Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2018 / Article
Special Issue

Natural Products and/or Isolated Compounds on Wound Healing

View this Special Issue

Review Article | Open Access

Volume 2018 |Article ID 4089541 | 58 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4089541

African Herbal Remedies with Antioxidant Activity: A Potential Resource Base for Wound Treatment

Academic Editor: Olumayokun A. Olajide
Received03 May 2018
Revised23 Oct 2018
Accepted07 Nov 2018
Published22 Nov 2018

Abstract

The use of traditional herbal remedies as alternative medicine plays an important role in Africa since it forms part of primary health care for treatment of various medical conditions, including wounds. Although physiological levels of free radicals are essential to the healing process, they are known to partly contribute to wound chronicity when in excess. Consequently, antioxidant therapy has been shown to facilitate healing of such wounds. Also, a growing body of evidence suggests that, at least, part of the therapeutic value of herbals may be explained by their antioxidant activity. This paper reviews African herbal remedies with antioxidant activity with the aim of indicating potential resources for wound treatment. Firstly, herbals with identified antioxidant compounds and, secondly, herbals with proven antioxidant activity, but where the compound(s) responsible for the activity has not yet been identified, are listed. In the latter case it has been attempted to ascribe the activity to a compound known to be present in the plant family and/or species, where related activity has previously been documented for another genus of the species. Also, the tests employed to assess antioxidant activity and the potential caveats thereof during assessment are briefly commented on.

1. Introduction

Human cells are continuously exposed to exogenous oxidants as well as to those produced endogenously during normal physiological processes. Antioxidants form part of protective mechanisms that exist in human cells to scavenge and neutralize these oxidants. Oxidants such as the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are involved in several diseases [1, 2]. Antioxidant defenses are defective in these diseases and therefore it is possible to limit oxidative damage and ameliorate disease progression with antioxidant supplementation [3].

With reference to wounds, antioxidants play pivotal roles that consequently restore normalcy to injured skin. Basal levels of ROS and other free radicals are essential in almost all phases of the wound healing process (Figure 1) [4]. During haemostasis, ROS regulates the constriction of blood vessels to limit loss of blood. Furthermore, ROS facilitates the migration of neutrophils and monocytes from surrounding blood vessels towards the injury site. The presence of ROS and other free radicals in the wound vicinity during the inflammatory phase of the healing process is also required for infection control and general maintenance of sterility. Finally, ROS promotes the proliferation of keratinocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts, thereby enhancing angiogenesis and collagen deposition. However, uncontrolled release of ROS could cause oxidative stress, resulting in cellular and tissue damage, thereby causing delayed healing [1].

To keep ROS within physiological levels, antioxidants serve as electron donors, thereby preventing them from capturing electrons from other molecules which ultimately leads to their destruction [4]. Both nonenzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol, as well as enzymatic antioxidants like catalase and peroxiredoxin, have shown potential to normalize high ROS levels and thus stimulate healing [4]. By normalizing ROS, antioxidants can enhance their physiological roles and thereby accelerate the wound healing process. Naturally occurring antioxidants are generally favoured over their synthetic counterparts, as the latter are suspected to cause or promote negative health effects [5]. This has resulted in the restricted use of synthetic antioxidants in several countries [6].

This review provides a comprehensive list of African medicinal plants and isolated compounds with antioxidant activities, with the aim of highlighting the continent’s rich herbal resource base for possible management of wounds and allied conditions. Previous reviews have listed a number of these African medicinal plants with antioxidant properties [79]. The present work has therefore aimed to expand the list to include medicinal plant species with antioxidant properties that are used in different African countries including those from Madagascar and Mauritius. For the sake of inclusivity, plants that have been shown to contain compounds that hold the potential of being novel antioxidants are also considered. In addition, those with anti-inflammatory properties were also included due to an earlier observation that the anti-inflammatory activities of the same extracts could be explained, at least in part, by their antioxidant properties [10]. Additional efforts were also made to include information, where available, on their vernacular names, their regional distribution, and medicinal use and plant parts used for these preparations or for the isolation of the antioxidant ingredient(s). Table 1 lists medicinal plants that have been investigated and have confirmed antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory activity and that contain compounds which are known to have such activities. Table 2 on the other hand lists medicinal plants that have confirmed antioxidant activity but the compounds responsible for their antioxidant property have not yet been identified.


Family and plant nameVernacular namePlant partCountry/areaMedicinal use and/or experimental validationCompounds isolatedReference

Aloaceae

Aloe barbadensis Mill.Burn plant,
siber, sbar/essouktouri /mar, sbar
Leaf exudateAlgeria, Morocco, TunisiaAntioxidant activity.
Used as laxative, purgative, diuretic, asthma, baldness, cuts, bounds, skin rash.
Flavonoids, two dihydrocoumarin derivatives and two flavone glycosides[3234]

Aloe claviflora  Burch.Kraal aloeLeaf exudateSouth AfricaRadical scavenging activity and moderate activity in the lipid peroxidation assayChromone glycoside[35, 36]

A. saponaria (Ait.) Haw.Mpelu
Mnemvu
Soap aloe, African aloe
Leaf exudateSouth AfricaRadical scavenging activity and moderate activity in the lipid peroxidation assayChromone glycoside[35, 37]

A. thraskii  BakerDune aloe, ikhala, umhlabaLeaf exudate South AfricaRadical scavenging activity and moderate activity in the lipid peroxidation assayChromone glycoside[35, 36]

Amaranthaceae

Amaranthus caudatus L.Tassel flowerSeed;
Young shoots
EthiopiaAntioxidant propertiesTocopherols, phenolic acids[3840]

Anacardiaceae

Anacardium occidentale L.Not signalizedStem-barkNigeriaAnti-inflammatory properties.Agathisflavone, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside[41, 42]

Lannea edulis Engl.Wild GrapeRoot-barkZimbabweSemipolar extracts high activity both as radical scavengers and lipoxygenase inhibitors. Lipophilic extracts inhibitor of 15-lipoxygenase.
Used for painful menstruation, urogenital infection, sexually transmitted diseases.
Two alkylphenols (cardonol 7 and cordonol 13) and three dihydroalkylhexenones[4345]

Lannea velutina A. RichBemmbeyi
Raisinier velu, Lannéa velouté
Leaves, bark, root MaliAntioxidant propertiesProanthocyanidins[46, 47]

Mangifera indica L.Mango
Mangoro
Leaves, seeds,
stem-bark
Benin
Burkina Faso
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and hypoglycemic effects.
Used to treat urogenital infection, tonic, diarrhoea, tooth ache, gingivitis, liver disease, diabetes.
Polyphenolics, flavonoids[12, 13, 46, 47]

Apiaceae

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.Gotu kolaLeaves South AfricaAntioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
Used for wound healing. Protection against radiation-induced injury.
Cardio protective effect.
Oral treatment increased antioxidant enzymes.
Quercetin and tetrandrine[4855]

Apocynaceae

Alstonia boonei De Wild.Awun,
Egbu
Stem-bark
Root-bark
Nigeria
Ghana
Anti-inflammatory activity.
Used for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.
Rutin, Quercetin robinobioside,
Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, Kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside
[5659]

Catharanthus roseus
 (L.) G. Don
Madagascar
periwinkle
kaka poul, karaktè dezosm blan, zèb sosyé
Whole plantMadagascarAntioxidant activity and ability to increase antioxidant enzymes.
Used for conjunctivitis.
Phenols[60]

Arecaceae

Elaeis guineensis Jacq.OriNutsGhana
 Nigeria
Anti-inflammatory activity.
Used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.
3,4 hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, carotenoids, α-tocopherol[12, 61]

Asclepiadaceae

Secamone afzelii Rhoem.Ahaban
Kroratima
StemCentral AfricaAntioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Used for wound healing.
Flavonoids, caffeic acid derivatives and α-tocopherol.[6264]

Asphodelaceae

Bulbine capitata Poelln.Scented grass bulbineRoots
Aerial parts
South AfricaAnti-inflammatory and weak antioxidant and free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities.
Knipholone as a selective inhibitor of leukotriene metabolism.
Used as a mild purgative and to cure gonorrhoeal infections.
Anthraquinone Knipholone[6573]

Bulbine frutescens Willd.Snake flower, cat’s tail,
burn jelly plant
Leaf juice
Roots
 South AfricaAnti-inflammatory and weak antioxidant and free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities.
Knipholone is a selective inhibitor of leukotriene metabolism.
Used to treat burns, rashes, blisters, insect bites, cracked lips, acne, cold sores, mouth ulcers and areas of cracked skin.
Phenylanthraquinones,
Isofuranonaphthoquinones,
Gaboroquinones A and B and 4′-O-demethylknipholone-4′-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and Knipholone (anthroquinone)
[65, 67, 70, 74, 75]

Kniphofia foliosa Hochst.Red-not-peker KenyaAnti-inflammatory and weak antioxidant and free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities. Knipholone as a selective inhibitor of leukotriene metabolism.
Used for abdominal cramps, wound healing
Anthraquinone: Knipholone[65, 7678]

Asteraceae

Artemisia abyssinica Sch.Bip.Chikugn (Amharic)
Arrtta bera (Or)
Whole plantEthiopiaRadical scavenging and antioxidant activities.
Used for stomach pain and wound healing.
Essential oils and flavonoids[7982]

A. afra Jacq.
 ex Willd.
African wormwood
Wild wormwood
Roots, stems and leavesEthiopia
South Africa
Radical scavenging and antioxidant activities.
Used for stomach pain, coughs, colds, fever, loss of appetite, colic, headache, earache, intestinal worms to malaria.
Essential oils and flavonoids[79, 8284]

A. arvensis L.Mugwort
Wormwood
Whole plant AlgeriaRadical scavenging and antioxidant activities.Phenolic compounds and flavonoids.[85]

A. campestris L.Field sagewort 
 Field wormwood
Whole plant AlgeriaRadical scavenging and antioxidant activities.
Used to treat insomnia
Phenolic compounds and flavonoids.[8587]

Bidens pilosa L.Black jackLeaves
Roots
South AfricaAntioxidant and anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antihypertensive activities.
Used to treat diabetes and backache.
Phenolic compounds: quercetin 3-O-rabinobioside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside.
Two novel methoxylated flavone glycosides: quercetin 3,3′-dimethyl ether 7-
O-c¢-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ~ 6)-fl-D-glucopyranoside and the known quercetin 3,3′-dimethyl ether 7-O-fl-D-
glucopyranoside
[19, 8891]

Cynara scolymus L.Globe
artichoke
LeavesEthiopiaAntioxidative and lipid-lowering properties and eNOS up-regulating ability.
Used to treat chronic liver and gall bladder diseases, jaundice, hepatitis and atherosclerosis.
Polyphenolic flavonoid compounds[14, 15, 92, 93]

Helichrysum dasyanthum SweetAfrikaans common name of kooigoed (bedding material)LeavesSouth AfricaAntioxidant, radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities.
Used to treat wounds, infections, respiratory conditions.
Essential oils[9496]

H. petiolare Hilliard & B.L. Burtt.Everlasting, ImphephoLeaves South AfricaAntioxidant, radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities.
Used to treat wounds, infections, respiratory conditions, asthma, chest problems and high blood pressure
Essential oils[9496]

Tagetes minuta L.Khaki bush
stinking roger
muster John Henry, wild marigold
Leaves MadagascarAntimicrobial and antioxidant activity.
Used as anthelmintic, antispasmodic, purgative and for the treatment of gastritis, indigestion and internal worms.
Essential oils.[23, 97]

Balanophoraceae

Thonningia sanguinea Vahl.NkomangoRoots GhanaAntioxidative and radical scavenging activities and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity.
Used for bronchial asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and diabetes.
Ellagitannins: Thonningianin A and B[98103]

Balanitaceae

Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) DelileHausa: aduwa
Desert date
Bark and rootsEast AfricaAntioxidant properties in vitro confirmed.
The bark and roots are used as laxatives, and for colic. The bark is used for sore throats, and as a remedy for sterility, mental diseases, epilepsy, yellow fever, syphilis, and tooth aches.
Coumarins, flavonoids, saponins (Balanin 1 (3β,12β,14β,16β) cholest-5-ene-3,16-diyl bis (β-d -glucopyranoside)- 12-sulphate, a new sterol sulfonated and Balanin 2 (3β,20S,22R,25R)-26-hydroxy-22-acetoxyfurost-5-en-3- yl-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-glucopyranoside, a novel furostanol saponin)[11, 104106]

Bignoniaceae

Jacaranda mimosaefolia D.Don.Sharpleaf JacarandaLeaves
Stem-bark
 NigeriaShown to have antimicrobial activity and used to treat infectionsPhenylethanoid glucoside, jacaranone[107109]

Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.African tulipStem-barkNigeria, Ghana,
Cameroon (Yaounde region)
Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anticomplement and anti-HIV activities.
Used to treat itching, arthritis, and diabetes.
Flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives[63, 110]

Tecoma stans (L.)
H.B. & K.
Yellow
trumpet bush
Leaves
Stem-bark
 NigeriaAnti-diabetic activity is shown.4-O-E-caffeoyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1′→ 3)-alpha/beta-D-glucopyranose, E/Z-acetoside, isoacetoside[107, 111]

Capparaceae

Cleome arabica L.Cleome efeinaLeavesEgyptAntioxidant activity, inhibited lipoxygenase activity and calcium ionophore-stimulated LTB4 synthesis in human neutrophils.
Used to treat wounds and prevent inflammation
Rutin and quercetin.[112, 113]

Clusiaceae

Garcinia kola HeckelBitter cola/aku ilu, agbu ilu.
Nigeria
Hausa:
Góórò pl. gwârráá or gòòràrràkáí
Seeds NigeriaInhibit lipid peroxidation and protective against H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks and oxidized bases.
Used for laryngitis, coughs, liver disease, bronchitis and throat infections. Inhibits Aflatoxin B1 induced genotoxicity.
Biflavonoid: kolaviron[114120]

Harungana madagascariensis Poir.OtoriStem-bark Eastern NigeriaSignificant antioxidant activity.
Used to treat skin diseases.
Prenylated Anthronoids: harunmadagascarin A [8,9-dihydroxy-4,4-bis-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-6-methyl-2,3-(2,2-dimethylpyrano)anthrone], harunganol B[121123]

Hypericum carinatum Griseb.Not signalizedLeavesEgyptAntioxidant and radical scavenging activities.Benzophenones: cariphenone A (6-benzoyl-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2,8-trimethyl-2H-chromene) and cariphenone B (8-benzoyl-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2,6-trimethyl-2H-chromene).[124, 125]

H. perforatum L.Common St.-Johns’ wortWhole plant EgyptAnti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Free radical scavenging, metal-chelation, and reactive oxygen quenching activities. Protective against scopolamine-induced altered brain oxidative stress status and amnesia in rats. Ability to suppress the activities of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), key enzymes in the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids from arachidonic acid (AA).
Analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic and sedative.
Flavonoids: Rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, quercitrin, and quercetin.[124, 126131]

Cochlospermaceae

Cochlospermum tinctorium A.Rich.N’tiribaraRootsSudan, Uganda
West Africa
Antioxidant activity.
Used for malaria, jaundice.
Polyphenols: gallotannins and ferulic acids[35]

Combretaceae

Combretum woodii Drum.Large-leaved forest bushwillowLeafSouth AfricaAntioxidant and antibacterial activities. Also tannins showed inhibitory effect on Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation and radical scavenger activity.
Used for pneumonia, syphilis, abdominal pain and conjunctivitis.
Polyphenols: Combretastatin B5 (2′,3′4-trihydroxyl,3,5,4′-trimethoxybibenzyl).
Tannins.
[132137]

Combretum imberbeNot signifiedSouth AfricaCombretum species are widely used for treating abdominal disorders (e.g. abdominal pains, diarrhea) backache, bilharziasis, chest coughs, colds, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhoea, earache, fattening babies, fever, headache1α,3β-dihydroxy-12-oleanen-29-oic, 1-hydroxy-12-olean-30-oic acid, 3,30-dihydroxyl-12-oleanen-22-one, and 1,3,24-trihydroxyl-12-olean-29-oic acid, a new pentacyclic triterpenoid (1α,23-dihydroxy-12-oleanen-29-oic acid-3β-O-2,4-di-acetyl-l-rhamnopyranoside)[138]

Guiera senegalensis J.F.Gmel.N’kundjèLeafWestern AfricaAntioxidant and radical scavenging activities.
Used to treat dysentery, diarrhoea, gastro-intestinal pains and disorders, rheumatism, diabetes and fever.
Flavonol aglycones, flavonol glycosides and flavonoids (catechin, myricitrin, rutin and quercetin) as well as tannins (galloylquinic acids (hydrolysable tannins).[139143]

Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC.Silver cluster-leafBarkSouth AfricaRadical scavenging and antioxidant activities.
Used to treat diabetes and pneumonia and to relieve colic
Pentacyclic triterpenoids
Anolignan B
[21, 136, 144]

Commelinaceae

Commelina diffusa Burm.f.Wandering Jew
Climbing day flower
LeavesGhannaAnti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
Used to treat fever and is diuretic
Flavonoids[63, 145]

Palisota hirsuta K.Schum.,Not signifiedAqueous leaf extractsNigeriaAnti-inflammatory effects against carrageenan induced hind paw oedemaNot identified[146, 147]

Crassulaceae

Bryophyllum
pinnatum
 (Lam.) Oken
Synonym: Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers.
Ufu ivoLeavesNigeria, South AfricaAnti-inflammatory properties.
Used for earache.
Flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpenoids[12, 148, 149]

Cupressaceae

Juniperus procera
 Hochst ex. Endl.
African JuniperYoung twigs and budsEthiopiaAntioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.
Used to relieve stomach pain.
Essental oils[79, 150, 151]

Dioscoreaceae

Dioscorea dumetorum (Kunth) paxYamTubers NigeriaAntioxidant activity to modify serum lipid and anti-inflammatory activity.
Used to treat diabetes.
Dioscorea and Dioscoretine[152154]

Drosera madagascariensis
 (DC.)
D. ramentacea Burchell
SundewRoots and flowers MadagascarAnti-inflammatory effects.
Used to treat coughs and asthma
Flavonoids: hyperoside, quercetin and isoquercitrin[155, 156]

Drosera rotundifolia L.Round-leaf SundewRoots and flowers MadagascarAnti-inflammatory effects.
Used to treat coughs and asthma
Flavonoids: hyperoside, quercetin and isoquercitrin[155, 157]

Euphorbiaceae

Alchornea laxiflora (Benth) Pax & K. Hoffm.Wild bananaLeaf and root NigeriaAntioxidant and anti-microbial activity.
Used to treat jaundice and liver disorders. Also used in food preservation.
Quercetin-7,4′-disulphate, quercetin, quercetin-3′,4′-disulphate, quercetin-3,4′-diacetate, rutin and quercetrin[158161]

Bridelia ferruginea Benth.OraLeaves, stem
and bark
West Africa
Democratic republic of Congo, Nigeria
Anti-inflammatory.
Used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, gastro-intestinal disorders, gynecological disorders (including sterility), and rheumatic pains.
A bioflavonoid: Gallocatechin-(4′→O →7)-Epigallocatechin.[12, 57, 162166]

Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Muell. Arg.Jororo
Káfàr mútúwàà
Senampendi
Mvundza jembe
Leaves, roots West Africa
Nigeria
Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.
Used for abortion.
Flavonoids: quercetin and quercitrin.[167172]

Fabaceae

Aspalathus linearis (Brum. F.) R. Dahlgr.RooibosLeavesSouth AfricaRadical Scavenging Capacity
Used to treat stomach cramps, insomnia, and to reduce stress.
Phenolic Fractions, Tannins and monomeric flavonoids aspalathin, nothofagin, quercetin, rutin, isoquercitrin, orientin, isoorientin, luteolin, vitexin, isovitexin, and chrysoeriol.[1621, 173, 174]

Burkea africana HookWild SyringaBarkMali and Sub-Saharan AfricaAntioxidant and radical scavenging activity.
Used to treat coughs, colds, stomach obstruction, infusions against gonorrhoea and syphilis.
Proanthocyanidins; fisetinidol-(4alpha- >8)-catechin 3-gallate and bis-fisetinidol-(4alpha- >6, 4alpha- >8)-catechin 3-gallate, with smaller amounts of flavan-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin and fisetinidol)[175, 176]

Crotalaria podocarpa DC.CrotalariaRootsSouth AfricaAnti-inflammatory activity.
Used for the treatment of sore-eyes and boils.
Expectorant.
Flavonoids[67, 177]

