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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 7387286, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7387286
Research Article

Unsweetened Natural Cocoa Powder Has the Potential to Attenuate High Dose Artemether-Lumefantrine-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Non-Malarious Guinea Pigs

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Ghana School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Legon, Ghana
2Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Korle-Bu, Ghana
3Department of Physiology, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Korle-Bu, Ghana
4Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Ghana School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Legon, Ghana
5Department of Animal Experimentation, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, Accra, Ghana

Received 29 March 2016; Revised 30 May 2016; Accepted 8 June 2016

Academic Editor: Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim

Copyright © 2016 Isaac Julius Asiedu-Gyekye et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective. This study investigated the elemental composition of unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP), its effect on nitric oxide, and its hepatoprotective potential during simultaneous administration with high-dose artemether/lumefantrine (A/L). Method. Macro- and microelements in UNCP were analyzed with EDXRF spectroscopy. Thirty (30) male guinea-pigs were then divided into five groups. For groups 3 (low-dose), 4 (medium-dose), and 5 (high-dose), the animals received oral UNCP prophylactically for 14 days. Group 1 received distilled water (14 days) and group 2 A/L for the last 3 days (days 12 to 14). After euthanisation, biochemical and histopathological examinations were carried out in all groups. Results. Phytochemical analysis of UNCP showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and cardiac glycosides. Thirty-eight (38) macro- and microelements were found. UNCP produced significant decreases in ALT, ALP, GGT, and AST levels. A significant increase in total protein levels was observed during A/L+UNCP administration in comparison to 75 mg/kg A/L group. Histopathological examinations buttressed the protective effects of cocoa administration. UNCP administration increased nitric oxide levels 149.71% () compared to controls. Conclusion. UNCP increases nitric oxide levels and has hepatoprotective potential during A/L administration. A high level of copper was observed which may be detrimental during high daily consumptions of UNCP.