formation in any part of the body in Jaunsar-bawar, Dehradun district, India [254]; crushed roots are boiled in water and orally taken against asthma in Mirzapur village of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh [208]; paste prepared from roots of the plant and roots of Cynodon dactylon taken with cow milk and sugar early in the morning for 1 month against leucorrhea in Meerut district, Uttar Pradesh, India [255]; used against gastrointestinal disorders in Iloilo, Philippines (plant part used not given) [103]. Antiurolithiasis [256], antioxidant [257].

32Scoparia dulcis L.Stem infusion is used by the ethnic communities of Tinsukia district, Assam, India against gastritis [60]; decoction of leaves taken continuously for a week for treatment of sore throat by Kol tribals of Similipal Bioreserve, Orissa, India [118]; leaves and twigs taken orally as a hepatoprotective agent (i.e., against jaundice) by the Darlong tribe of Tripura State, India [120]; crushed root extract orally taken for stomach pain, urinary disorders, and kidney stone by the Kurichya tribe of Kerala, India [124]; leaves, flowers, and fruits are ground into a paste and used against wounds and to control bleeding by the Kani tribals of Tamil Nadu, India [127]; used against diarrhea in Trinidad and Tobago (plant part used not mentioned) [258]; decoction of leaves of the plant along with leaves of Eclipta alba and Cynodon dactylon used against diabetes by the Santal tribe of Thakurgaon district, Bangladesh [259]; whole plant extract is orally taken against urinary diseases by the Kurichar tribe of Wayanad district, Southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India [260]; whole plant used against cough, bronchitis, and kidney trouble by people of Golaghat district, Assam, India [261]; leaf juice orally administered by the Pankho tribal community in Rangamati district, Bangladesh, against spermatorrhea [262]; leaf juice used by folk medicinal practitioners in Kurigram district, Bangladesh, against “meho” (diabetes) [87]; plant decoction used by the Darlong tribe of Tripura State, India, against jaundice [120]; paste of tender shoots along with Paederia scandens in the ratio of 2 : 1 taken 3 times per day for 2 days during menstruation against female infertility in Dhemaji district of Assam, India [226]; macerated leaves taken orally against fever by the Igede people of Nigeria [232]; 50 g whole plant together with 50 g whole plant of Phyllanthus amarus and 50 g Sida acuta (whole plant) are made into a paste and mixed with 250 mL drinking water and taken orally twice a day for 1-2 days to treat snake bite by tribes of South Surguja, Chhattisgarh, India [263]; leaf ground into a paste and used for wound healing by tribal people in Southern India [264]; leaf extract is orally administered by Meche people of Jhapa district, eastern Nepal, against continuous weeping by baby [265]. Antidiabetic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimalarial, neurotropic, anticancer, hypertensive, sedative, diuretic [266].

33Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers.Bark used in Visakhapatnam district, India, by tribal people against diarrhea [114]; leaves used against skin lice by rural people of Mayurbhanj district, Orissa, India [163]; leaves prepared in the form of soup and taken orally by the Valaiyan tribe of Alagarkoil Hills, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India, as vermifuge and against peptic ulcer [204]; 50 mL of leaf decoction taken orally on an empty stomach as vermifuge and against stomach ailments by tribal and rural people of Sirumalai Hills, Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu, India [267]; leaf, young fruit and bark used against headache and fever by the Malayaraya tribe of Vannapuram village in Idukki, Kerala, India [268]; cooked flowers taken orally against dizziness in Mysore and Coorg districts, Karnataka, India [269]; leaf decoction taken orally for body cooling by Kani tribals of Tirunelveli hills, Western Ghats, India [270]; cooked leaves are orally taken to give cooling effect to infected eyes by the Irula and the Soliga tribe of Sathyamangalam forests of Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India [271]. Wound healing, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, antioxidant, antihelmintic, antidiarrheal, analgesic, diuretic, central nervous system depressant, laxative [272].

34Spilanthes paniculata Wall. ex DC.Used against toothache by Tripura tribal medicinal practitioners in Tripura State, India [82]; leaf juice is orally taken (1 teaspoon thrice daily for 3-4 days) against jaundice and cirrhosis by the Halam tribe of Tripura State, India [120]; flower heads are chewed against toothache in Coastal Dakshina Kannada, India [218]; flowers and fruits are directly chewed by the Adi tribes of Lower Dibang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India, for toothache [273]; leaves are used against diarrhea, dysentery, and high blood pressure by the Naga and Kuki tribes of Senapati district, Manipur State, India [274]; leaves are orally taken by the Apatani tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, India, against constipation [275]. Antifungal, antipyretic, local anaesthetic, bioinsecticide, anticonvulsant,
antioxidant, aphrodisiac, analgesic, pancreatic lipase inhibitor, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, diuretic, vasorelaxant, anti-human
immunodeficiency virus, toothache relieve, anti-inflammatory [276].