Cyclopia intermedia
 E. Mey. and C. subternata Vog.
HoneybushLeaves and stem South AfricaAntioxidant activity.
Used as tonic for colds, catarrh and tuberculosis.
Pinitol, shikimic acid, p-coumaric acid, 4-glucosyltyrosol, epigallocatechin gallate, the isoflavone orobol, the flavanones hesperedin, narirutin and eriocitrin, a glycosylated flavan, the flavones luteolin, 5-deoxyluteolin and scolymoside, the xanthone mangiferin and the flavonol C-6-glucosylkaempferol.
Phenolic content: tyrosol and a methoxy analogue, 2-[4-[O-alpha-apiofuranosyl-(1′′→6′)-beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy] phenyl]ethanol, 4-[O-alpha-apiofuranosyl-(1′′→2′)-beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy]benzaldehyde, five glycosylated flavonols, two isoflavones, four flavanones, two isoflavones, and two flavones
[19, 21, 178181]

Eriosema robustumTwigsBurundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo and CameroonUsed traditionally for the treatment of coughs in East Africa and skin diseases in Central Africa2′,3′,5′,5,7-pentahydroxy-3,40-dimethoxyflavone,
2′,3,5′,5,7-pentahydroxy-4′-methoxyflavone
[182, 183]

Erythrina latissima
 E. Mey.
Broad-leaved coral treeStem Wood
Root wood
Seeds
South Africa
Botswana
Antimicrobial activity and weak radical scavenging properties.
Purgative.
Flavonoids and isoflavonoids.
Isoflavones: erylatissin A and B. Flavanone: erylatissin C
and flavonoids and
Isoflavone glycosides: 4′-hydroxyisoflavone-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (compound 1); 4′-hydroxyisoflavone-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl (1→6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (compound 2); and a new compound 4′, 8-dimethoxy isoflavone-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl (1→6) glucopyranoside (8-O-methylretusin-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl (1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside) (compound 3) Isoflavonoids: 5,7-dihydroxy-2′,4′,5′-trimethoxyisoflavanone.
[67, 184186]

E. lysistemon
 Hutch.
Common coral tree; lucky bean treeBarkSouth AfricaMild antioxidant activity.
Used to treat sores, wounds, abscesses and arthritis.
Three prenylated flavonoid derivatives; 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-8-(3′′′-methylbut-2′′′-enyl)-6-(2′′-hydroxy-3′′-methylbut-3′′ enyl) isoflavone (isoerysenegalensein E), 5,7,2′-trihydroxy-4′-methoxy-5′-(3′′-methylbut-2′′-enyl) isoflavanone (lysisteisoflavanone), 5, 4′-dihydroxy-6-(3′′′-methylbut-2′′′-enyl)-2′′-hydroxyisopropyl dihydrofurano [4′′,5′′:8,7] isoflavone (isosenegalensin), together with the four known flavonoids abyssinone V-4′-methylether, alpinumisoflavone, wighteone and burttinone[187190]

Melilotus elegans
 Salzm. ex Ser.
(syn. M.
abyssinica Baker)
Egug, Gugi, Yemen berri
Elegant sweet clover
LeavesEthiopiaAnti-inflammatory properties.
Used for asthma, haemorrhoid, wounds, excavated sore, piles, ulcers mouth infection, lacerated wounds,
haemorrhoids, bronchial asthma (personal
communication)
Flavonoids: kaempferol[191194]

Millettia griffoniana
Baill.
Not signalizedRoot-bark and
seeds
CameroonAnti-inflammatory activity.
Used as an antimalarial.
Coumarin: 4-hydroxy-3-(3′,4′-methylenedioxyphenyl)-5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin, durmillone, odorantin, 7-methoxyebenosin, calopogonium isoflavone B and 7,2′-dimethoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxy isoflavone maximaisoflavone G (5) and 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavone and new prenylated isoflavonoids griffonianones A, B, C, D and E.Griffonianone D ((7E)-(6′′,7′′-dihydroxy-3′′,7′′-dimethyloct-2′′-enyl)oxy-4′-methoxyisoflavone), an isoflavone.[195202]

Parkia biglobosa
 (Jacq.) Benth
African Locust Bean
Nèrè
Ojinyi
Bark
Seeds
Mali
Sudan
Ivory Coast
Anti-inflammatory activity.
Used as antiseptic and to treat coughs, chest pain, and wound healing
Tocopherol, ascorbic acid (Seeds)[12, 33, 34, 3639, 4353, 55, 64, 6672, 118, 119, 121, 138, 159, 182, 195, 203235]

Peltophorum africanum Sond.Weeping wttleRoot and barkSouth AfricaAntioxidant and antibacterial activities
Used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, sore throat, wounds, back and joint pains, HIV-AIDS, venereal diseases and infertility.
Flavonol glycosides and flavonol glucoside gallates[236238]

Piliostigma thonningii
 (Schum.) Milne- Redh
Camel’s foot tree, Monkey Bread
Niama (Mali).
Abefe
Kalgo
Okpoatu
Omepa
Root, bark, pods, leavesNigeria, Ethiopia Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, ZambiaAnti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Used to treat wounds, chronic ulcers, cough, respiratory disorders and toothache, gum inflammation, arthritis, headache, backache, and
antioxidant supplement.
Proanthocyanidins epicatechin, catechin trimers and oligomers, flavonoids, polyphenolics,
C-methylflavonols (in the leaf extract)
[12, 58, 239245]

Sutherlandia frutescens R.Br.Cancerbush
Phetola
LeavesSouth AfricaSuperoxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities.
Used as tonic to boost the immune system.
Canavanine, pinitol[246248]

Trigonella foenumgraecum L.FenugreekSeedsEthiopia, MoroccoProtective effect against Oxidative stress during ischemia-reperfusion.
It is hypolipidemic, and is also used to treat boils and to improve appetite.
Free phenolics and Vit C.[2628, 249, 250]

Humiriaceae

Sacoglottis gabonensis Urb.Cherry tree, ozougaStem-bark West AfricaAntioxidant activity.Bergenin[251254]

Hypoxidaceae

Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch. & C.A. Mey.African potatoCormsSouth AfricaAntioxidant activity.
Used to treat tuberculosis, cancer, bladder disorders, benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Rooperol[188, 255257]

Lamiaceae

Ocimum basilicum L.Mükandu
Basil
LeavesBurkina Faso
Ethiopia
Intermediate antioxidant activity and high antibacterial activity.
Used in Ethiopia to treat Conjunctivitis and in
Kenya to treat colds and stomacheache.
Linalool basil oil
Methyl chavicol, eugenol, (E)-methyl cinnamate, thymol, linalool
[23, 258]

Ocimum gratissimum L.Tea bush, Scent leaf/Nchuanwu.
Ujuju okpevu
Basil
LeavesPopular republic of Congo (ex Brazaville Congo)
Eastern Nigeria
Antioxidant activity
Popular republic of Congo it is used as a laxative, purgative, and to treat snakebite, diabetes, tooth ache, gingivitis.
Xanthomicrol, cirsimaritin, rutin, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and vicenin-2 were identified as the major flavonoids, whereas luteolin 5-O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, vitexin, isovitexin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and isothymusin were detected as minor constituents.[12, 58, 258262]

Lauraceae

Cinnamomum zeylanicum BreyneCinnamon leafLeaves Madagascar
Ethiopia
Very high antioxidant and high antimicrobial activities.
Used to treat diarrhoea, rheumatism, colds and hypertension
Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and eugenyl acetate to be the main constituents of cinnamon oil.[2224, 263]

Ocotea bullata (Burch.) Baill.Black stinkwood
Unukane (Zulu)
Bark South AfricaAnti-inflammatory, cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity.
Urinary disorders, headaches.
Monoterpenoids[188, 264]

Ravensara aromatica Sonn.Nutmeg
havozo
Bark
Leaf
 MadagascarLow antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.
Useful for chronic respiratory conditions, and sometimes helpful in cases of asthma.
Essential oils, principally composed of the monoterpene hydrocarbons a-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, & the azulene: iso-ledene. In barks, estragole (methyl chavicol) but leaves contain b-myrcene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, and carotol.[23, 25, 265]

Malvaceae

Hibiscus sabdariffa L.Red tea,
sorelle
Rosella
FlowersNigeria
South Africa
Antimutagenic activity and free radical scavenging effects on active oxygen species
Used against insomnia, colic.
Flavonol glucoside hibiscitrin
Anthocyanins. Such as cyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 3-O-(2-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, delphinidin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and delphinidin 3-O-(2-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside.
[19, 21, 266269]

Meliaceae

Trichilia roka
 Chiov.
Soulafinzan
RootTropical Africa MaliSignificantly protective against CCl4-induced liver damage and prevented perisinusoidal fibrosis.
Used to treat malaria, abdominal pain and dermatitis.
Polyphenols[270, 271]

Menispermaceae

Sphenocentrum jollyanum PierreAkerejupon
ajo
Fruit
Root
 West AfricaAnti-inflammatory activity.
Used to treat inflammatory-based diseases
Furanoditerpenes: columbin, isocolumbin.
Flavonoids-rich fraction.
[272274]

Tinospora bakisWhole plantSudanAnti-inflammatory activity. To treat headache and rheumatismA diterpenoid furanolactone, columbin[275]

Moraceae

Dorstenia barteri
 var. subtriangularis (Engler)
M.E.E.Hijman & C.C.Berg
ContrayervaTwigs/leavesCameroonAntioxidant properties account for the anti-inflammatory action of these extracts
Used to treat arthritis, rheumatism, gout, headache and other forms of body pains.
Prenylated flavonoids: Three diprenylated chalcones: bartericins A (-)-3-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-5′-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl)-4,2′,4′-trihydroxychalcone, bartericins B (+)-3-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-4′,5′-[2′′′-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-dihydrofurano]-4,2′-dihydroxychalcone and bartericins C 3,4-(6′′,6′′-dimethyldihydropyrano)-4′,5′-[2′′′,-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-dihydrofurano]-2′-hydroxychalcone and also two novel diprenylated chalcones: 3,5′-di-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl)-4,2′,4′-trihydroxychalcone, 3, 4-(2,2-dimethylpyrano)-3′-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl)-2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone, 4,2′, 4′-trihydoxy-3′-prenylchalcone and 4,2′,4′-trihydoxy-3, 3′-diprenylchalcone; and 5,7,4′-trihydoxy-8-prenylflavone.
Other known compounds such as stipulin, 4-hydroxylonchocarpin, kanzonol B, 3′-(2-Hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl)-5′-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-4,2′,4′-trihydroxychalcone, and dorstenone.
[67, 276281]

D. ciliata Engl.ContrayervaAerial partsCameroon
Central Africa
Antiradical and antioxidant activities.
Used as food additive.
phenolic compound (6-prenylapigenin)
Flavones: (ciliatin A) 5,4′-Dihydroxy-5′′-isopropenyldihydrfuranol[2′′,3′′:7,6]flavone
(ciliatin B) 7,4′-Dihydroxy-3′-methoxy-6′′,6′′-dimethyldihydropyranol[2′′,3′′:5,6].
[282284]

D. convexa De Wild.ContrayervaTwigs and
leaves
 Democratic Republic of the CongoAntioxidant properties account for the anti-inflammatory action of these extracts.
Used to treat arthritis, rheumatism, gout, headache and other forms of body pains.
Prenylated flavonoids[67, 276, 280]

D. mannii Hook.f.ContrayervaTwigs/leaves
Aerial parts
 Central AfricaAntioxidant action against copper-induced LDL oxidation, this activity is like the non-prenylated flavonoid quercetin. Also, inhibition of platelet aggregation and influence of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activity.
Used to treat rheumatism, stomach disorders.
Anti-trichomonal activity.
Grenylated and prenylated flavonoids and flavonones:
Flavonones: 6,8-diprenyl-5,7,3′4′-tetrahydroxyflavanone, 4-hydroxylonchocarpin, 4-methoxylonchocarpin, 6-prenylchrysoeriol, 6,8-diprenyleriodictyol, gancaonin P and Prenylated flavonoids: 6,8-diprenyleriodictyol, dorsmanin C 7,8-(2,2-Dimethylchromeno)-6-geranyl-3,5,3′,4′-tetrahydroxyflavone and dorsmanin D 6,8-Diprenyl-3,5,7,4′-tetrahydroxy-3′-methoxyflavone,
dorsmanins 1, J and 2′′-epimers of dorsmanins F (6,7-(2,2-dimethylpyrano)-8-prenyl-5,3′,4′-trihydroxyflavanone, G (6,7-(2,2-dimethyldihydro-pyrano)-8-prenyl-5,3′,4′-trihydroxflavanone). Also, dorsmanins F and G.
Four new prenylated flavanones, named dorsamine F (7,8-[2′′-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-dihydrofurano]-6-prenyl-5,3′,4′-trihydroxyflavanone), dorsmaine G (6,7-[2′′-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)dihydrofurano]-8-prenyl-5,3′,4′-trihydroxyflavanone) and dorsamine H (6-prenyl-8-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl)-5,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxyflavanone).
[67, 187, 207, 285287]

D. poinsettifolia var. angusta Engl.DingetengaWhole plantCameroonAntiradical and antioxidant activities.
Used to treat infected wounds.
Grenylated and prenylated flavonoids. The unusual 4-phenyl-substituted dihydrocoumarin and the rare geranyl-and prenyl-substituted Chalcone.[207, 288, 289]

D. psilurus Welw.DingetengaRoots Cameroon Central AfricaAntiradical and antioxidant activities.
Used against snakebite and to treat rheumatism, headache and stomach disorders.
Grenylated and prenylated flavonoids.
Three phenolic compounds: 6,8-diprenyl-3′ [O],4′-(2,2-dimethylpyrano)-3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, 3,6-diprenyl-8-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl)-5,7,2′,4′-tetrahydroxyflavone and an unusualB/C ring modified flavonoid derivative for which the names dorsilurins C, D and E, respectively, are proposed.
Two new flavones, dorsilurins A and B, and a new benzofuran derivative have been isolated from Dorstenia psilurus, together with three known phenylpropanoid derivatives, stearyl-p-coumarate [octadecanyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate], stearyl ferulate [octadecanyl 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate] and psoralen.
[206, 282, 290292]

Myrtaceae

Eugenia elliptica Sm.
Syzygium smithii (Poir.) 
 Nied.
Lilly PillyLeavesMauritiusModulate the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes.Quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside), kaempferol-3-glucoside (astragalin), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), (+)-catech[293, 294]

E. fasciculata Wall.Not signalizedLeavesMauritiusModulate the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes.Quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside), kaempferol-3-glucoside (astragalin), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), (+)-catech.
procyanidin B2 dimer and (-)-epicatechin
[293]

E. orbiculata Lam.Not signalizedLeavesMauritiusModulate the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes.Quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside), kaempferol-3-glucoside (astragalin), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), (+)-catech.
quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin),
[293, 295]

E. pollicina
 J.Gueho & A.J.Scott
Not signalizedLeavesMauritiusModulate the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes.Quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside), kaempferol-3-glucoside (astragalin), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), (+)-catech.
(-)-epicatechin gallate
[293, 296]

Monimiastrum acutisepalum
 J. Gueho & A.J. Scott.
Not signalizedLeavesMauritiusModulate the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes.Quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside), kaempferol-3-glucoside (astragalin), and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin).
(+)-catechin
[293295]

M. globosum
 J.Gueho & A.J.Scott
Not signalizedLeavesMauritiusModulate the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes.Quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside), kaempferol-3-glucoside (astragalin), and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin).
(-)-epicatechin gallate
[293]

Syzygium aromaticum (L.) 
 Merr. & L.M.Perry
Clove budDried flowers
Buds
Madagascar
Sudan
Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.
Used to treat tooth ache and throat inflammation.
Eugenol
Methyleugenol
[23, 297, 298]

S. coriaceum
 J.Bosser & J.Guého
Bois de pomme MauritiusAbilities to modulate the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes.Phenols and flavonoids: Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside (astragalin) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), (+)-catechin, procyanidin B1 dimer, (-)-epicatechin gallate[293]

S. glomeratum DC.Bois de pommeLeaves MauritiusAbilities to modulate the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes.
Used to treat boils, abscesses, fever and wounds and as expectorant.
Phenols and flavonoids: kaempferol-3-glucoside (astragalin) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), procyanidin B1 dimer, (-)-epicatechin gallate, chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin[293]

S. guehoiiNot signalized MauritiusAbilities to modulate the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes.Phenols and flavonoids: quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), kaempferol-3-glucoside (astragalin) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2 dimer[293]

S. mauritianum
 J.Gueho & A.J.Scott
Not signalizedLeaves MauritiusAbilities to modulate the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes.Phenols and flavonoids: quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), kaempferol-3-glucoside (astragalin) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid[293]

S. petrinense
 J.Bosser & J.Guého
Not signalized MauritiusAbilities to modulate the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes.Phenols and flavonoids: quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), kaempferol-3-glucoside (astragalin) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), procyanidin B1 dimer, chlorogenic acid[293]

S. venosum (Lam.) 
 J.Gueho & A.J.Scott
Not signalized MauritiusAbilities to modulate the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes.Phenols and flavonoids: quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), kaempferol-3-glucoside (astragalin) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin), (+)-catechin, procyanidin B2 dimer[293, 295, 299]

Oleaceae

Olea europaea
 subsp africana (Mill.)P.S. Green
African wild oliveLeaves South AfricaPotent antioxidant activity.
Used as eye lotions and tonics, lower blood pressure, improve kidney function and deal with sore throats. The early Cape settlers used the fruits to treat diarrhoea
Oleuafricein (mixture of oleanolic acid and ursolic acids), Triterpenoids and oleoropein.[84, 300, 301]

Pedaliaceae

Harpagophytum procumbens DC.
ex Meissner
Devil’s clawRootSouth Africa
Native to the Kalahari Desert of southern Africa, Namibia and
Botswana.
Anti-inflammatory and ability to inhibit the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide by suppression of NF-kappaB activation.
Used for pain, muscular tension, osteoarthritis, degenerative rheumatism or painful arthrosis and tendonitis as well as tonic for loss of appetite and dyspeptic complaints.
Roots contain iridoid glycosides mainly harpagoside.
Other constituents are flavones and flavonols kaempferol, and luteolin.
[302312]

Piperaceae

Piper guineense
 Schum. & Thonn.
West African black pepper
Bush pepper
Ikom, Amana
kakwale iyeyeh ashoesie
taquale Meshoro
Fruit, seed and leafGhana, West Africa
Nigeria
Cameroon
Antioxidant activity.Volatile oil components-monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, terpenoids, lignans and sterols.[313316]

Podocarpaceae

Podocarpus species
Podocarpus
elongates   Podocarpus
falcatus,
Podocarpus henkelii
and Podocarpus latifolius
Leaves and young stemsEastern and Southern AfricaThese species are used to treat fevers, asthma, coughs, cholera, chest complaints, arthritis, rheumatism, painful joints and venereal diseasesDiterpenoids, bioflavonoids and Totarol[317]

Ranunculaceae

Nigella sativa L.Black cuminSeedAfrican countries in the Mediterranean regionAntioxidant potentials through scavenging ability of different free radicals including the superoxide anion radical, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and protection of liver against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in rabbits
Used to treat diarrhoea, asthma, and as gastroprotective agent.
Oil: Thymoquinone[2931, 318, 319]

Rosaceae

Crataegus monogyna Jacq.Hawthorn, May Blossom, May Day Flower, White Thorn.Fresh vegetative and reproductive organsMauritius, Northern AfricaAntioxidant activities.
Used for its neuro- and cardiosedative actions.
Polyphenols: (proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, anthocyanin, (-)-epicatechin, procyanidin B2, chlorogenic acid).
Flavonoids:quercetin and quercetrin, glycosides, proanthocyanidins, anthocynaidins, saponins, tannins, and cratetegin
Also, Vitamin C.
[320323]

Leucosidea sericeaLeaf, bark and rootsSouthern AfricaAntimicrobial and anti-inflammatory propertiesPhenolics, alkaloids and saponins[210]

Pygeum africanum Hook. f.African plum tree
Red Stinkwood
BarkSouth AfricaAnti-inflammatory.
Used to treat against benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis
14% triterpenes (urolic acids, oleanolic acid, crataegolic acid), 0.5% n-docosanol
Phytosterol (β-sitosterol, β-sitosterone, Campesterol
[188, 324327]

Rubiaceae

Crossopteryx febrifuga Benth.Roger Blench
“rima jogoo-hi/je”
Seeds
Leaf and roots
Mali
Nigeria
Radical scavenging and lipoxygenase inhibition activities.
Used to treat fever and various respiratory diseases
Flavonoids[328330]

Rutaceae

Agathosma betulina (Berg.) Pillans.Round-leaf buchuLeaves,
stems
 South AfricaHydroxyl radical ion scavenging ability.
Used for stomach problems, kidney and urinary track diseases.
Essential oils and flavonoids[188, 331, 332]

A. crenulata (L.) 
 Pillans
Oval-leaf 
 buchu
Leaves,
stems
 South AfricaAnti-inflammatory activity.
Used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, diabetes, inflammation of the colon, gums, and mucous membranes. Leaves chewed to relieve stomach complaints.
Essential oils and flavonoids[84, 188, 331, 332]

Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam.xeti, xe
Roots, root-barkCameroon, UgandaAntioxidant activity.
Used to treat gingivitis, toothache, urinary and venereal diseases, rheumatism and lumbago, malaria and other infections.
Phenylethanoid derivative, lignans and fagaronine[333336]

Sapindaceae

Dodonaea viscosa
 Jacq.
 Synonyms: Dodonaea angustifolia L. f.;
Ptelea viscosa L.
UmusasaLeavesRwandaAnti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandin (PG) E(2).
Used to treat rheumatism, skin infections, diarrhea, stomachaches, pains of hepatic and splenic origin, uterine colic. It is also used as an antipruritic in skin rashes and for the treatment of some throat, dermatitis and hemorrhoids.
Quercetin, isorhamnetin[337341]

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Aloe ferox Mill.Bitter aloe or Cape aloeLeavesSouth Africa, LesothoA. ferox gel contains at least 130 medicinal agents with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, calming, antiseptic, antiviral, antiparasitic and anticancer effectsChromones, anthraquinones, anthrone, anthrone-C-glycosides, and other phenolic compounds
Barbaloin
[9]

Zingiberaceae

Siphonochilus aethiopicus (Schweinf.) B.L. Burtt.Wild ginger
Natal ginger
African Ginger
RhizomeSouth AfricaAnti-inflammatory activity through cyclooxygenase inhibitory (prostaglandin-synthetase inhibition), activity.
Used to treat Coughs, colds, asthma.
Sesquiterpenoid[188, 264, 342]


Family and plant nameVernacular namePlant partCountry/areaMedicinal use and/or experimental validationCompounds isolatedReference

Acanthaceae

Barleria species
 B. albostellata,
 B. greenii,
B. prionitis
Leaves, twigs and rootsSouth AfricaAnti-inflammatory and antioxidant activitiesNot identified[212, 213]

Hypoestes rosea Decne.Not signalizedLeaf extractNigeriaAnti-inflammatory activity due in part to its ability to inhibit NF-kappaB activation through direct inhibition of IkappaB kinase (IKK).Diterpene: Hypoestoxide (a bicyclo [9,3,1] pentadecane)[380, 381]

Aizoaceae

Glinus lotoides L.“Mettere”
Hairy carpet -weed
SeedsCameroon
Ethiopia, Sudan, Uganda, Egypt.
Used to treat cardiovascular and gastrointestinal system.Three flavonoids: apigenin-7-O-glucoside, isovitexin, and luteolin-7-O-glucoside
Three isoflavonoids:
5,7,2′,4′-tetrahydroxy-6-(3,3-dimethylallyl)isoflavone,
5,7,4′-trihydroxy -6,3′-di-(3,3-dimethylallyl)isoflavone, and 5,7,2′,4′-tetrahydroxy-6,3′-di-(3,3-dimethylallyl) isoflavone.
[290, 382386]

G. oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC.BalasaWhole plantMaliAntioxidant and radical scavenging abilities.kaempferol 3-O-galactopyranoside[387, 388]

Aloaceae

Aloe claviflora Burch.Kraal aloeSouth AfricaFree radical scavenging and moderate inhibition in lipid peroxidation.
Used as a purgative.
Not identified[35]

A. maculata
 Forssk.
(=A. saponaria)
“Yellow Form”
Tiger Aloe, Soap Aloe
South AfricaFree radical scavenging and moderate inhibition in lipid peroxidation.
Used as a purgative.
Not identified[35]

A. thraskii BakerDune aloeSouth AfricaFree radical scavenging and moderate inhibition in lipid peroxidation.
Used as a purgative.
Not identified[35]

Anacardiaceae

Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) HochstMarulaStem-barkAnti-inflammatory activity.
Used to treat diabetes, tonsillitis, snake bite and also diarrhoea.
Not identified[389]

Annonaceae

Enantia chlorantha OliverErenbavbogo, Mföl MuambaRoot, stem-barkNigeriaAnti-inflammatory activity.
Used to treat ulcers and leprous spots wounds. Bark sap is taken as decoction against diarrhoea.
Not identified[390393]

Uvaria afzelii Sc. ElliotPareho-houon, Bahie oulinLeaves, roots and stem-barkIvory CoastUsed as for its antiparasitic activityAnthocyanins and other flavonoids[394396]

U. chamae P.Beauv.Okandii
Anweda tsoGa
Stem, bark
Leaves, root
Ivory Coast Nigeria
Used for its antiplasmodial activity.Polyphenols[12, 397, 398]

Apocynaceae

Picralima nitida Th. & H. Dur.Ghana: Kpetepetetso, Kanwini,
Kanwinu
Cameroon: motoko-toko
Seeds Stem-barkGhanaAnti-inflammatory activity.
Used for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.
Not identified[168, 399402]

Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel.Asofeyeje, adapopo
Mwanje
Root-barkGhanaAnti-inflammatory activity.
Used for its analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Also to treat scabies, high blood pressure, fever and snakebites.
Not identified[56]

Araliaceae

Cussonia barteri Seem.Cabbage treeLeaves
Roots
Nigeria, MaliAntioxidant and radical scavenging abilities. Inhibitory activity on 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-1.Not identified[357, 403]

Arecaceae

Hyphaene thebaica Mart.Not signalizedShellNigerAntioxidant activityNot identified[11]

Asclepiadaceae

Calotropis procera (Aiton)
W.T.Aiton
African milk weed
Sodom apple/Giant milkweed/
LatexEthiopiaAnti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.Not identified [404]
Swallow-wort/Auricula tree.SudanUsed to control dermal fungal infections and for pain relief. Latex used against scorpion stings and roots for jaundice.

Gongronema latifolium Benth.Not signalizedLeavesNigeriaAntioxidant activityNot identified[405407]

Leptadenia hastata Decne.Not signalizedLeavesNigerAntioxidant activityNot identified[11]

Pachycarpus rigidus E. Mey.Not signalizedBarkSouth AfricaAntioxidant activity.
Used to treat pain in the joints
Not identified[188]

Asparagaceae

Asparagus virgatus Baker
Refug. Bot. (Saunders)
Broom asparagusBarkSouth AfricaAntioxidant activity.
Used to treat syphilis, anthelmintic
Not identified[35]

Asteraceae

Ageratum conyzoides L.Inkuruba
Herbe à bouc
Whole plantCentral Africa, Rwanda EthiopiaAntioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Used to treat mastitis and urogenital infections and to dress wounds. Also as a gastroprotective.
Not identified[12, 408, 409]

Artemisia herba-albaDesert wormwood, shihAerial partsAlgeria, Tunisia, Israel, MoroccoHerbal tea from A. herba-alba has been used as analgesic, antibacterial, antispasmodic, and hemostatic agents in folk medicinesCamphor (17–33%), α-thujone (7–28%), and chrysanthenone (4–19%)[9]

Artemisia judaica L.WormwoodLeavesEgyptUsed for gastrointestinal disordersFlavonoids with antioxidant activities.[410]

Callilepis laureola
 DC.
Ox-eye daisy, ImpilaTuberSouth AfricaAntioxidant and radical scavenging activities.
Used to induce fertility, impotence, tapeworm infestations but induces hepatic and renal tubular necrosis.
Not identified[188, 411, 412]

Psiadia punctulata (DC) VatkeMwendathigoLeaf exudateKenya, East AfricaUsed to treat colds, fevers and abdominals pains.Flavones: 5,7-dihydroxy-2′,3′,4′,5′-tetramethoxyflavone, 5,4′-dihydroxy-7,2′,3′,5′-tetramethoxyflavone, 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-2′,3′,5′-trimethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-7,2′,3′,4′,5′-pentamethoxyflavone and 5,7,3′-trihydroxy-2′,4′,5′-trimethoxyflavone.[359, 413]

Vernonia kotschyana Sch. Bip. ex Walp.BuayeLeaves, rootsMaliAnti-inflammatory activity.
Used to treat gastritis, gastro duodenal ulcers, as an aid to ameliorate digestion and as a wound healing remedy. Immunomodulating activities.
Not identified[187, 414]

Bignoniaceae

Kigelia pinnata DC.Suasage tree,
Cucumber tree
Root
fruit
EgyptUsed as dressing for ulcers and used to treat rheumatism
Anti-inflammatory activity
Naphthoquinones: kigelinone, isopinnatal, dehydro-alpha-lapachone, and lapachol and the phenylpropanoids: p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid (root), kigelinone and caffeic acid (fruits).[415, 416]

Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC.Pink tecoma
Pink trumpet tree
Leaves
Stem-bark
NigeriaUsed to treat arthritis.Tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones and traces of saponins[107]

Crescentia cujete L.Calabash
Gourd tree
Leaves
Stem-bark
NigeriaUsed as purgative and to treat coughs.Tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones and traces of saponins[107]

Bombacaceae

Bombax costatum Pellegrin & VuilletNot signalizedFruitNigerAntioxidant activityNot identified[11]

Boraginaceae

Heliotropium
indicum L.
NonsikouLeavesMaliModerate antioxidant activity.
Used for wound healing and for ocular infection.
Not identified[417419]

Buddlejaceae

Buddleja
madagascariensis Lam.
Butterfly-bushLeavesEgyptUsed to treat coughs, asthma, and bronchitis.Flavonoids triglycosides: hesperetin and diosmetin 7-O (2′′,6′′- di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosides[420]

Caesalpiniaceae

Cassia fistula L.Golden shower treeFruitMauritiusLaxative.Phenolics and flavonoids[368]

Canellaceae

Warburgia salutaris (Bertol F.) Chiov.Pepper-bark tree
Isibaha
BarkSouth AfricaAntioxidant and radical scavenging activities.
Used to treat coughs, stomach ulcers, malaria, rheumatism, liver and venereal diseases
Not identified[188]

W. ugandensis SpragueFever treeStem-bark
Leaves
Kenya
Ethiopia
Used to treat stomach ache, chest pains, malaria, toothache and coughs.Flavonol glycoside Kaempferol, kaempferol 3-rhamnoside, kaempferol
3-Rhamnoside-7,4′-digalactoside and Quercetin: 3-Rhamnosyl(1→6[glucosyl(1→2)glucoside]-7-rhamnoside, kaempferide 3-O-beta-xylosyl (1→2)-beta-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnoside-7,4′-di-O-beta-galactoside, kaempferol 3,7,4′-tri-O-beta-glucoside, kaempferol 3-rutinoside, myricetin, quercetin 3-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol 3-rhamnoside-4′-galactoside, myricetin 3-galactoside and kaempferol 3-glucoside.
[421424]

Capparaceae

Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. ex PoiretSenegal BosciaFruit hull
Roots and leaf
Mali
Niger
Antioxidant activity.
Used to treat diarrhoea, cholera, tachycardia, pectoral pain.
Not identified[12]

Gynandropsis gynandra Merr.Not signalizedLeavesNigerAntioxidant activityNot identified[11]

Celastraceae

Salacia leptoclada Tul.Lemon ropeRootSouth AfricaAntioxidant activity.
Used as an aphrodisiac.
Not identified[188]

Chenopodiaceae

Salsola somalensis N.E.Br.DingetegnaRootsEthiopiaUsed as taenicide.Nine new isoflavones, 5,3′-dihydroxy-6,7,2′-trimethoxy isoflavone, 5,8,3′-trihydroxy-7,2′-dimethoxyisoflavone, 8,3′-dihydroxy-5,7,2′-trimethoxyisoflavone, 5,6,3′-trihydroxy-7,2′-dimethoxyisoflavone, 6,7,3′ -trihydroxy-5,2′-dimethoxyisoflavone, 5,8,3′-trihydroxy -2′-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyisoflavone, or 5,6,3′-trihydroxy-2′-methoxy-7,8-methylenedioxyisoflavone, 3′-hydroxy-5,6,7,2′-tetramethoxyisoflavone, 7,3′-dihydroxy -5,6,2′-trimethoxyisoflavone and 6,3′-dihydroxy-5,7,2′-trimethoxyisoflavone.[425]

Clusiaceae

Psorospermum guineense Hochr.KaridjakoumaLeavesMaliAntioxidant activity.
Used as diuretic and febrifuge.
Not identified

Combretaceae

Pteleopsis suberosa Engl. & Diels.GirgaStem-barkMaliAntioxidant properties.
Used to treat gastric and duodenal ulcers.
Not identified[329, 426]

Dioscoreaceae

Dioscorea dumetorum Th.Dur.et SchinzCluster yam
African bitter yam
Trifoliate yam
TubersNigeria
Tropical West Africa
Antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities.
Used to treat diabetes.
Not identified[152, 153, 427]

Ebenaceae

Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F. WhiteGiant diospyrosLeaves, roots
Root-bark
MaliRadical scavengers and lipoxygenase inhibitors.Not identified[357]

Euclea divinorum HiernDiamond-leaved euclea
Magic guarri
RootsEthiopiaUsed to treat venereal diseases, chest pains, pneumonia, internal body pains, stomach-ache and diarrhea. Chewed roots ease toothache.Flavonoids[428]

Euphorbiaceae

Acalypha hispida Burm. f.Chenille plant
Red-hot cattail
Leaves
Flowers
NigeriaUsed as anti-bacterial agent.Gallic acid and Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside
The main anthocyanin is the known cyanidind 3-O-(2-O-galloylgalactose, but a minor pigment (5%) is the new cyanidin Cy 3-O-(2-O-galloyl-6-O-rhamnosylgalactoside
[228, 429]

A. wilkesiana
 Müll. Arg.
Copper leafLeavesNigeriaUsed to treat ailments of microbial originGallic acid and Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside[430]

Croton gratissimus Burch.Lavender fever-berryBarkSouth AfricaUsed as purgative for abdominal disorders, fever. The charred and powdered bark is used to treat bleeding gumsFlavonoids.[188]

Euphorbia hirta L.Kasandasanda
Ufu idire
Whole plant
Leaves
EthiopiaUsed to treat diarrhoea and asthma.Flavonoid: quercitrin
Flavonol: Euphorbianin (3-(6′′′-Acetylglucosyl) (1→3)galactoside)
[12, 431433]

Fabaceae

Acacia caffra (Thunb.) Wild.Hook-thorn
Cat-thorn
BarkSouth AfricaUsed to treat diarrhoea and as emetics.Proanthocyanidins: oritin-(4alpha→5)-epioritin-4beta-ol, ent-epioritin-(4alpha→5)-epioritin-4beta-ol and epioritin-(4beta→5)-epioritin-4alpha-ol and ent-oritin-(4beta→5)-epioritin-4alpha-ol.[434436]

A. galpinii Burtt Davy.Monkey-thornBarkSouth AfricaUsed to treat diarrhoea.Proanthocyanidins: oritin-(4alpha→5)-epioritin-4beta-ol, ent-epioritin-(4alpha→5)-epioritin-4beta-ol and epioritin-(4beta→5)-epioritin-4alpha-ol and ent-oritin-(4beta→5)-epioritin-4alpha-ol.[434, 435]

Afzelia bella
 Harms
Pretty AfzeliaStem-barkIvory CoastUsed to treat skin diseases and cough.An acylated dihydroflavonol glycoside identified as 2R,3R-trans-aromadendrin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-6′′-(4′′-hydroxy-2′′-m ethylene flavonoids:butanoate), along with five known flavonoids and the lignan glycoside (+)-isolariciresinol 9-O-xyloside.[437]

Bolusanthus speciosus
 Harms
Tree WisteriaRoot
Stem-bark
South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia.Used to treat abdominal pains, emetism and tuberculosis.Three new flavonoids from the root: 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-6-[1-hydroxy-2-methylbuten-2-yl]isoflavone (isogancaonin C), 7,2′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxyisoflav-3-ene (bolusanthin III), 6,6′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-2-arylbenzofuran (bolusanthin IV) in addition to eight known derrone, medicarpan, genistein, wighteone, lupiwighteone, gancaonin C, 7-hydroxy-4′-methoxyisoflavone and 7,3′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxyisoflavone flavonoids
2R,3R-Aromadendrin 7-(6-[4-hydroxy-2-methylenebutanoyl]glucoside).
Two new isoflavonoids from the combined ethyl acetate/methanolic extracts of the stem bark of Bolusanthus speciosus have been established as 4,7,2′-trihydroxy-4′methoxyisoflavanol (1) and 5,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxy-5′-(2-epoxy-3-methylbutyl)isoflavanone (2). Five other known isoflavonoids, 5,7,3′-trihydroxy-4′-methoxy-5′-γ, γ-dimethylallyisoflavanone, 5,7,2′trihydroxy-4′-methoxy-6,5′-di(γ, γ-dimethyla)isoflavanone, 5,7,2′,4′-tetrahydroxy-8,5′-di(γ, γ-dimethylallyl)isoflavanone, 5,7,2′,4′-tetrahydroxy-8,3′-di(γ, γ-dimethylallyl)-isoflavanone, and derrone.
[67, 358, 438]

Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey.Lanceleaf rattleboxRootSouth AfricaAntioxidant activity.
Used to treat coughs.
Not identified[188]

Derris trifoliata Lour.Common derrisRoot-bark.
Stem-bark. Seeds.
KenyaUsed for prevention of cancer.
Entire plant is used as stimulant, antispasmodic. Bark is used as an alternative in rheumatism.
An isoflavonoid derivative, named 7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, representing a new sub-class of isoflavonoids (the sub-class is here named as rotenoloid). In addition, the known rotenoids, rotenone, deguelin and alpha-toxicarol. In addition, two unusual rotenoid derivatives, a rotenoloid (named 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol) and a spirohomooxarotenoid (named spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone).
In addition a rare natural chromanone (6,7-dimethoxy-4-chromanone) and the known rotenoids rotenone, tephrosin and dehydrodeguelin were identified. Also one new rotenoid, 6-alpha,12-alpha-12a-hydroxyelliptone.
[438441]

Entada africana Guill. & Perr.SamanereLeavesMali
Niger
Antioxidant properties.
Protective against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage.
Used to treat fever and various respiratory diseases.
Not identified[329, 357, 442, 443]

Erythrina abyssinica Lam.Red hot poker treeStem bark
Root bark
KenyaUsed to treat malaria.New isoflav-3-ene [7,4′-dihydroxy-2′,5′-dimethoxyisoflav-3-ene] in addition to the known compounds erycristagallin, licoagrochalcone A, octacosyl ferulate and triacontyl 4-hydroxycinnamate were identified. A new chalcone, 2′,3,4,4′-tetrahydroxy-5-prenylchalcone (trivial name 5-prenylbutein) and a new flavanone, 4′,7-dihydroxy-3′-methoxy-5′-prenylflavanone (trivial name, 5-deoxyabyssinin II) along with known flavonoids[444, 445]

E. burttii Baker f.Not signalizedStem-bark
Root-bark
KenyaUsed as antifungal and antibacterial agent.Two new flavanones: 5,7-
dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-3′,5′-di-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)flavanone (trivial name, abyssinone V-4′-methyl ether) and 5,7-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-3′-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbut-1-enyl)-5′-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)favanone (trivial name, burttinone). A new isoflavone, 5,2′,4′-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)isoflavone (trivial name, 7-O-methylluteone) and a new flavanone, 5,7-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-3′-(3-methylbutadienyl)-5′-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)flavanone, 3 isoflavonoids (8-prenylluteone, 3-O-methylcalopocarpin and genistein)
Three isoflav-3-enes, 7,4′-dihydroxy-2′-methoxy-6-(1′′,1′′-dimethylallyl)isoflav-3-ene (trivial name, burttinol-A), 4′-hydroxy-2′-methoxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano[5′′,6′′:8,7]isoflav-3-ene (trivial name, burttinol-B), 7,4′-dihydroxy-2′-methoxy-8-(3′′,3′′-dimethylallyl)isoflav-3-ene (trivial name, burttinol-C), and 2-arylbenzofuran, 6,4′-dihydroxy-2′-methoxy-5-(1′′,1′′-dimethylallyl)-2-arylbenzofuran (trivial name, burttinol-D).
[446449]

E. eriotricha Harms.Not signalizedRoot-barkCameroonAnti-microbial activityA novel isoflavanone, named eriotrichin B, one new prenylated flavanone, named sigmoidin L, one flavanone (sigmoidin A), four isoflavones (scandenone, 6,8-diprenylgenistein), flemiphilippinin B and 8-prenyldaidzein[450, 451]

E. sacleuxii HuaKinyarwandaBarkKenyaUsed to treat fever, malaria and leprosy.
Two new isoflavanones, (R)-5,7-dihydroxy-2′,4′,5′-trimethoxyisoflavanone (trivial name, (R)-2,3-dihydro-7-demethylrobustigenin) and (R)-5-hydroxy-2′,4′,5′-trimethoxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano[5′′,6′′:6,7]isoflavan one (trivial name, (R)-saclenone)[452, 453]

Millettia ferruginea
 (Hochst.) Baker
Birbira
Sotallo
Sari
BarkEthiopiaUsed for skin disorders.O-Geranylated and O-prenylated flavonoids, C-prenylated isoflavones
Geranylated and prenylated flavonoids
[199]

M. dura Dunn.Runyankore UumuyogoroStem-barkRwanda
Uganda
Used for blood parasitismFlavonoids: A new isoflavone (7,3′-dimethoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxyisoflavone) and three known isoflavones [isoerythrinin A 4′-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) ether, isojamaicin and nordurlettone].[454, 455]

Ostryoderris stuhlmannii (Taub.) Dunn ex HarmsMnyingaLeavesMaliAntioxidant activity.
Used to treat painful menstruation, peritonitis, gastritis, colitis and gingivitis.
Not identified[357]

Piliostigma reticulatum (DC.) HochstKalgaLeaves
Bark
NigeriaHigh antioxidant activity.
Used to treat wounds, bronchitis, malaria, sterility (leaves) and diarrhoea and dysentery (bark).
Not identified[240]

Sesbania pachycarpa DC.Not signalizedLeavesNigerAntioxidant activityNot identified[11]

Tephrosia polyphylla (Chiov.) J.B. GillettHoary peaAerial partKenyaFlavonoids[456]

T. deflexa BakerHoary peaAerial partSenegalFlavonoids: Rutin 1 – quercetine 3-O-a-L-rhamnopyrannosyl (1-6) glucopyrannose – and morin 2 – 3,5,7,2′,4′-pentahydroxyflavone.[457]

T. albifoliolis
 A.Nongonierma & T.Sarr
Hoary peaAerial partSenegalFlavonoids: Rutin 1 – quercetine 3-O-a-L-rhamnopyrannosyl (1-6) glucopyrannose – and morin 2 – 3,5,7,2′,4′-pentahydroxyflavone.[457]

Taverniera abyssinica A.
Rich.
DingetegnaRootEthiopiaUsed to treat fever, discomfort and pain, stomach ache.Four isoflavonoids[290, 458, 459]

Flacourtiaceae

Flacourtia flavescens Willd.Not signalizedLeavesMaliAntioxidant activity.Not identified[357]

Geraniaceae

Pelargonium reniforme Spreng.Xhosa (Umckaloabo)RootSouthern AfricaUsed to treat liver disorders, laxative, purgative, cancer, and pulmonary disordersPolyphenols: catechol (3′4′-dihydroxy) element in the B-ring, which possesses higher antioxidant activity than ascorbic acid.[362, 460, 461]

Gunneraceae

Gunnera perpensa L.River pumpkin
Ugobho
Root
Leaves and stem.
South AfricaDecreased lucigenin enhanced chemiluminescence.
Used to treat wounds and psoriasis.
Not identified[21, 462]

Irvingiaceae

Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte ex O’Rorke) Baill.Bush mango
Ono
SeedsNigeria
Cameroon
Antioxidant activity.
Used as laxative and for stomach and kidney pain. Shown to lower total cholesterol.
Not identified[12, 313, 463]

Lamiaceae

Leonotis leonurus (L.)R.Br.Wild daggaLeavesSouth AfricaAnti-inflammatory properties.
Used to treat headaches, dysentery, coughs and colds.
Not identified[13]

Salvia stenophylla Burch. ex Benth.SageLeavesSouth AfricaSolvent extracts: antioxidant activity but poor anti-inflammatory properties.
Essential oils: anti-inflammatory activity but poor anti-oxidant activity.
Used against fever and digestive disorders.
Not identified[360]

S. repens Burch.
ex Benth.
Not signalizedLeavesSouth AfricaSolvent extracts: antioxidant activity but poor anti-inflammatory properties.
Essential oils: anti-inflammatory activity but poor anti-oxidant activity.
Used for fevers and digestive disorders.
Not identified[360]

S. runcinata L.f.Not signalizedLeavesSouth AfricaSolvent extracts: antioxidant activity but poor anti-inflammatory properties.
Essential oils: anti-inflammatory activity but poor anti-oxidant activity.
Used against fever and digestive disorders.
Not identified[360]

Loranthaceae

Tapinanthus globiferus Tiegh.Not signalizedLeavesNigerAntioxidant activityNot identified[11]

Malvacea

Adansonia digitata (L.)English: baobab, Afrikaans: kremetart, Hausa: kuka, Sotho: seboi, Tswana: mowana, Tsonga: shimuwu, Venda: muvhuyu, Arabic: tabladiLeaves, root, bark and fruitsAll over Africa, but limited trees in Central AfricaAntioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of extractsL-ascorbic acid[36, 464]

Mimosaceae

Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.East Indian walnut, frywood, koko, lebbek, lebbek tree, rain tree, raom tree, silver raintree, siris rain tree, siris tree, soros-tree, woman’s tongue.Leaves and barkEgyptUsed to treat asthma and skin disorders (bark) and eye diseases and dysentery (leaves)Two new tri-O-glycoside flavonols: kaempferol and quercetin 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)-beta-glucopyranosyl(1→6)-beta- galactopyranosides[465]

Moraceae

Dorstenia angusticornis Engl.Not signalizedTwigsCameroonUsed for snakebite and to treat infection, rheumatism, headache, cough and stomach pain.
Two novel diprenylated chalcones: 3,5′-di-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl)-4,2′,4′-trihydroxychalcone, 3, 4-(2,2-dimethylpyrano)-3′-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl)-2′,4′-dihydroxych alcone and the known stipulin.
3-(2-Hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl)-5′-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-4,2′,4′-trihydroxy chalcone and the known compounds: gancaonin Q, paratocarpins C, F, and lupeol.
[67, 278]

D. dinklagei Engl.Not signalizedTwigsCameroonUsed for snakebite and to treat infection, rheumatism, headache, cough and stomach pain.
Three prenylated flavonoids, dinklagins A, B and C identified, respectively, as
(dinklagin B): (+)-5,4′,5′′ξ-Trihydroxy-6′′,6′′-dimethyldihydropyranol[2′′,3′′:7,6]flavone.
(dinklagin C): (+)-6-(2ξ-Hydroxy-3-methyl-3-butenyl)-5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavone
(-)-6-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-7-hydroxy-6′′′, 6′′′-dimethylchromeno-(4′,3′,2′′′,3′′′)-flavanone, (+)-5,4′,5′′ξ-trihydroxy-6′′,6′′-dimethylchromano-(7,6,2′′,3′′)-flavone and (+)6-(2ξ-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-butenyl)-5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavone.
6-prenylapigenin, 4-hydroxylonchocarpin, stipulin and 5,4′-dihydroxy-6′′,6′′-dimethylchromano-(7,6,2′′,3′′)-flavone.
[67, 226]

D. elliptica Bur.Not signalizedTwigsBotswanaUsed to treat eye infection.Monoprenylated flavan[466]

D. Kameruniana. Engl.Not signalizedLeavesBotswanaUsed for snakebite and to treat infection, rheumatism, headache, cough and stomach pain.
Two novel favonoids: 6,7-(2,2-dimethylchromano)-5,4′-dihydroxyfavone and 3,4-,4′,5′-bis-(2,2-dimethylchromano)-2′-hydroxychalcone together with the known 6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)apigenin and two chalcones (E)-1-[2,4-dihydroxy-3-[3-methylbut-2-enyl]phenyl]-3-[4-hydroxyphenyl]-prop-2-en-1-one and (E)1-[2,4-dihydroxy-5-[3-methylbut-2-enyl]phenyl]-3-[4-hydroxy-3-[3-methylbut-2-enyl]phenyl]-prop-2-en-1-one.[467]

D. prorepens Engl.Not signalizedTwigsBotswanaUsed for snakebite and to treat infection, rheumatism, headache, cough and stomach pain.Digeranylated chalcone, 5,3′-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-3,4, 2′,4′-tetrahydroxychalcone.
4-Hydroxylonchocarpin
Chalcone: 3,4,2′,4′-Tetrahydroxy-5,3′-digeranylchalcone
[67, 468]

D. poinsettiifolia Engl.Not signalizedTwigsBotswanaUsed for snakebite and to treat infection, rheumatism, headache, cough and stomach pain.
Grenylated and prenylated flavonoids. In addition, the flavone 5,7,4-trihydroxy-8-prenylflavone (licoflavone C), the chalcones 4,2′,4′-trihydroxy-3′-prenylchalcone (isobavachalcone) and isobavachromene, the triterpene butyrospermol, and the carotenoid lutein.[67, 206, 289]

D. zenkeri Engl.Not signalizedTwigsBotswanaUsed for snakebite and to treat infection, rheumatism, headache, cough and stomach pain.3′,4′-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyldihydropyrano)-4,2′-dihydroxychalcone and a bichalcone.
4-Hydroxylonchocarpin.
p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dorsmanin A, 4,2′,4′-trihydroxychalcone and 4,2′,4′-trihydroxy-3′-prenylchalcone
Chalcones: 4,2′,5′′-Trihydroxy-6′′,6′′-dimethyldihydropyranol[2′′,3′′:4′,3′]chalcone
[67, 468]

Moringaceae

Moringa oleifera Lam.Horse-radish tree
Drumstick
Moringo
Zakalanda
RootWest Africa
Zimbabwe
Anti-inflammatory activity.
Used as aphrodisiac and to treat asthma, gout and rheumatism.
Not identified[469]

Myrtaceae

Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.Not signalizedLeavesEgyptAntioxidant activityNot identified[470]

Polygonaceae

Polygonum senegalense
 Meisn.
Fotsimbarin’akoholahyLeavesMadagascarFlavonoids: quercetin, kaempferol and luteolin and their glycosides such as dihydrochalcone glucoside and quercetin glycosides.[413, 471]

Rumex abyssinicus Jacq.MekmekoLeavesN. Africa - EthiopiaAnti-inflammatory properties
Used to treat itching, skin eczema and leprosy.
Flavonoids.[337, 472]

R. nervosus Vahl.,Alcgango
Dengogo
LeavesEthiopiaAnti-inflammatory properties.
Used to treat acne, wounds, eczema, typhus and as an ophthalmic antiseptic.
Not identified[337]

Rubiaceae

Nauclea latifolia SmithPin Cushion Tree
Ìgíyàà
Leaves and rootNigeriaUsed as anthelmintic and to treat malaria, fever, stomachache and liver diseases.Proanthocyanidins.[12, 58, 473475]

Solanaceae

Datura stramonium L.Thorn-apple rwiziringaSeedsSouth AfricaAntioxidant activity.
Used to treat asthma, headaches and wounds.
Not identified[188]

Tiliaceae

Grewia occidentalis L.Cross-berry
Four-corner
BarkSouth AfricaAntioxidant activity.
Used to treat bladder ailments, wounds, impotence and sterility, and to help in childbirth.
Not identified[188]

Vahliaceae

Vahlia capensis (L.f) Thunb.Vahlia of the CapeZimbabweUsed to treat bacterial infections.Kaempferol, quercetin, afzelin, astragalin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, rutin, gallic acid, chiro-inositol, dulcitol, and a novel biflavonoid, VC-15B (vahlia biflavone)[475]

Vitaceae

Cyphostemma natalitium (Szyszl.) J.v. d. MerweTick-berry bushRootSouth AfricaAnti-inflammatory and anti-microbial agents with significant inhibition of COX-1Not identified[374]

Rhoicissus digitata Gilg. & BrandtWilde patatatRoots, stems and leavesSouth AfricaAt high concentrations possessed some prooxidative properties. Anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial agents with significant inhibition of COX-1.
Used to facilitate delivery.
Not identified[364, 374]

R. rhomboidea
 (E. Meyer ex Harvey) Planchon
Glossy forest grapeRoots, stems and leavesSouth Africa
Mozambique
Radical scavenging activity, inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase activity, prevention of lipid peroxidation and damage to DNA and ability to chelate iron. Anti-inflammatory through inhibition of COX-1.Not identified[364, 374]

R. tomentosa (Lam.)
Wild & R.B.Drum.
Wild grape Forest Grape, Monkey rope,Roots, stems and leavesSouth AfricaAntioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
Anti-inflammatory through inhibition of COX-1.
Used to facilitate delivery.
Not identified[364, 374]

R. tridentata (L.f.) Wild & Drum.Bitter grape
Bushman’s grape
Isinwazi
Roots, stems and leavesSouth Africa
: Venda
Radical scavenging activity, inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase activity, prevention of lipid peroxidation and damage to DNA and ability to chelate iron. Anti-inflammatory through inhibition of COX-1.
Used to treat colds, infertility and stomach ailments.
Not identified[364, 374, 476]

Many edible and culinary herbs and condiments were also included in these two tables as they were used in certain instances as medicinal herbs to treat diseases. These included fruits and seeds of Balanites aegyptiaca, leaves of Boscia senegalensis, leaves of Entada africana and seeds of Parkia biglobosa, from Niger [11], also leaves, seeds, and stem-bark of Mangifera indica from Benin and Burkina Faso [12, 13], leaves of Cynara scolymus from Ethiopia [14, 15], leaves of Aspalathus linearis from South Africa [1621], leaves of Cinnamomum zeylanicum from Madagascar and Ethiopia [2224], essential oils from the bark and leaves of Ravensara aromatica from Madagascar [23, 25], buds of Syzygium aromaticum from Madagascar [23], seeds of Trigonella foenumgraecum from Ethiopia and Morocco [2628], and oils in seeds of Nigella sativa from African countries of the Mediterranean region [2931].

2. Tests Used to Assess Antioxidant Activities of African Medicinal Plant Extracts

A variety of test systems were employed to assess the antioxidant properties of the medicinal plant extracts and compounds listed in Tables 1 and 2. A comprehensive list of the methods used in antioxidant activity determination, as well as their merits and demerits, has already been published [343346]. The methods used in the determination of antioxidant activity of natural products and isolated compounds result in varied outcomes when the same samples are tested in different laboratories and by other researchers [347]. Furthermore, results of different methods cannot be correlated, as contradictory results are usually obtained. Hence, although several assays are available, none of them is capable of accurately and completely determining the antioxidant activity of a test substance because of the complex nature of the redox-antioxidant system in vivo (Figure 2). Based on this complexity, antioxidants are broadly classified as (i) inhibitors of free radical formation, (ii) free radical scavengers, (iii) cellular and tissue damage repairers, and (iv) signalling messengers [347].

The inhibition of free radical formation could protect against oxidative damage by suppressing the formation of active ROS/RNS. This typically involves reduction or inhibition of substrates required for free radical formation such as metal ions like iron (Fe) and copper (Cu). The sequestration of these metal ions by antioxidant compounds like ellagic acid and glutathione is known to suppress formation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other free radicals [348, 349]. Furthermore, increasing evidence suggests a relationship between metal overload and several chronic diseases through the induction of oxidative stress [350]. Therefore, inhibition of free radical formation using metal ions as targets could be useful therapeutically. Antioxidant assays designed for this purpose include the cupric and ferric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC/FRAP). These methods measure the ability of antioxidants to reduce cupric (Cu2+) and ferric (Fe3+) ions, respectively.

Another mechanism by which antioxidants act is through the suppression of oxidative stress by directly scavenging active free radicals. Most commonly reported antioxidant assays such as 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2′-diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC), and total radical antioxidant parameter (TRAP) are focused on testing the ability to scavenge free radicals. Furthermore, there are diverse cellular antioxidant assays that assess the ability of antioxidant compounds and substances to protect cells against excessive free radical generation. Such assays involve the use of a fluorescent compound such as 2,7-dichlorofluoroscein to determine the ability of test samples to quench intracellularly generated free radicals and inhibit radical formation and lipid peroxidation [345].

There are also numerous reports of the ability of antioxidants to repair damaged tissues and improve healing. Topical application of kojic acid and deferiprone, two compounds with the ability to scavenge free radicals, enhanced healing of wounds in rats [351]. Also, the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, 10-(6′-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium, accelerated wound closure, stimulated epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and vascularization, and lowered lipid peroxidation in mice [352]. Moreover, an antioxidant peptide (cathelicidin-OA1) promoted wound healing in a mouse model with full-thickness skin wounds, accelerated reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation by enhancing the recruitment of macrophages to the wound site, and induced cell proliferation and migration [353]. Some antioxidants have also been reported to contribute to healing by enhancing the activity of endogenous antioxidant compounds and enzymes. The induction of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-(Nrf2) mediated antioxidative pathway by a rhomboid family protein (RHBDF2) promoted healing of injured tissues, suggesting a relationship between antioxidant gene induction and healing [354]. Niconyl-peptide enhanced wound healing and protected against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death by increasing the expression of Nrf2 expression in human keratinocytes [355].

The most common tests used to determine the antioxidant activity of samples included the assessment of the ability to scavenge free radicals such as DPPH, ABTS+ [16, 19, 35, 62, 85, 94, 98, 99, 139, 158, 175, 184, 187, 266, 282, 302, 356364], or the hydroxyl radicals [79, 188, 267, 365, 366], as well as the hydroperoxyl radicals by the Briggs-Rauscher reaction [104]. The ability of the extracts to chelate metal ions was also determined as further indication of their ability to contribute in the reduction of free radicals such as the hydroxyl radical [114]. In addition, assessment of the ability of these medicinal plant extracts to protect against lipid peroxidation was also included, which in turn was measured by the malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid (MDA) test [320, 367], the modified thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay [18, 22], or conjugated diene formation [367]. Moreover, lipid peroxidation was assessed using the fluorescent probe, diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP) [188], or using the inhibition of Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) [187, 367]. The ability of extracts to protect against damage to DNA using the Comet assay was also employed [114, 188].

The antioxidant capacity of the medicinal plant extracts was determined using either the TEAC or FRAP assays [11, 85, 302, 313, 321, 368]. The ability of extracts to modulate the gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes, such as Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), was also used as a measure of their antioxidant properties [293]. The photochemilumiescence (PLC) assay is a more recent antioxidant capacity assessment method and was employed for the evaluation of antioxidant capacity of baobab fruit pulp extracts [369].

Anti-inflammatory properties of these extracts were assessed by their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenases [94, 370, 371] or cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) activities [65, 275, 317, 372, 373]. Using the former [374] and the latter [264, 331] methodologies, respectively, a great number of South African medicinal plant extracts were screened for their anti-inflammatory properties. The effect of medicinal extracts on the biosynthesis of different prostaglandins was assessed as a measure of their anti-inflammatory effect [239, 337, 375]. Extracts of Podocarpus species were shown to inhibit the activities of the COX enzymes [317]. Once again, using this test, the anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 39 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine were screened [376]. The Hen’s Egg Test-Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM) assay which utilizes the CAM’s capillary system in bred hen eggs was also used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity through antiangiogenic effects of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of Drosera rotundifolia and D. madagascariensis [155].

The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities of the herbal extracts were further assessed by evaluating their ability to control the production of ROS produced by oxidative burst in neutrophils stimulated with L-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP) [21, 246]. The inhibition of neutrophils elastase was used as a measure of anti-inflammatory property and it was proposed that the presence of flavonoids such as hyperoside, quercetin, and isoquercitrin in D. rotundifolia [377] and five flavonoid compounds in two Polypodium species (P. decumanum and P. triseriale) [378] were thought to contribute to this anti-inflammatory activity. These and other in vitro tests were used to assess the antioxidant properties of three Ghanaian species: Spathodea campanulata, Commelina diffusa, and Secamone afzelii [63].

Inflammation is a complex mechanism with many pathways. Several extracts derived from medicinal plants have been shown to modulate or inhibit the activities of mediators of inflammation. For instance, kolaviron, a bioflavonoid compound isolated from the seeds of Garcinia kola, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities via its effects on COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by inhibiting the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) [115]. Quercetin is a flavonoid molecule ubiquitous in nature and functions as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Dose- and time-dependent effects of quercetin have been investigated on proinflammatory cytokine expression and iNOS, focusing on its effects on NF-κB signal transduction pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting. Curcumin, a yellow pigment of turmeric, has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Curcumin has been found effective in the treatment or control of chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatism, atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, and cancer [203]. Calixto et al. reported that the anti-inflammatory action of active spice-derived components results from the disruption of the production of various inflammatory proteins (e.g., cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), iNOS, and COX-2) [379].

Animal studies were also conducted to assess the antioxidant properties of several medicinal extracts. The antioxidant potential of Hypericum perforatum, containing many polyphenolic compounds, was evaluated on splanchnic artery occlusion (SAO) shock-mediated injury [477] and also against elevated brain oxidative status induced by amnestic dose of scopolamine in rats [126]. Some medicinal plant extracts were tested for their ability to protect against carbon tetrachloride-, 2-acetylaminofluorene- (2-AAF-), and galactosamine-induced liver as well as aflatoxin B1-(AFB1-)induced genotoxicity. Using this test, it was found that an extract of Garcinia kola seeds [116, 478, 479], a decoction of Trichilia roka root [270], extracts of Entada africana [442], and Thonningia sanguinea [98, 480] possessed protective abilities. The antioxidant properties of plant extracts against potassium bromate (KBrO(3))-induced kidney damage showed the ability of G. kola seed extract to protect the kidneys [481].

Animal studies were also used to assess the anti-inflammatory ability of a great number of medicinal plant extracts using the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model. Plants investigated include seed extracts of Picralima nitida [399], crude methanol extract of the root of Moringa oleifera [469], powdered leaves and root of Mallotus oppositifolium [167], methanolic extract of Picralima nitida fruit [400], hot water extract of Alstonia boonei root-bark, Rauvolfia vomitoria root-bark, and Elaeis guineensis nuts [56], secondary root aqueous extract of Harpagophytum procumbens [303], crude extracts of Sphenocentrum jollyanum [272], aqueous and methanolic extracts of Hypoxis hemerocallidea corm [482], aqueous and methanolic extracts of Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark [483], aqueous extract of Mangifera indica stem-bark [13], aqueous extracts of Leonotis leonurus leaves [484], leaf extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum [148], methanol extracts of the stem-bark of Alstonia boonei [485], aerial parts of Amaranthus caudatus [486], methanolic extracts of Kigelia pinnata flower [415], and leaf and twig extracts of Dorstenia barteri [276]. In all of these studies, the anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema was attributed to flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds. Animal tests also employed to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of the medicinal plant extracts included inflammatory cell response such as neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation [112, 487], antiatherosclerosis effects [486], and pain assessment in experimental animals [117].

The effect of the medicinal plants on the induction or inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes was also studied in animals. The effect of the aqueous extract of Thonningia sanguinea on 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD, CYP1A1), 7-pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD, CYP2B1/2), 7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD, CYP1A2), aniline hydroxylase (aniline, CYP2E1), p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (PNPH, CYP2E1), and erythromycin N-demethylase (ERDM, CYP3A1) in rat liver was found to selectively modulate CYP isoenzymes [100] and suppress CYP3A2 and CYP1A2 gene expression [101].

3. Compounds Isolated from African Medicinal Plant Extracts with Confirmed Antioxidant Activities

Several medicinal plant extracts were studied at research centres in African countries for their antioxidant properties. The major findings of these investigations have indicated that, in addition to known antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid in the seeds of Parkia biglobosa [204] and fruits pulp of Adansonia digitata [369], alpha-tocopherol in methanol extracts of the stems of Secamone afzelii [62] or from the seeds [38] and methanol extracts of leaves of Amaranthus caudatus [39], and apigenin and luteolin in aerial parts of Bulbine capitata [66], several other antioxidant compounds were identified. Although known antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid have been confirmed to promote wound healing, not all the newly identified compounds have been tested for such activity [488491].

The identified compounds included mainly flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols, flavone and flavonol glycosides, chalcones and dihydrochalcones, and flavonones, although some anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and anthrones were also isolated with antioxidant properties. A wide range of plant extracts investigated have been shown to contain flavonoids. Dorstenia species are rich in flavonoids some of which are unique to this genus [67, 205], namely, prenylated flavonoids as found in Dorstenia kameruniana and twigs of D. mannii [206, 207]. Earlier studies have shown that prenylated flavonoids had antioxidant properties, which protected human LDL from oxidation [208]. Those isolated from African medicinal plant extracts were also tested and their antioxidant properties confirmed. The antioxidant activities of three prenylated flavonoids from D. mannii (6,8-diprenyleriodictyol, dorsmanin C, 7,8-(2,2-dimethylchromeno)-6-geranyl-3,5,3′,4′-tetrahydroxyflavonol and dorsmanin F, (+)-7,8-[2′′-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-dihydrofurano]-6-prenyl-5,3′,4′-trihydroxyflavanone) against LDL oxidation and also their free radical scavenging activity have been indicated [187]. Similarly, a diprenylated chalcone, Bartericin A, present in D. barteri leaf and twig extracts was shown to have potent antioxidant properties. It was found that this and other prenylated and geranylated chalcones were as active as the prenylated flavones and may account for the anti-inflammatory action of these extracts [276]. Free radical scavenging activity was also confirmed for prenylated anthronoids isolated from the stem-bark of Harungana madagascariensis [121] and for proanthocyanidins isolated from the bark of Burkea africana [175]. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of kolaviron, a biflavonoid isolated from a Garcinia kola seed extract to scavenge free radicals, which protect against lipid peroxidation and H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks and oxidized bases, were also reported [114, 116119, 209]. In addition, the ability of free radical scavenging activity and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of Thonningianin A and Thonningianin B, ellagitannins, isolated from Thonningia sanguinea have been shown [99, 366]. The anti-inflammatory ability of Griffonianone D ((7E)-(6′′,7′′-dihydroxy-3′′,7′′-dimethyloct-2′′-enyl)oxy-4′-methoxyisoflavone), an isoflavone present in Millettia griffoniana, has been established [195]. Prenylated anthronoids, harunmadagascarins A (8,9-dihydroxy-4,4-bis-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-6-methyl-2,3-(2,2-dimethylpyrano)anthrone and B (8,9-dihydroxy-4,4,5-tris-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-6-methyl-2,3-(2,2-dimethylpyrano)anthrone), harunganol B, and harungin anthrone from the stem-bark of Harungana madagascariensis have exhibited significant antioxidant activity [121]. Saponins and isofuranonaphthoquinones isolated from different medicinal plant extracts showed antioxidant properties and include the saponin, Balanin 1 (3β,12β,14β,16β) cholest-5-ene-3,16-diyl bis (β-d-glucopyranoside)-12-sulphate, sterol sulfonated, Balanin 2 (3β,20S,22R,25R)-26-hydroxy-22-acetoxyfurost-5-en-3-yl-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-glucopyranoside, and a furostanol saponin isolated from Balanites aegyptiaca [104]. Isofuranonaphthoquinones isolated from the roots of Bulbine capitata, 5,8-dihydroxy-1-tigloylmethylnaphtho[2,3-c]furan-4,9-dione, 1-acetoxymethyl-8-hydroxynaphtho [2,3-c]furan-4,9-dione, and 1-acetoxymethyl-5,8-dihydroxynaphtho[2,3-c]furan-4,9-dione possess antioxidant activities [68]. Though none of these antioxidant compounds has been directly assessed for wound healing potential, the enhanced wound closure observed with treatment of prenylated flavonoids such as genistein [492] and the demonstrated effect of chalcones on the inflammation process [493] attest to the potential of isolated antioxidants in wound management.

4. Crude Extracts of African Medicinal Plants with Confirmed Antioxidant Activities

The antioxidant properties of a larger proportion of African medicinal plants listed in Tables 1 and 2 were tested using either aqueous or organic plant extracts. After confirming antioxidant properties, a correlation was proposed between this property and the general groups of antioxidant compounds that are present in these extracts. No further attempts were made to isolate the specific compounds that may have contributed towards this property. Flavonoids in Aloe barbadensis [32], chromone glycosides in A. claviflora [35], essential oils in Artemisia abyssinica, and Juniperus procera [79] as well as Helichrysum dasyanthum, H. felinum, H. excisum, and H. petiolare [94], proanthocyanidins in Burkea africana bark [175], polyphenols in extracts of Crataegus monogyna [321], saponins, and alkaloids in extracts of Leucosidea sericea [210, 211] are all considered as major compounds that have contributed to the antioxidant properties of these plants. Reports on a number of Barleria species, which includes B. albostellata, B. greenii, and B. prionitis, have indicated their anti-inflammatory [212] and antioxidant capacities [213]. Unlike the isolated compounds, most of the plants listed for possessing antioxidant activity, including extracts of Agerantum conyzoides, Euphorbia hirta, Kigelia africana, and Nauclea latifolia, have been shown to possess wound healing ability [494496].

Furthermore, studies have focused on screening a vast number of plants, used in a specific region, so as to determine their antioxidant properties, Mali [357], South Africa [19, 188, 267, 364], Cameroon [182, 313], Algeria [85], Ghana [98], Burkina Faso [266], Madagascar [23], and Mauritius [293], and anti-inflammatory properties, South Africa [168, 264, 374, 376] and West Africa [400].

5. Discussion and Conclusion

The use of traditional herbal remedies as alternative medicine plays a significant role in Africa since it features extensively in primary health care. The search for natural antioxidants, especially from plant sources, as a potential intervention for treatment of free radical mediated diseases is an important research field, especially for those in developing countries. Many polyphenols, including phenolic acids, flavonoids (anthocyanins and anthoxanthins), tannins, and lignans, are known to act as antioxidants and protect against various pathological conditions such as coronary artery disease and wounds, in addition to their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities [214216].

Flavonoids are a large group of compounds containing several hydroxyl groups on their ring structures and include isoflavonoids and isoflavonoid glycosides, flavones, and flavone glycosides, flavonols and flavonol glycosides, anthocyanins, chalcones and dihydrochalcones, aurones, flavonones and dihydroflavonols, and flavans and biflavonyls. To date, approximately 9000 different flavonoids have been identified from plant sources [217]. Great interest has been dedicated to the antioxidant properties of flavonoids that may function as potent free radical scavengers, reducing agents, and protectors against peroxidation of lipids [208, 218]. Reviews have been published documenting numerous studies on antioxidant efficacy of flavonoids and phenolic compounds as well as on the relationship between their antioxidant activities, as hydrogen donating free radical scavengers, in relation to their chemical structures. The importance of the unsaturation in the C ring of quercetin compared to catechin in the increased antioxidant activity of the former has been presented [216, 219223]. Also, the importance of the position and number of hydroxyl groups on the phenolic rings in increasing or decreasing the antioxidant properties of these compounds has been emphasized [216, 219223].

Although many flavonoids have been isolated from different African medicinal plant extracts, the structure-activity relationship of these compounds has not yet been investigated. Recent studies have also shown that some flavonoids are modulators of proinflammatory gene expression, thus leading to the attenuation of the inflammatory response [224]. Examples of these include the lipophilic flavones and flavonols 5,7-dihydroxy-2′,3′,4′,5′-tetramethoxyflavone, 5,4′-dihydroxy-7,2′,3′,5′-tetramethoxyflavone, and 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-2′,3′,5′-trimethoxyflavone isolated from Psiadia punctulata [225] and Dinklagin B and C isolated from Dorstenia dinklagei [226]. Isolated flavone and flavonol glycosides include kaempferide 3-O-beta-xylosyl (1→2)-beta-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnoside-7,4′-di-O-beta-galactoside, kaempferol 3,7,4′-tri-O-beta-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-[alpha-rhamnosyl (1→6)] [beta-glucosyl (1→2)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside from Warburgia ugandensis, and quercetin-7,4′-disulphate from Alchornea laxiflora [159]. Flavanones and dihydroflavonols include dorsmanin I and J and epidorsmanin F and G isolated from Dorstenia mannii [227] and Dinklagins A, isolated from the twigs of Dorstenia dinklagei [226] and two flavones isolated from the twigs of Eriosema robustum [182] and 1α,3β-dihydroxy-12-oleanen-29-oic (1), 1-hydroxy-12-olean-30-oic acid (2), 3,30-dihydroxyl-12-oleanen-22-one (3), and 1,3,24-trihydroxyl-12-olean-29-oic acid (4), a new pentacyclic triterpenoid (1α, 23-dihydroxy-12-oleanen-29-oic acid-3β-O-2,4-di-acetyl-l-rhamnopyranoside) (5) from Combretum imberbe [138]. Anthocyanins isolated include the cyanidins 3-O-(2′′-galloyl-β-galactopyranoside) and 3-O-(2′′-galloyl-6′′-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-β-galactopyranoside) from Acalypha hispida [228] and cyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and cyanidin 3-O-(2-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside from Hibiscus sabdariffa [266]. When revising the literature, it became apparent that even though most of these medicinal plants and compounds have confirmed antioxidant activity, not many of them have been screened for wound healing potential. As there is an association between antioxidative therapy and wound healing, research in this direction is as imminent as it is important. Furthermore, structure-activity studies on the isolated compounds from African medicinal extracts will be of great interest.

Antioxidants may exert their protective effects via different mechanisms at different stages of the oxidation process. There are those that are able to inhibit the production of free radicals via their ability to chelate transition metal ions and those that are able to quench and stabilise free radicals [229, 230]. Additionally, they are further subdivided into categories according to their functions [230]. Such classification of the newly isolated antioxidant compounds from African medicinal plant extracts is warranted to better understand their antioxidant properties.

It should be noted that the antioxidant activity of the extracts and compounds listed in this review was mostly determined using either single assays or in vitro analysis. It is therefore possible that some of these extracts and compounds may not show antioxidant activity when alternative testing methods are used. Furthermore, although in vivo studies are encouraged, most studies cited used in vitro assays. As antioxidant activity in vitro does not necessarily translate to activity in vivo, due to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes that occurs in vivo, it is possible that samples may not be active when tested in animals. Activity of such samples should therefore be confirmed using animal models.

Additionally, attempts should be made to identify the compounds responsible for the proven antioxidant properties where not yet done, and in cases where they have been isolated, their wound healing properties should be investigated. If the activity of the compounds and plants identified in this review is confirmed in vivo, they could serve as viable sources for the treatment of wounds in future.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. C. Dunnill, T. Patton, J. Brennan et al., “Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and wound healing: the functional role of ROS and emerging ROS-modulating technologies for augmentation of the healing process,” International Wound Journal, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1–8, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  2. E. Moasser, N. Azarpira, A. Ghorbani dalini, and B. Shirazi, “Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene polymorphism and haplotype analysis in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case–control study in the south Iranian population,” International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 62–68, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  3. A. Benabbou, M. B. Khaled, and A. S. Alchalabi, “Evaluation of the Efficiency of Combined and Separated Antioxidant Supplementation of Vitamin C and E on Semen Parameters in Strepto-zotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats,” South Asian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 166–72, 2018. View at: Google Scholar
  4. T. Kurahashi and J. Fujii, “Roles of Antioxidative Enzymes in Wound Healing,” Journal of Developmental Biology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 57–70, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  5. G. Calviello, G. M. Filippi, A. Toesca et al., “Repeated exposure to pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate induces peripheral nerve alterations in rats,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 61–71, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  6. B. Poljsak, D. Šuput, and I. Milisav, “Achieving the balance between ROS and antioxidants: when to use the synthetic antioxidants,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2013, Article ID 956792, 11 pages, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. S. E. Atawodi, “Antioxidant potential of African medicinal plants,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 128–133, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  8. E. O. Iwalewa, L. J. McGaw, V. Naidoo, and J. N. Eloff, “Inflammation: the foundation of diseases and disorders. A review of phytomedicines of South African origin used to treat pain and inflammatory conditions,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 6, no. 25, pp. 2868–2885, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. M. F. Mahomoodally, “Traditional medicines in Africa: an appraisal of ten potent African medicinal plants,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 617459, 14 pages, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  10. G. R. Schinella, H. A. Tournier, J. M. Prieto, P. M. de Buschiazzo, and J. L. Ríos, “Antioxidant activity of anti-inflammatory plant extracts,” Life Sciences, vol. 70, no. 9, pp. 1023–1033, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  11. J. A. Cook, D. J. Vanderjagt, A. Dasgupta et al., “Use of the trolox assay to estimate the antioxidant content of seventeen edible wild plants of niger,” Life Sciences, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 105–110, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  12. J. Igoli, O. Ogaji, T. Tor-Anyiin, and N. Igoli, “Traditional Medicine Practice amongst the Igede People of Nigeria. Part II,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 2, no. 2, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  13. J. Ojewole, “Antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract,” Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 547–554, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  14. R. Gebhardt, “Antioxidative and protective properties of extracts from leaves of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) against hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in cultured rat hepatocytes,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 144, no. 2, pp. 279–286, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  15. H. Li, N. Xia, I. Brausch, Y. Yao, and U. Förstermann, “Flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) up-regulate endothelial-type nitric-oxide synthase gene expression in human endothelial cells,” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 310, no. 3, pp. 926–932, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  16. L. Bramati, F. Aquilano, and P. Pietta, “Unfermented Rooibos Tea: Quantitative Characterization of Flavonoids by HPLC-UV and Determination of the Total Antioxidant Activity,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 25, pp. 7472–7474, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  17. L. Bramati, M. Minoggio, C. Gardana, P. Simonetti, P. Mauri, and P. Pietta, “Quantitative characterization of flavonoid compounds in Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) by LC-UV/DAD,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 20, pp. 5513–5519, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  18. O. Inanami, T. Asanuma, N. Inukai et al., “The suppression of age-related accumulation of lipid peroxides in rat brain by administration of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis),” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 196, no. 1-2, pp. 85–88, 1995. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  19. K. L. Lindsey, M. L. Motsei, and A. K. Jäger, “Screening of South African food plants for antioxidant activity,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 2129–2131, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  20. C. Rabe, J. A. Steenkamp, E. Joubert, J. F. W. Burger, and D. Ferreira, “Phenolic metabolites from rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis),” Phytochemistry, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1559–1565, 1994. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  21. V. Steenkamp, E. Mathivha, M. C. Gouws, and C. E. J. Van Rensburg, “Studies on antibacterial, antioxidant and fibroblast growth stimulation of wound healing remedies from South Africa,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 95, no. 2-3, pp. 353–357, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  22. M. T. Baratta, H. J. D. Dorman, S. G. Deans, A. C. Figueiredo, J. G. Barroso, and G. Ruberto, “Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of some commercial essential oils,” Flavour and Fragrance Journal, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 235–244, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  23. R. Juliani Hector, J. E. Simon, M. M. Roland Ramboatiana, O. Behra, A. S. Garvey, and I. Raskin, “Malagasy aromatic plants: Essential oils, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities,” Acta Horticulturae, vol. 629, pp. 77–81, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  24. J. Mancini-Filho, A. Van-Koiij, D. A. P. Mancini, F. F. Cozzolino, and R. P. Torres, “Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (cinnamomum zeylanicum, breyne) extracts,” Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico, vol. 137, no. 11, pp. 443–447, 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  25. S. Möllenbeck, T. König, P. Schreier, W. Schwab, J. Rajaonarivony, and L. Ranarivelo, “Chemical composition and analyses of enantiomers of essential oils from Madagascar,” Flavour and Fragrance Journal, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 63–69, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  26. N. Dilsiz, A. Sahaboglu, M. Z. Yildiz, and A. Reichenbach, “Protective effects of various antioxidants during ischemia-reperfusion in the rat retina,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 244, no. 5, pp. 627–633, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  27. R. Randhir, Y.-T. Lin, and K. Shetty, “Phenolics, their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in dark germinated fenugreek sprouts in response to peptide and phytochemical elicitors,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 295–307, 2004. View at: Google Scholar
  28. K. Srinivasan, K. Sambaiah, and N. Chandrasekhara, “Spices as beneficial hypolipidemic food adjuncts: A review,” Food Reviews International, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 187–220, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  29. O. A. Badary, R. A. Taha, A. M. Gamal El-Din, and M. H. Abdel-Wahab, “Thymoquinone is a potent superoxide anion scavenger,” Drug and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 87–98, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  30. N. Farah, H. Benghuzzi, M. Tucci, and Z. Cason, “The effects of isolated antioxidants from black seed on the cellular metabolism of A549 cells,” Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, vol. 41, pp. 211–216, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  31. M. F. Ramadan, L. W. Kroh, and J.-T. Mörsel, “Radical scavenging activity of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) crude seed oils and oil fractions,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 24, pp. 6961–6969, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  32. S. Lee, S. Do, S. Y. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Jin, and C. H. Lee, “Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling and antioxidant activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) in different growth stages,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 60, no. 45, pp. 11222–11228, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  33. X.-f. Zhang, H.-m. Wang, Y.-l. Song et al., “Isolation, structure elucidation, antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties of two novel dihydrocoumarins from Aloe vera,” Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 949–953, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  34. M. Moniruzzaman, B. Rokeya, S. Ahmed, A. Bhowmik, M. I. Khalil, and S. H. Gan, “In vitro antioxidant effects of aloe barbadensis miller extracts and the potential role of these extracts as antidiabetic and antilipidemic agents on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic model rats,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 12851–12867, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  35. K. L. Lindsey, A. M. Viljoen, and A. K. Jäger, “Screening of Aloe species for antioxidant activity,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 599–602, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  36. S. O. Amoo, A. O. Aremu, and J. Van Staden, “Unraveling the medicinal potential of South African Aloe species,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 19–41, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  37. P. J. Zapata, D. Navarro, F. Guillén et al., “Characterisation of gels from different Aloe spp. as antifungal treatment: Potential crops for industrial applications,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 223–230, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  38. R. Bruni, A. Guerrini, S. Scalia, C. Romagnoli, and G. Sacchetti, “Rapid techniques for the extraction of vitamin E isomers from Amaranthus caudatus seeds: ultrasonic and supercritical fluid extraction,” Phytochemical Analysis, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 257–261, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  39. P. Veeru, M. P. Kishor, and M. Meenakshi, “Screening of medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant activity,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 608–612, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  40. D. M. Jiménez-Aguilar and M. A. Grusak, “Minerals, vitamin C, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of Amaranthus leafy vegetables,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 58, pp. 33–39, 2017. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  41. O. O. Ajileye, E. M. Obuotor, E. O. Akinkunmi, and M. A. Aderogba, “Isolation and characterization of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds from Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) leaf extract,” Journal of King Saud University - Science, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 244–252, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  42. R. Velagapudi, O. O. Ajileye, U. Okorji, P. Jain, M. A. Aderogba, and O. A. Olajide, “Agathisflavone isolated from Anacardium occidentale suppresses SIRT1‐mediated neuroinflammation in BV2 microglia and neurotoxicity in APPS we‐transfected SH‐SY5Y cells,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1957–1966, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  43. A. Maroyi, “Traditional use of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe: review and perspectives,” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicne, vol. 9, article 31, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  44. T. Munodawafa, L. S. Chagonda, and S. R. Moyo, “Antimicrobial and phytochemical screening of some Zimbabwean medicinal plants,” Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature, vol. 3, no. 5-6, pp. 323–330, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  45. E. F. Queiroz, C. Kuhl, C. Terreaux, S. Mavi, and K. Hostettmann, “New dihydroalkylhexenones from Lannea edulis,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 578–580, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  46. A. Maiga, K. E. Malterud, D. Diallo, and B. S. Paulsen, “Antioxidant and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of the Malian medicinal plants Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F. White (Ebenaceae), Lannea velutina A. Rich (Anacardiaceae) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel) Benth. (Rubiaceae),” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 104, no. 1-2, pp. 132–137, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  47. L. Ouattara, J. Koudou, C. Zongo et al., “Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of three species of Lannea from Burkina Faso,” Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 157–162, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  48. R. Arora, D. Gupta, R. Chawla et al., “Radioprotection by plant products: present status and future prospects,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–22, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  49. Y.-J. Chen, Y.-S. Dai, B.-F. Chen et al., “The effect of tetrandrine and extracts of centella asiatica on acute radiation dermatitis in rats,” Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 703–706, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  50. G. Jayashree, G. Kurup Muraleedhara, S. Sudarslal, and V. B. Jacob, “Anti-oxidant activity of Centella asiatica on lymphoma-bearing mice,” Fitoterapia, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 431–434, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  51. D. MacKay and A. L. Miller, “Nutritional support for wound healing,” Alternative Medicine Review, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 359–377, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  52. F. Pittella, R. C. Dutra, D. D. Junior, M. T. P. Lopes, and N. R. Barbosa, “Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Centella asiatica (L) Urb.,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 3713–3721, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  53. J. Sharma and R. Sharma, “Radioprotection of Swiss Albino Mouse by Centella asiatica Extract,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 785-786, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  54. R. Sharma and J. Sharma, “Modification of gamma ray induced changes in the mouse hepatocytes by Centella asiatica extract: In vivo studies,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 605–611, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  55. A. Shukla, A. M. Rasik, and B. N. Dhawan, “Asiaticoside-induced elevation of antioxidant levels in healing wounds,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 50–54, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  56. G. Kweifio-Okai, “Antiinflammatory activity of a Ghanaian antiarthritic herbal preparation: I,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 263–267, 1991. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  57. O. A. Olajide, J. M. Makinde, D. T. Okpako, and S. O. Awe, “Studies on the anti-inflammatory and related pharmacological properties of the aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea stem bark,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 71, no. 1-2, pp. 153–160, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  58. B. B. Fakae, A. M. Campbell, J. Barrett et al., “Inhibition of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) from parasitic nematodes by extracts from traditional Nigerian medicinal plants,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 630–634, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  59. N. Okoye and C. Okoye, “Anti-oxidant and Antimicrobial Flavonoid Glycosides from Alstonia boonei De Wild Leaves,” British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1–9, 2016. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  60. W. Zheng and S. Y. Wang, “Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 5165–5170, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  61. S. E. Atawodi, L. M. Yusufu, J. C. Atawodi, O. Asuku, and O. E. Yakubu, “Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Potential of Nigerian Red Palm Oil (Elaeis Guineensis),” International Journal of Biology, vol. 3, no. 2, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  62. A. Y. Mensah, P. J. Houghton, G. N. A. Akyirem et al., “Evaluation of the antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of Secamone afzelii Rhoem,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1031-1032, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  63. P. J. Houghton, P. J. Hylands, A. Y. Mensah, A. Hensel, and A. M. Deters, “In vitro tests and ethnopharmacological investigations: wound healing as an example,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 100, no. 1-2, pp. 100–107, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  64. H. Zabri, C. Kodjo, A. Benie, J. M. Bekro, and Y. A. Bekro, “Phytochemical screening and determination of flavonoids in Secamone afzelii (Asclepiadaceae) extracts,” African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 80–82, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  65. A. A. Wube, F. Bucar, K. Asres et al., “Knipholone, a selective inhibitor of leukotriene metabolism,” Phytomedicine, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 452–456, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  66. M. Bezabhi and B. M. Abegaz, “4'-Demethylknipholone from aerial parts of Bulbine capitata,” Phytochemistry, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1071–1073, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  67. R. R. T. Majinda, B. M. Abegaz, M. Bezabih et al., “Recent results from natural product research at the University of Botswana,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 73, no. 7, pp. 1197–1208, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  68. M. Bezabih, B. M. Abegaz, K. Dufall, K. Croft, T. Skinner-Adams, and T. M. E. Davis, “Antiplasmodial and antioxidant isofuranonaphthoquinones from the roots of Bulbine capitata,” Planta Medica, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 340–344, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  69. B. M. Abegaz, “Novel phenylanthraquinones, isofuranonaphthoquinones, homoisoflavonoids, and biflavonoids from African plants in the genera Bulbine, Scilla, Ledebouria, and Rhus,” Phytochemistry Reviews, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 299–310, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  70. B. M. Abegaz, M. Bezabih, T. Msuta et al., “Gaboroquinones A and B and 4-O-demethylknipholone-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, phenylanthraquinones from the roots of Bulbine frutescens,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 1117–1121, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  71. M. Bezabih, S. Motlhagodi, and B. M. Abegaz, “Isofuranonaphthoquinones and phenolic and knipholone derivatives from the roots of Bulbine capitata,” Phytochemistry, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1063–1067, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  72. G. J. Grubben, Plant Resources of Tropical Africa (PROTA), Prota, 2008.
  73. A. Mats' eliso and P. Karuso, “Secondary Metabolites from Basotho Medicinal Plants. II. Bulbine capitata,” Australian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 427–430, 2001. View at: Google Scholar
  74. J. Mutanyatta, M. Bezabih, B. M. Abegaz et al., “The first 6-O-sulfated phenylanthraquinones: Isolation from Bulbine frutescens, structural elucidation, enantiomeric purity, and partial synthesis,” Tetrahedron, vol. 61, no. 35, pp. 8475–8484, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  75. P. Tambama, B. Abegaz, and S. Mukanganyama, “Antiproliferative activity of the isofuranonaphthoquinone isolated from Bulbine frutescens against jurkat T cells,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 752941, 14 pages, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  76. M. Adams and R. Bauer, “Inhibition of leukotriene biosynthesis by secondary plant metabolites,” Current Organic Chemistry, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 602–618, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  77. S. Habtemariam, “Knipholone anthrone from Kniphofia foliosa induces a rapid onset of necrotic cell death in cancer cells,” Fitoterapia, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 1013–1019, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  78. S. Habtemariam, “Antioxidant activity of Knipholone anthrone,” Food Chemistry, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 1042–1047, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  79. M. Burits, K. Asres, and F. Bucar, “The antioxidant activity of the essential oils of Artemisia afra, Artemisia abyssinica and Juniperus procera,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 103–108, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  80. S. A. Emami, J. Asili, Z. Mohagheghi, and M. K. Hassanzadeh, “Antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of Iranian conifers,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 313–319, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  81. M. Esteban, L. G. Collado, F. A. Macías, G. M. Massanet, and F. R. Luis, “Flavonoids from Artemisia lanata,” Phytochemistry, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1502–1504, 1986. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  82. V. Naidoo, L. J. McGaw, S. P. R. Bisschop, N. Duncan, and J. N. Eloff, “The value of plant extracts with antioxidant activity in attenuating coccidiosis in broiler chickens,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 153, no. 3-4, pp. 214–219, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  83. L. V. Buwa and A. J. Afolayan, “Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 8, no. 23, pp. 6683–6687, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  84. B.-E. Van Wyk, B. v. Oudtshoorn, and N. Gericke, Medicinal Plants of South Africa, Briza, 1997.
  85. A. Djeridane, M. Yousfi, B. Nadjemi, D. Boutassouna, P. Stocker, and N. Vidal, “Antioxidant activity of some Algerian medicinal plants extracts containing phenolic compounds,” Food Chemistry, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 654–660, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  86. A. Akrout, L. A. Gonzalez, H. El Jani, and P. C. Madrid, “Antioxidant and antitumor activities of Artemisia campestris and Thymelaea hirsuta from southern Tunisia,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 342–347, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  87. M. B. Naili, R. O. Alghazeer, N. A. Saleh, and A. Y. Al-Najjar, “Evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia campestris (Astraceae) and Ziziphus lotus (Rhamnacea),” Arabian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 79–84, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  88. M. G. L. Brandão, C. G. C. Nery, M. A. S. Mamão, and A. U. Krettli, “Two methoxylated flavone glycosides from Bidens pilosa,” Phytochemistry, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 397–399, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  89. Y.-M. Chiang, D.-Y. Chuang, S.-Y. Wang, Y.-H. Kuo, P.-W. Tsai, and L.-F. Shyur, “Metabolite profiling and chemopreventive bioactivity of plant extracts from Bidens pilosa,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 95, no. 2-3, pp. 409–419, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  90. L.-P. Yuan, F.-H. Chen, L. Ling et al., “Protective effects of total flavonoids of Bidens pilosa L. (TFB) on animal liver injury and liver fibrosis,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 539–546, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  91. F. Deba, T. D. Xuan, M. Yasuda, and S. Tawata, “Chemical composition and antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oils from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. Radiata,” Food Control, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 346–352, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  92. F. Fratianni, M. Tucci, M. D. Palma, R. Pepe, and F. Nazzaro, “Polyphenolic composition in different parts of some cultivars of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori),” Food Chemistry, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 1282–1286, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  93. E. Speroni, R. Cervellati, P. Govoni, S. Guizzardi, C. Renzulli, and M. C. Guerra, “Efficacy of different Cynara scolymus preparations on liver complaints,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 86, no. 2-3, pp. 203–211, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  94. A. C. U. Lourens, D. Reddy, K. H. C. Başer, A. M. Viljoen, and S. F. van Vuuren, “In vitro biological activity and essential oil composition of four indigenous South African Helichrysum species,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 95, no. 2-3, pp. 253–258, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  95. S. Albayrak, A. Aksoy, O. Sagdic, and E. Hamzaoglu, “Compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Helichrysum (Asteraceae) species collected from Turkey,” Food Chemistry, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 114–122, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  96. A. C. U. Lourens, A. M. Viljoen, and F. R. van Heerden, “South African Helichrysum species: a review of the traditional uses, biological activity and phytochemistry,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 630–652, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  97. L. G. Ranilla, Y.-I. Kwon, E. Apostolidis, and K. Shetty, “Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 12, pp. 4676–4689, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  98. M. A. Gyamfi, M. Yonamine, and Y. Aniya, “Free-radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from GhanaThonningia sanguinea on experimentally-induced liver injuries,” General Pharmacology: The Vascular System, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 661–667, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  99. I. I. Ohtani, N. Gotoh, J. Tanaka, T. Higa, M. A. Gyamfi, and Y. Aniya, “Thonningianins A and B, new antioxidants from the African medicinal herb Thonningia sanguinea,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 676–679, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  100. M. A. Gyamfi, N. Hokama, K. Oppong-Boachie, and Y. Aniya, “Inhibitory effects of the medicinal herb, Thonningia sanguinea, on liver drug metabolizing enzymes of rats,” Human & Experimental Toxicology, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 623–631, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  101. M. A. Gyamfi, T. Tanaka, and Y. Aniya, “Selective suppression of cytochrome P450 gene expression by the medicinal herb, Thonningia sanguinea in rat liver,” Life Sciences, vol. 74, no. 14, pp. 1723–1737, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  102. M. A. Gyamfi, I. I. Ohtani, E. Shinno, and Y. Aniya, “Inhibition of glutathione S-transferases by thonningianin A, isolated from the African medicinal herb, Thonningia sanguinea, in vitro,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1401–1408, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  103. J. D. N'Guessan, A. P. Bidié, B. N. Lenta, B. Weniger, P. André, and F. Guédé-Guina, “In vitro assays for bioactivity-guided isolation of anti salmonella and antioxidant compounds in Thonningia sanguinea flowers,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 6, no. 14, pp. 1685–1689, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
  104. E. Speroni, R. Cervellati, G. Innocenti et al., “Anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activities of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 98, no. 1-2, pp. 117–125, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  105. D. L. Chothani and H. U. Vaghasiya, “A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity,” Pharmacognosy Reviews, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 55–62, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  106. A. El Tahir, A. M. Ibrahim, G. M. H. Satti, T. G. Theander, A. Kharazmi, and S. A. Khalid, “The potential antileishmanial activity of some Sudanese medicinal plants,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 576–579, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  107. O. A. Binutu and B. A. Lajubutu, “Antimicrobial potentials of some plant species of the Bignoniaceae family.,” African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 269–273, 1994. View at: Google Scholar
  108. J. J. Rojas, V. J. Ochoa, S. A. Ocampo, and J. F. Muñoz, “Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: a possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 6, article 2, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  109. A. Rana, S. Bhangalia, and H. P. Singh, “A new phenylethanoid glucoside from Jacaranda mimosifolia,” Natural Product Research (Formerly Natural Product Letters), vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 1167–1173, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  110. K. Ofori-Kwakye, A. A. Kwapong, and F. Adu, “Antimicrobial activity of extracts and topical products of the stem bark of Spathodea campanulata for wound healing,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 168–174, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  111. M. Marzouk, A. Gamal-Eldeen, M. Mohamed, and M. El-Sayed, “Anti-proliferative and antioxidant constituents from Tecoma stans,” Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung - Section C Journal of Biosciences, vol. 61, no. 11-12, pp. 783–791, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  112. L. Selloum, L. Sebihi, A. Mekhalfia, R. Mahdadi, and A. Senator, “Antioxidant activity of Cleome arabica leaves extract,” Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 25, no. 4, p. S608, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  113. U. S. Akula and B. Odhav, “In vitro 5-lipoxygenase inhibition of polyphenolic antioxidants from undomesticated plants of South Africa,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 207–212, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  114. E. O. Farombi, P. Møller, and L. O. Dragsted, “Ex-vivo and in vitro protective effects of kolaviron against oxygen-derived radical-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in human lymphocytes and rat liver cells,” Cell Biology and Toxicology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 71–82, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  115. E. O. Farombi, S. Shrotriya, and Y.-J. Surh, “Kolaviron inhibits dimethyl nitrosamine-induced liver injury by suppressing COX-2 and iNOS expression via NF-κB and AP-1,” Life Sciences, vol. 84, no. 5-6, pp. 149–155, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  116. E. O. Farombi, J. G. Tahnteng, A. O. Agboola, J. O. Nwankwo, and G. O. Emerole, “Chemoprevention of 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced hepatotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in rats by kolaviron—a Garcinia kola seed extract,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 535–541, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  117. S. Olaleye, E. Farombi, E. Adewoye, B. Owoyele, S. Onasanwo, and R. Elegbe, “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of kaviiron (a Garcinia kola seed extract),” African journal of biomedical research, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 171–174, 2000. View at: Google Scholar
  118. O. A. Adaramoye and O. Akinloye, “Possible protective effect of kolaviron on CCl4-induced erythrocyte damage in rats,” Bioscience Reports, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 259–264, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  119. O. A. Adaramoye, V. O. Nwaneri, K. C. Anyanwo, E. O. Farombi, and G. O. Emerole, “Possible anti-atherogenic effect of kolaviron (a Garcinia kola seed extract) in hypercholesterolaemic rats,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 32, no. 1-2, pp. 40–46, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  120. J. O. Nwankwo, J. G. Tahnteng, and G. O. Emerole, “Inhibition of aflatoxin B1 genotoxicity in human liver-derived HepG2 cells by kolaviron biflavonoids and molecular mechanisms of action,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 351–361, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  121. S. F. Kouam, B. T. Ngadjui, K. Krohn, P. Wafo, A. Ajaz, and M. I. Choudhary, “Prenylated anthronoid antioxidants from the stem bark of Harungana madagascariensis,” Phytochemistry, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 1174–1179, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  122. P.-C. N. Biapa, G. A. Agbor, J. E. Oben, and J. Y. Ngogang, “Phytochemical studies and antioxidant properties of four medicinal plants used in Cameroon,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 495–500, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
  123. E. O. Iwalewa, I. O. Adewale, B. J. Taiwo et al., “Effects of Harungana madagascariensis stem bark extract on the antioxidant markers in alloxan induced diabetic and carrageenan induced inflammatory disorders in rats,” Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  124. A. P. M. Bernardi, A. B. F. Ferraz, D. V. Albring et al., “Benzophenones from Hypericum carinatum,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 784–786, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  125. J. D. M. Nunes, P. S. Pinto, S. A. D. L. Bordignon, S. B. Rech, and G. L. von Poser, “Phenolic compounds in Hypericum species from the Trigynobrathys section,” Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 224–228, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  126. D. A. El-Sherbiny, A. E. Khalifa, A. S. Attia, and E. D. Eldenshary, “Hypericum perforatum extract demonstrates antioxidant properties against elevated rat brain oxidative status induced by amnestic dose of scopolamine,” Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, vol. 76, no. 3-4, pp. 525–533, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  127. A. Herold, L. Cremer, A. Calugaru et al., “Antioxidant properties of some hydroalcoholic plant extracts with antiinflammatory activity.,” Romanian Archives of Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 62, no. 3-4, pp. 217–227, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  128. A. Herold, L. Cremer, A. Calugaru et al., “Hydroalcoholic plant extracts with anti-inflammatory activity.,” Romanian Archives of Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 62, no. 1-2, pp. 117–129, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  129. H. Hosseinzadeh, G.-R. Karimi, and M. Rakhshanizadeh, “Anticonvulsant effect of Hypericum perforatum: Role of nitric oxide,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 98, no. 1-2, pp. 207-208, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  130. D. Z. Orčić, N. M. Mimica-Dukić, M. M. Francišković, S. S. Petrović, and E. T. Jovin, “Antioxidant activity relationship of phenolic compounds in Hypericum perforatum L,” Chemistry Central Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 34, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  131. Y. Zou, Y. Lu, and D. Wei, “Antioxidant activity of a flavonoid-rich extract of Hypericum perforatum L. in vitro,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 16, pp. 5032–5039, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  132. M. A. Aderogba, D. T. Kgatle, L. J. McGaw, and J. N. Eloff, “Isolation of antioxidant constituents from Combretum apiculatum subsp. apiculatum,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 79, pp. 125–131, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  133. P. H. Coombes and C. B. Rogers, “Methyl gardenolate A, a novel cycloartenoid ester from the leaves of Combretum woodii (Combretaceae),” Natural Product Research (Formerly Natural Product Letters), vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 301–304, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  134. J. N. Eloff, J. O. Famakin, and D. R. P. Katerere, “Combretum woodii (Combretaceae) leaf extracts have high activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1161–1166, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  135. J. N. Eloff, J. O. Famakin, and D. R. P. Katerere, “Isolation of an antibacterial stilbene from Combretum woodii (Combretaceae) leaves,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1167–1171, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  136. P. Masoko and J. N. Eloff, “Screening of twenty-four South African Combretum and six Terminalia species (Combretaceae) for antioxidant activites,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 231–239, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
  137. V. K. Zishiri, Potentising and application of a Combretum woodii leaf extract with high antibacterial and antioxidant activity, University of Pretoria, 2005.
  138. J. E. Angeh, X. Huang, I. Sattler et al., “Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of four known and one new triterpenoid from Combretum imberbe (Combretaceae),” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 56–60, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  139. N. Bouchet, L. Barrier, and B. Fauconneau, “Radical scavenging activity and antioxidant properties of tannins from Guiera senegalensisi (Combretaceae),” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 159–162, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  140. S. Amos, E. Kolawole, P. Akah, C. Wambebe, and K. Gamaniel, “Behavioral effects of the aqueous extract of Guiera senegalensis in mice and rats,” Phytomedicine, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 356–361, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  141. R. Ficarra, P. Ficarra, S. Tommasini et al., “Isolation and characterization of Guiera senegalensis J.F.Gmel. active principles,” Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico, vol. 136, no. 5, pp. 454–459, 1997. View at: Google Scholar
  142. Ž. Maleš, M. Medić-Šarić, and F. Bucar, “Flavonoids of Guiera senegalensis J. F. GMEL. -Thin-layer Chromatography and Numerical Methods,” Croatica Chemica Acta, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 69–79, 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  143. P. A. E. D. Sombié, A. Hilou, C. Mounier et al., “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from galls of guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel (Combretaceae),” Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 448–461, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  144. I. M. S. Eldeen, E. E. Elgorashi, D. A. Mulholland, and J. Van Staden, “Anolignan B: A bioactive compound from the roots of Terminalia sericea,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 135–138, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  145. J. Ezea, T. Iwuji, and M. Oguike, “Growth responses of pregnant rabbits and their litters fed Spreading day flower (Commelina diffusa Burm. F.) and rock fig (Ficus ingens Miquel) leaves,” Journal of Global Biosciences, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 619–625, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  146. P. A. Akah and A. I. Nwambie, “Evaluation of Nigerian traditional medicines: 1. Plants used for rheumatic (inflammatory) disorders,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 179–182, 1994. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  147. E. Boakye-Gyasi, G. K. Ainooson, and W. K. Abotsi, “Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant properties of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Palisota hirsuta K. Schum. (Commelinaceae),” West African Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 22, no. 1, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  148. J. A. O. Ojewole, “Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Crassulaceae) leaf aqueous extract,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 13–19, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  149. S. J. N. Tatsimo, J. D. D. Tamokou, L. Havyarimana et al., “Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of kaempferol rhamnoside derivatives from Bryophyllum pinnatum,” BMC Research Notes, vol. 5, article 158, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  150. S. I. Alqasoumi and M. S. Abdel-Kader, “Terpenoids from Juniperus procera with hepatoprotective activity,” Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 315–322, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  151. N. Orhan, I. E. Orhan, and F. Ergun, “Insights into cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of five Juniperus species,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 2305–2312, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  152. M. Araghiniknam, S. Chung, T. Nelson-White, C. Eskelson, and R. R. Watson, “Antioxidant activity of disoscorea and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in older humans,” Life Sciences, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. PL147–PL157, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  153. M. M. Iwu, C. O. Okunji, G. O. Ohiaeri, P. Akah, D. Corley, and M. S. Tempesta, “Hypoglycaemic activity of dioscoretine from tubers of Dioscorea dumetorum in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits,” Planta Medica, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 264–267, 1990. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  154. M. A. Sonibare and R. B. Abegunde, “In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant analysis of Dioscorea dumetorum (Kunth) Pax and Dioscorea hirtiflora (Linn.) and their bioactive metabolites from Nigeria,” Journal of Applied Biosciences, vol. 51, pp. 3583–3590, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  155. D. H. Paper, E. Karall, M. Kremser, and L. Krenn, “Comparison of the antiinflammatory effects of Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera madagascariensis in the HEX-CAM assay,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 323–326, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  156. P. A. Egan and F. Van Der Kooy, “Phytochemistry of the carnivorous sundew genus Drosera (Droseraceae) - Future perspectives and ethnopharmacological relevance,” Chemistry & Biodiversity, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1774–1790, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  157. M. T. Giardi, G. Rea, and B. Berra, Bio-Farms for Nutraceuticals: Functional Food and Safety Control by Biosensors, Springer Science & Business Media, 2011.
  158. E. O. Farombi, O. O. Ogundipe, E. S. Uhunwangho, M. A. Adeyanju, and J. O. Moody, “Antioxidant properties of extracts from Alchornea laxiflora (Benth) Pax and Hoffman,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 713–716, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  159. O. O. Ogundipe, J. O. Moody, P. J. Houghton, and H. A. Odelola, “Bioactive chemical constituents from Alchornea laxiflora (benth) pax and hoffman,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 275–280, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  160. R. N. Okigbo, C. L. Anuagasi, and J. E. Amadi, “Advances in selected medicinal and aromatic plants indigenous to Africa,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 86–95, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  161. G. K. Oloyede, P. A. Onocha, J. Soyinka, O. Oguntokun, and E. Thonda, “Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of four Nigerian medicinal plants,” Annals of Biological Research, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 114–120, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  162. A. Adetutu, W. A. Morgan, and O. Corcoran, “Antibacterial, antioxidant and fibroblast growth stimulation activity of crude extracts of Bridelia ferruginea leaf, a wound-healing plant of Nigeria,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 116–119, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  163. B. Bakoma, B. Berké, K. Eklu-Gadegbeku et al., “Total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and In vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia of Bridelia ferruginea extracts,” Research Journal of Phytochemistry, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 120–126, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  164. T. De Bruyne, K. Cimanga, L. Pieters, M. Claeys, R. Dommisse, and A. Vlietinck, “Gallocatechin - (4'→O→7) - epigallocatechin, a new biflavonoid isolated from Bridelia ferruginea,” Natural Product Research (Formerly Natural Product Letters), vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 47–52, 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  165. K. Cimanga, T. de Bruyne, S. Apers et al., “Complement-inhibiting constituents of Bridelia ferruginea stem bark,” Planta Medica, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 213–217, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  166. O. A. Fabiyi, A. Olubunmi, O. S. Adeyemi, and G. A. Olatunji, “Antioxidant and Cytotoxicity of β-Amyrin acetate fraction from Bridelia ferruginea leaves,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. S981–S984, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  167. E. O. Farombi, O. Ogundipe, and J. O. Moody, “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Mallotus oppositifolium in model systems.,” African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 213–215, 2001. View at: Google Scholar
  168. J. C. Chukwujekwu, J. Van Staden, and P. Smith, “Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antimalarial activities of some Nigerian medicinal plants,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 71, no. 3-4, pp. 316–325, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  169. V. Barku, Y. Opoku-Boahen, E. Owusu-Ansah, N. Dayie, and F. Mensah, “In-vitro assessment of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of six wound healing medicinal plants,” In-Vitro, vol. 3, no. 1, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  170. E. O. Farombi, “African indigenous plants with chemotherapeutic potentials and biotechnological approach to the production of bioactive prophylactic agents,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 662–671, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  171. R. Kamgang, E. Vidal Pouokam Kamgne, M. C. Fonkoua, V. Penlap N Beng, and M. Biwolé Sida, “Activities of aqueous extracts of Mallotus oppositifolium on Shigella dysenteriae A1-induced diarrhoea in rats,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 33, no. 1-2, pp. 89–94, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  172. C. O. Nwaehujor, M. I. Ezeja, N. E. Udeh, D. N. Okoye, and R. I. Udegbunam, “Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of Mallotus oppositifolius (Geisel) methanol leaf extracts,” Arabian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 805–810, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  173. P. W. Sinjman, E. Joubert, D. Ferreira et al., “Antioxidant activity of the dihydrochalcones aspalathin and nothofagin and their corresponding flavones in relation to other rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) flavonoids, epigallocatechin gallate, and Trolox,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 57, no. 15, pp. 6678–6684, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  174. R. Johnson, D. D. Beer, P. V. Dludla, D. Ferreira, C. J. F. Muller, and E. Joubert, “Aspalathin from Rooibos ( Aspalathus linearis ): A Bioactive C -glucosyl Dihydrochalcone with Potential to Target the Metabolic Syndrome,” Planta Medica, 2018. View at: Google Scholar
  175. E. Mathisen, D. Diallo, Ø. M. Andersen, and K. E. Malterud, “Antioxidants from the bark of Burkea africana, an African medicinal plant,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 148–153, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  176. R. Dave, “In vitro models for antioxidant activity evaluation and some medicinal plants possessing antioxidant properties: an overview,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 3, no. 13, pp. 981–996, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  177. F. Stoddard, “Novel feed and non-food uses of legumes,” Legume Futures Report, vol. 1, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  178. E. Joubert, E. S. Richards, J. D. Van Der Merwe, D. De Beer, M. Manley, and W. C. A. Gelderblom, “Effect of species variation and processing on phenolic composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of cyclopia spp. (Honeybush tea),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 954–963, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  179. B. I. Kamara, D. J. Brand, E. V. Brandt, and E. Joubert, “Phenolic metabolites from honeybush tea (Cyclopia subternata),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 17, pp. 5391–5395, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  180. B. I. Kamara, E. V. Brandt, D. Ferreira, and E. Joubert, “Polyphenols from honeybush tea (Cyclopia intermedia),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 13, pp. 3874–3879, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  181. D. L. McKay and J. B. Blumberg, “A review of the bioactivity of South African herbal teas: Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia),” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  182. M. D. Awouafack, P. Tane, and J. N. Eloff, “Two new antioxidant flavones from the twigs of Eriosema robustum (Fabaceae),” Phytochemistry Letters, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 62–66, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  183. A. Yenesew, S. Derese, B. Irungu et al., “Flavonoids and isoflavonoids with antiplasmodial activities from the root bark of Erythrina abyssinica,” Planta Medica, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 658–661, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  184. M. Chacha, G. Bojase-Moleta, and R. R. T. Majinda, “Antimicrobial and radical scavenging flavonoids from the stem wood of Erythrina latissima,” Phytochemistry, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 99–104, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  185. C. C. W. Wanjala, B. F. Juma, G. Bojase, B. A. Gashe, and R. R. T. Majinda, “Erythrinaline alkaloids and antimicrobial flavonoids from Erythrina latissima,” Planta Medica, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 640–642, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  186. C. C. W. Wanjala and R. R. T. Majinda, “Isoflavone glycosides from the root wood of Erythrina latissima,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 451–453, 2001. View at: Google Scholar
  187. K. G. Dufall, B. T. Ngadjui, K. F. Simeon, B. M. Abegaz, and K. D. Croft, “Antioxidant activity of prenylated flavonoids from the West African medicinal plant Dorstenia mannii,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 67–72, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  188. V. Steenkamp, H. Grimmer, M. Semano, and M. Gulumian, “Antioxidant and genotoxic properties of South African herbal extracts,” Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, vol. 581, no. 1-2, pp. 35–42, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  189. S. El-Masry, M. E. Amer, M. S. Abdel-Kader, and H. H. Zaatout, “Prenylated flavonoids of Erythrina lysistemon grown in Egypt,” Phytochemistry, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 783–787, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  190. U. Mabona and S. F. Van Vuuren, “Southern African medicinal plants used to treat skin diseases,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 87, pp. 175–193, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  191. K. Asres, S. Gibbons, and V. Nachname, “Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and a saponin isolated from Melilotus elegans,” Die Pharmazie-An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 310–312, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  192. S. Chorepsima, K. Tentolouris, D. Dimitroulis, and N. Tentolouris, “Melilotus: Contribution to wound healing in the diabetic foot,” Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 81–86, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  193. T. Gebre-Mariam, K. Asres, M. Getie, A. Endale, R. Neubert, and P. C. Schmidt, “In vitro availability of kaempferol glycosides from cream formulations of methanolic extract of the leaves of Melilotus elegans,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  194. T. Gebre-Mariam, R. Neubert, P. C. Schmidt, P. Wutzler, and M. Schmidtke, “Antiviral activities of some Ethiopian medicinal plants used for the treatment of dermatological disorders,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 104, no. 1-2, pp. 182–187, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  195. E. Yankep, D. Njamen, M. T. Fotsing et al., “Griffonianone D, an isoflavone with anti-inflammatory activity from the root bark of Millettia griffoniana,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 1288–1290, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  196. S. Combes, J.-P. Finet, and D. Siri, “On the optical activity of the 3-aryl-4-hydroxycoumarin isolated from Millettia griffoniana: Molecular modelling and total synthesis,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 38–44, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  197. D. Ngamga, E. Yankep, P. Tane et al., “Antiparasitic prenylated isoflavonoids from seeds of Millettia griffoniana,” Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 75–80, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  198. D. Ngamga, E. Yankep, P. Tane et al., “Isoflavonoids from seeds of Millettia griffoniana (Bail), 15,” Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung - Section B Journal of Chemical Sciences, vol. 60, no. 9, pp. 973–977, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  199. E. Yankep, Z. T. Fomum, D. Bisrat, E. Dagne, V. Hellwig, and W. Steglich, “O-geranylated isoflavones and a 3-phenylcoumarin from Millettia griffoniana,” Phytochemistry, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 2521–2523, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  200. E. Yankep, Z. T. Fomum, and E. Dagne, “An O-geranylated isoflavone from Millettia griffoniana,” Phytochemistry, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 591–593, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  201. E. Yankep, J. T. Mbafor, Z. T. Fomum et al., “Further isoflavonoid metabolites from Millettia griffoniana (Bail),” Phytochemistry, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 363–368, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  202. S. Zingue, D. Njamen, J. Tchoumtchoua et al., “Effects of Millettia macrophylla (Fabaceae) extracts on estrogen target organs of female Wistar rat,” Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 120–131, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  203. R. A. Sharma, A. J. Gescher, and W. P. Steward, “Curcumin: the story so far,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 41, no. 13, pp. 1955–1968, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  204. D. A. Alabi, O. R. Akinsulire, and M. A. Sanyaolu, “Qualitative determination of chemical and nutritional composition of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 812–815, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  205. B. M. Abegaz, B. T. Ngadjui, E. Dongo, and M.-T. Bezabih, “Chemistry of the genus Dorstenia,” Current Organic Chemistry, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1079–1090, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  206. B. T. Ngadjui, E. Dongo, E. N. Happi, M.-T. Bezabih, and B. M. Abegaz, “Prenylated flavones and phenylpropanoid derivatives from roots of Dorstenia psilurus,” Phytochemistry, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 733–737, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  207. B. T. Ngadjui, G. W. F. Kapche, H. Tamboue, B. M. Abegaz, and J. D. Connolly, “Prenylated flavonoids and a dihydro-4-phenylcoumarin from Dorstenia poinsettifolia,” Phytochemistry, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 119–123, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  208. C. L. Miranda, J. F. Stevens, V. Ivanov et al., “Antioxidant and prooxidant actions of prenylated and nonprenylated chalcones and flavanones in vitro,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 3876–3884, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  209. G. O. Adegoke, M. Vijay Kumar, K. Sambaiah, and B. R. Lokesh, “Inhibitory effect of Garcinia kola on lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (IJEB), vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 907–910, 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  210. A. O. Aremu, O. A. Fawole, J. C. Chukwujekwu, M. E. Light, J. F. Finnie, and J. Van Staden, “In vitro antimicrobial, anthelmintic and cyclooxygenase-inhibitory activities and phytochemical analysis of Leucosidea sericea,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 22–27, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  211. A. O. Aremu, S. O. Amoo, A. R. Ndhlala, J. F. Finnie, and J. Van Staden, “Antioxidant activity, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, iridoid content and mutagenic evaluation of Leucosidea sericea,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1122–1128, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  212. S. O. Amoo, J. F. Finnie, and J. Van Staden, “In vitro pharmacological evaluation of three Barleria species,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 274–277, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  213. S. O. Amoo, A. R. Ndhlala, J. F. Finnie, and J. Van Staden, “Antifungal, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant and phytochemical properties of three Barleria species,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 435–445, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  214. D. Barron, A. Di Pietro, C. Dumontet, and D. B. McIntosh, “Isoprenoid flavonoids are new leads in the modulation of chemoresistance,” Phytochemistry Reviews, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 325–332, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  215. M. G. L. Hertog, D. Kromhout, C. Aravanis et al., “Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the Seven Countries Study,” JAMA Internal Medicine, vol. 155, no. 4, pp. 381–386, 1995. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  216. E. Middleton Jr., C. Kandaswami, and T. C. Theoharides, “The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: implications for inflammation, heart disease, and cancer,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 673–751, 2000. View at: Google Scholar
  217. C. A. Williams and R. J. Grayer, “Anthocyanins and other flavonoids,” Natural Product Reports, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 539–573, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  218. Y. Hanasaki, S. Ogawa, and S. Fukui, “The correlation between active oxygens scavenging and antioxidative effects of flavonoids,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 845–850, 1994. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  219. G. Cao, E. Sofic, and R. L. Prior, “Antioxidant and prooxidant behavior of flavonoids: structure-activity relationships,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 749–760, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  220. Z. Y. Chen, P. T. Chan, K. Y. Ho, K. P. Fung, and J. Wang, “Antioxidant activity of natural flavonoids is governed by number and location of their aromatic hydroxyl groups,” Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 157–163, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  221. N. Cotelle, J.-L. Bernier, J.-P. Catteau, J. Pommery, J.-C. Wallet, and E. M. Gaydou, “Antioxidant properties of hydroxy-flavones,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  222. P. G. Pietta, “Flavonoids as antioxidants,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 1035–1042, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  223. C. A. Rice-Evans, N. J. Miller, and G. Paganga, “Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 933–956, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  224. A. García-Lafuente, E. Guillamón, A. Villares, M. A. Rostagno, and J. A. Martínez, “Flavonoids as anti-inflammatory agents: implications in cancer and cardiovascular disease,” Inflammation Research, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 537–552, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  225. B. F. Juma, A. Yenesew, J. O. Midiwo, and P. G. Waterman, “Flavones and phenylpropenoids in the surface exudate of Psiadia punctulata,” Phytochemistry, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 571–574, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  226. B. T. Ngadjui, E. Dongo, B. M. Abegaz, S. Fotso, and H. Tamboue, “Dinklagins A, B and C: Three prenylated flavonoids and other constituents from the twigs of Dorstenia dinklagei,” Phytochemistry, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 99–104, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  227. B. T. Ngadjui, E. Dongo, H. Tamboue, K. Fogue, and B. M. Abegaz, “Prenylated flavanones from the twigs of Dorstenia mannii,” Phytochemistry, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1401–1406, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  228. B. Reiersen, B. T. Kiremire, R. Byamukama, and Ø. M. Andersen, “Anthocyanins acylated with gallic acid from chenille plant, Acalypha hispida,” Phytochemistry, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 867–871, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  229. M. Gordon, The mechanism of antioxidant action in vitro, Springer, Food antioxidants, 1990.
  230. I. Pinchuk and D. Lichtenberg, “The mechanism of action of antioxidants against lipoprotein peroxidation, evaluation based on kinetic experiments,” Progress in Lipid Research, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 279–314, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  231. N. Noguchi, A. Watanabe, and H. Shi, “Diverse functions of antioxidants,” Free Radical Research, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 809–817, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  232. H. Kim, J. Y. Moon, H. Kim et al., “Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel,” Food Chemistry, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 429–436, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  233. L. T. Ling, S.-A. Yap, A. K. Radhakrishnan, T. Subramaniam, H. M. Cheng, and U. D. Palanisamy, “Standardised Mangifera indica extract is an ideal antioxidant,” Food Chemistry, vol. 113, no. 4, pp. 1154–1159, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  234. A. Lamien-Meda, C. Lamien, M. Compaoré et al., “Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso,” Molecules, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 581–594, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  235. S. E. Bizimenyera, G. E. Swan, H. Chikoto, and J. N. Eloff, “Rationale for using Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae) extracts in veterinary medicine,” Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 54–58, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  236. N. Mongalo, “Peltophorum africanum Sond [Mosetlha]: A review of its ethnomedicinal uses, toxicology, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 7, no. 48, pp. 3484–3491, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  237. L. J. Shai, S. R. Magano, S. L. Lebelo, and A. M. Mogale, “Inhibitory effects of five medicinal plants on rat alpha-glucosidase: comparison with their effects on yeast alpha-glucosidase,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 5, no. 13, pp. 2863–2867, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  238. O. Mazimba, “Pharmacology and phytochemistry studies in Peltophorum africanum,” Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 145–153, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  239. J. C. Ibewuike, F. O. Ogungbamila, A. O. Ogundaini, I. N. Okeke, and L. Bohlin, “Antiinflammatory and antibacterial activities of C-methylflavonols from piliostigma thonningii,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 281–284, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  240. M. Aderogba, E. Okoh, T. Adelanwa, and O. AwolowoUniv, “Antioxidant properties of the Nigerian Piliostigma species,” Journal of Biological Sciences, 2004. View at: Google Scholar
  241. T. Ajiboye, A. Salau, M. Yakubu, A. Oladiji, M. Akanji, and J. Okogun, “Aqueous extract of Securidaca longepedunculata root induce redox imbalance in male rat liver and kidney,” Human & Experimental Toxicology, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 679–688, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  242. E. Bombardelli, A. Cristoni, A. Lolla et al., “Chemical and biological characterisation of Piliostigma thonningii polyphenols,” Fitoterapia, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 493–501, 1994. View at: Google Scholar
  243. J. C. Ibewuike, A. O. Ogundaini, F. O. Ogungbamila et al., “Piliostigmin, a 2-phenoxychromone, and C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii,” Phytochemistry, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 687–690, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  244. O. M. Ighodaro, S. O. Agunbiade, J. O. Omole, and O. A. Kuti, “Evaluation of the chemical, nutritional, antimicrobial and antioxidant-vitamin profiles of Piliostigma thonningii leaves (Nigerian species),” Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 537–543, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  245. F. O. Jimoh and A. T. Oladiji, “Preliminary Studies on Piliostigma thonningii seeds: Proximate analysis, mineral composition and phytochemical screening,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 1439–1442, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  246. A. C. Fernandes, A. D. Cromarty, C. Albrecht, and C. E. Jansen Van Rensburg, “The antioxidant potential of Sutherlandia frutescens,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  247. J. Tai, S. Cheung, E. Chan, and D. Hasman, “In vitro culture studies of Sutherlandia frutescens on human tumor cell lines,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 9–19, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  248. B.-E. van Wyk and C. Albrecht, “A review of the taxonomy, ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of Sutherlandia frutescens (Fabaceae),” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 620–629, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  249. S. Kaviarasan, G. H. Naik, R. Gangabhagirathi, C. V. Anuradha, and K. I. Priyadarsini, “In vitro studies on antiradical and antioxidant activities of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds,” Food Chemistry, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 31–37, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  250. A. Wojdyło, J. Oszmiański, and R. Czemerys, “Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in 32 selected herbs,” Food Chemistry, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 940–949, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  251. H. C. C. Maduka and Z. S. C. Okoye, “The effect of Sacoglottis gabonensis stem bark extract, a Nigerian alcoholic beverage additive, on the natural antioxidant defences during 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine-induced membrane peroxidation in vivo,” Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 39, no. 1-2, pp. 21–31, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  252. H. C. C. Maduka, Z. S. C. Okoye, and A. Eje, “The influence of Sacoglottis gabonensis stem bark extract and its isolate bergenin, Nigerian alcoholic beverage additives, on the metabolic and haematological side effects of 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine-induced tissue damage,” Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 317–324, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  253. H. Maduka and Z. Okoye, “The Effect of Sacoglottis gabonensis and its Isolate Bergenin on Doxorubicin - Ferric Ions (Fe3+) - Induced Degradation of Deoxyribose,” Journal of Medical Sciences(Faisalabad), vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 316–319, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  254. D. K. Patel, K. Patel, R. Kumar, M. Gadewar, and V. Tahilyani, “Pharmacological and analytical aspects of bergenin: A concise report,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 163–167, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  255. V. D. P. Nair, A. Dairam, A. Agbonon, J. T. Arnason, B. C. Foster, and I. Kanfer, “Investigation of the antioxidant activity of African potato (Hypoxis hemerocallidea),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1707–1711, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  256. P. M. O. Owira and J. A. O. Ojewole, “'African potato' (Hypoxis hemerocallidea corm): A plant-medicine for modern and 21st century diseases of mankind? - A review,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 147–152, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  257. M. J. Van Der Merwe, K. Jenkins, E. Theron, and B. J. Van Der Walt, “Interaction of the di-catechols rooperol and nordihydroguaiaretic acid with oxidative systems in the human blood: a structure-activity relationship,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 303–311, 1993. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  258. A. C. Akinmoladun, E. O. Ibukun, E. Afor, E. M. Obuotor, and E. O. Farombi, “Phytochemical constituent and antioxidant activity of extract from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum,” Scientific Research and Essays, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 163–166, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
  259. R. J. Grayer, G. C. Kite, M. Abou-Zaid, and L. J. Archer, “The application of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the chemotaxonomic study of flavonoids: Characterisation of flavonoids from Ocimum gratissimum var. gratissimum,” Phytochemical Analysis, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 257–267, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  260. O. A. Odukoya, O. O. Ilori, M. O. Sofidiya, O. A. Aniunoh, B. M. Lawal, and I. O. Tade, “Antioxidant activity of Nigerian dietary spices,” Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 4, pp. 1086–1093, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  261. B. Prakash, R. Shukla, P. Singh, P. K. Mishra, N. K. Dubey, and R. N. Kharwar, “Efficacy of chemically characterized Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil as an antioxidant and a safe plant based antimicrobial against fungal and aflatoxin B1 contamination of spices,” Food Research International, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 385–390, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  262. R. F. Vieira, R. J. Grayer, A. Paton, and J. E. Simon, “Genetic diversity of Ocimum gratissimum L. based on volatile oil constituents, flavonoids and RAPD markers,” Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 287–304, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  263. G. K. Jayaprakasha, P. S. Negi, B. S. Jena, and L. J. M. Rao, “Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum fruit extracts,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 20, no. 3-4, pp. 330–336, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  264. A. K. Jäger and J. Van Staden, “Cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of South African plants used against inflammation,” Phytochemistry Reviews, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 39–46, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  265. M. Zabka, R. Pavela, and L. Slezakova, “Antifungal effect of Pimenta dioica essential oil against dangerous pathogenic and toxinogenic fungi,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 250–253, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  266. É. Palé, M. Kouda-Bonafos, and M. Nacro, “Caractérisation et mesure des activités anti-radicalaires d'anthocyanes de plantes du Burkina Faso,” Comptes Rendus Chimie, vol. 7, no. 10-11, pp. 973–980, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  267. E. O. Farombi and A. Fakoya, “Free radical scavenging and antigenotoxic activities of natural phenolic compounds in dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 1120–1128, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  268. E. Prenesti, S. Berto, P. G. Daniele, and S. Toso, “Antioxidant power quantification of decoction and cold infusions of Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers,” Food Chemistry, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 433–438, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  269. C.-J. Wang, J.-M. Wang, W.-L. Lin, C.-Y. Chu, F.-P. Chou, and T.-H. Tseng, “Protective effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatic toxicity in rats,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 411–416, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  270. M. P. Germanò, V. D'Angelo, R. Sanogo, A. Morabito, S. Pergolizzi, and R. De Pasquale, “Hepatoprotective activity of Trichilia roka on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 1569–1574, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  271. O. Nana, J. Momeni Nzangué, R. Tepongning, M. B. Ngassoum, and J. Momeni Nzangué, “Phythochemical screening, antioxIdant and antiplasmodial activities of extracts from Trichilia roka and Sapium ellipticum,” The Journal of Phytopharmacology, vol. 2, pp. 22–29, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  272. J. O. Moody, V. A. Robert, J. D. Connolly, and P. J. Houghton, “Anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extracts and an isolated furanoditerpene constituent of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre (Menispermaceae),” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 104, no. 1-2, pp. 87–91, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  273. O. S. Olorunnisola, A. O. Akintola, and A. J. Afolayan, “Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Sphenocentrum jollyanum (Menispermaceae) stem bark extract against CCl4- induced oxidative stress in rats,” African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 1241–1246, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  274. O. S. Olorunnisola and A. J. Afolayan, “In vivo antioxidant and biochemical evaluation of Sphenocentrum jollyanum leaf extract in P. berghei infected mice,” Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 445–450, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  275. S. I. Abdelwahab, W. S. Koko, M. M. E. Taha et al., “In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of columbin through the inhibition of cycloxygenase-2 and nitric oxide but not the suppression of NF-κB translocation,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 678, no. 1–3, pp. 61–70, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  276. N. O. A. Omisore, C. O. Adewunmi, E. O. Iwalewa et al., “Antitrichomonal and antioxidant activities of Dorstenia barteri and Dorstenia convexa,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1087–1094, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  277. V. Kuete, B. Ngameni, A. T. Mbaveng, B. Ngadjui, J. J. M. Meyer, and N. Lall, “Evaluation of flavonoids from Dorstenia barteri for their antimycobacterial, antigonorrheal and anti-reverse transcriptase activities,” Acta Tropica, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 100–104, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  278. B. T. Ngadjui, J. Watchueng, F. Keumedjio, B. Ngameni, I. K. Simo, and B. M. Abegaz, “Prenylated chalcones, flavone and other constituents of the twigs of Dorstenia angusticornis and Dorstenia barteri var. subtriangularis,” Phytochemistry, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 687–692, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  279. B. Ngameni, B. T. Ngadjui, G. N. Folefoc, J. Watchueng, and B. M. Abegaz, “Diprenylated chalcones and other constituents from the twigs of Dorstenia barteri var. subtriangularis,” Phytochemistry, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 427–432, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  280. N. O. A. Omisore, C. O. Adewunmi, E. O. Iwalewa et al., “Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Dorstenia barteri (Moraceae) leaf and twig extracts in mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 7–12, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  281. A. Tsopmo, M. Tene, P. Kamnaing, J. F. Ayafor, and O. Sterner, “A new Dieis-Alder-type adduct flavonoid from Dorstenia barteri,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 1432–1434, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  282. G. Kansci, E. Dongo, and C. Genot, “2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) test demonstrates antiradical activity of Dorstenia psilurus and Dorstenia ciliata plant extracts,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 434–437, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  283. N. A. Al-Jaber, A. S. Awaad, and J. E. Moses, “Review on some antioxidant plants growing in Arab world,” Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 293–307, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  284. B. T. Ngadjui, B. Ngameni, E. Dongo, S. F. Kouam, and B. M. Abegaz, “Prenylated and geranylated chalcones and flavones from the aerial parts of Dorstenia ciliata,” Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 157–163, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  285. A. T. Mbaveng, V. Kuete, B. Ngameni et al., “Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract and compounds from the twigs of Dorstenia mannii (Moraceae),” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 83, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  286. B. T. Ngadjui, B. M. Abegaz, E. Dongo, H. Tamboue, and F. Kouam, “Geranylated and prenylated flavonoids from the twigs of Dorstenia mannil,” Phytochemistry, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 349–354, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  287. B. T. Ngadjui, S. F. Kouam, E. Dongo, G. W. F. Kapche, and B. M. Abegaz, “Prenylated flavonoids from the aerial parts of Dorstenia mannii,” Phytochemistry, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 915–919, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  288. V. Kuete and L. P. Sandjo, “Isobavachalcone: An overview,” Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 543–547, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  289. A. Tsopmo, M. Tene, P. Kamnaing, D. Ngnokam, J. F. Ayafor, and O. Sterner, “Geranylated flavonoids from Dorstenia poinsettifolia,” Phytochemistry, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 345–348, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  290. B. M. Abegaz, “Novel natural products from marketed plants of eastern and southern Africa,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 919–926, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  291. C. Etoundi, D. Kuaté, J. Ngondi, and J. Oben, “Anti-amylase, anti-lipase and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of some Cameroonian spices,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 3, no. 2010, pp. 165–171, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  292. B. T. Ngadjui, T. K. Tabopda, E. Dongo, G. W. F. Kapche, P. Sandor, and B. M. Abegaz, “Dorsilurins C, D and E, three prenylated flavonoids from the roots of Dorstenia psilurus,” Phytochemistry, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 731–735, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  293. S. Toyokuni, T. Tanaka, W. Kawaguchi et al., “Effects of the phenolic contents of Mauritian endemic plant extracts on promoter activities of antioxidant enzymes,” Free Radical Research, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1215–1224, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  294. S. A. Angaji, S. F. Mousavi, and E. Babapour, “Antioxidants: A few key points,” Annals of Biological Research, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 3968–3977, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  295. V. S. Neergheen, T. Bahorun, L.-S. Jen, and O. I. Aruoma, “Bioefficacy of mauritian endemic medicinal plants: Assessment of their phenolic contents and antioxidant potential,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 9–17, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  296. D. Ramful, B. Aumjaud, V. S. Neergheen et al., “Polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of Eugenia pollicina leaf extract in vitro and in model emulsion systems,” Food Research International, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1190–1196, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  297. H. Barakat, “Composition, antioxidant, antibacterial activities and mode of action of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) buds essential oil,” British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, vol. 4, no. 13, p. 1934, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  298. M. I. Nassar, A. H. Gaara, A. H. El-Ghorab et al., “Chemical constituents of clove (Syzygium aromaticum, Fam. Myrtaceae) and their antioxidant activity,” Revista Latinoamericana de Química, vol. 35, no. 3, p. 47, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
  299. M. A. Abbasi, D. Shahwar, M. Wahab, and M. F. Saddiqui, “Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of an ethnobotanically important plant Sauromatum venosum (Ait.) Schott. of District Kotli, Azad Jammu & Kashmir,” Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 579–585, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  300. O.-H. Lee and B.-Y. Lee, “Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of individual and combined phenolics in Olea europaea leaf extract,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 10, pp. 3751–3754, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  301. L. I. Somova, F. O. Shode, P. Ramnanan, and A. Nadar, “Antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity of triterpenoids isolated from Olea europaea, subspecies africana leaves,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 84, no. 2-3, pp. 299–305, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  302. A. Betancor-Fernández, A. Pérez-Gálvez, H. Sies, and W. Stahl, “Screening pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of turmeric rhizome, artichoke leaf, devil's claw root and garlic or salmon oil for antioxidant capacity,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 981–986, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  303. I. M. Mahomed and J. A. O. Ojewole, “Analgesic, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic properties of Harpagophytum procumbens DC (Pedaliaceae) secondary root aqueous extract,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 982–989, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  304. J. J. Gagnier, S. Chrubasik, and E. Manheimer, “Harpgophytum procumbens for osteoarthritis and low back pain: a systematic review,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 4, article 13, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  305. H. Göbel, A. Heinze, M. Ingwersen, U. Niederberger, and D. Gerber, “Effects of Harpagophytum procumbens LI 174 (devil's claw) on sensory, motor and vascular muscle reagibility in the treatment of unspecific back pain,” Der Schmerz, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 10–18, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  306. L. Grant, D. E. McBean, L. Fyfe, and A. M. Warnock, “A review of the biological and potential therapeutic actions of Harpagophytum procumbens,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 199–209, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  307. T. H.-W. Huang, V. H. Tran, R. K. Duke et al., “Harpagoside suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression through inhibition of NF-κB activation,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 104, no. 1-2, pp. 149–155, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  308. M. Kaszkin, K. F. Beck, E. Koch et al., “Downregulation of inos expression in rat mesangial cells by special extracts of Harpagophytum procumbens derives from harpagoside-dependent and independent effects,” Phytomedicine, vol. 11, no. 7-8, pp. 585–595, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  309. A. A. Elujoba, O. M. Odeleye, and C. M. Ogunyemi, “Traditional Medical Development for medical and dental primary health care delivery system in Africa,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 46–61, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  310. I. M. Mahomed and J. A. O. Ojewole, “Anticonvulsant activity of Harpagophytum procumbens DC [Pedaliaceae] secondary root aqueous extract in mice,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 57–62, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  311. I. M. Mahomed and J. A. O. Ojewole, “Oxytocin-like effect of Harpagophytum procumbens DC [Pedaliaceae] secondary root aqueous extract on rat isolated uterus,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 82–89, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  312. G. McGregor, B. Fiebich, A. Wartenberg, S. Brien, G. Lewith, and T. Wegener, “Devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens): an anti-inflammatory herb with therapeutic potential,” Phytochemistry Reviews, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  313. G. A. Agbor, J. E. Oben, J. Y. Ngogang, G. Xinxing, and J. A. Vinson, “Antioxidant capacity of some herbs/spices from Cameroon: a comparative study of two methods,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 17, pp. 6819–6824, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  314. G. A. Agbor, J. A. Vinson, J. E. Oben, and J. Y. Ngogang, “In vitro antioxidant activity of three piper species,” Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 49–64, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  315. E. U. Isong and I. B. Essien, “Nutrient and antinutrient composition of three varieties of Piper species,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 133–137, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  316. K. S. Natarajan, M. Narasimhan, K. R. Shanmugasundaram, and E. R. B. Shanmugasundaram, “Antioxidant activity of a salt-spice-herbal mixture against free radical induction,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 105, no. 1-2, pp. 76–83, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  317. H. S. Abdillahi, J. F. Finnie, and J. Van Staden, “Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and phenolic contents of four Podocarpus species used in traditional medicine in South Africa,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 496–503, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  318. N. Erkan, G. Ayranci, and E. Ayranci, “Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol,” Food Chemistry, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 76–82, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  319. I. Meral, Z. Yener, T. Kahraman, and N. Mert, “Effect of Nigella sativa on Glucose Concentration, Lipid Peroxidation, Anti-Oxidant Defence System and Liver Damage in Experimentally-Induced Diabetic Rabbits,” Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 593–599, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  320. T. Bahorun, F. Trotin, J. Pommery, J. Vasseur, and M. Pinkas, “Antioxidant activities of Crataegus monogyna extracts,” Planta Medica, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 323–328, 1994. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  321. T. Bahorun, E. Aumjaud, H. Ramphul et al., “Phenolic constituents and antioxidant capacities of Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) callus extracts,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 191–198, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  322. T. Bahorun, B. Gressier, F. Trotin et al., “Oxygen species scavenging activity of phenolic extracts from hawthorn fresh plant organs and pharmaceutical preparations,” Arzneimittel-Forschung/Drug Research, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 1086–1089, 1996. View at: Google Scholar
  323. J. Bernatoniene, R. Masteikova, D. Majiene et al., “Free radical-scavenging activities of crataegus monogyna extracts,” Medicina, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 706–712, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  324. J. Breza, O. Dzurny, A. Borowka et al., “Efficacy and acceptability of Tadenan® (Pygeum africanum extract) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): A multicentre trial in central Europe,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 127–139, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  325. A. Ishani, R. MacDonald, D. Nelson, I. Rutks, and T. J. Wilt, “Pygeum africanum for the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: A systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 109, no. 8, pp. 654–664, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  326. M. Paubert-Braquet, A. Cave, R. Hocquemiller et al., “Effect of Pygeum africanum extract on A23187-stimulated production of lipoxygenase metabolites from human polymorphonuclear cells,” Journal of Lipid Mediators and Cell Signalling, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 285–290, 1994. View at: Google Scholar
  327. D. Wang, Y. Li, G. Hou et al., “Pygeum africanum: Effect on oxidative stress in early diabetes-induced bladder,” International Urology and Nephrology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 401–408, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  328. S. O. Adeola, T. A. Yahaya, B. Hafsatu et al., “Gastro-protective effect of crossopteryx febrifuga in wistar rats,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 300–306, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  329. F. Occhiuto, R. Sanogo, M. P. Germano, A. Keita, V. D'Angelo, and R. De Pasquale, “Effects of some Malian medicinal plants on the respiratory tract of guinea-pigs,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 1299–1303, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  330. F. A. Tomas-Barberan and K. Hostettmann, “A cytotoxic triterpenoid and flavonoids from Crossopteryx febrifuga,” Planta Medica, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 266-267, 1988. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  331. V. Steenkamp, M. C. Gouws, M. Gulumian, E. E. Elgorashi, and J. Van Staden, “Studies on antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of herbal remedies used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 71–75, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  332. M. Lis-Balchin, S. Hart, and E. Simpson, “Buchu (Agathosma betulina and A. crenulata, Rutaceae) essential oils: Their pharmacological action on guinea-pig ileum and antimicrobial activity on microorganisms,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 579–582, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  333. F. Chaaib, E. F. Queiroz, K. Ndjoko, D. Diallo, and K. Hostettmann, “Antifungal and antioxidant compounds from the root bark of Fagara zanthoxyloides,” Planta Medica, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 316–320, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  334. O. Ngozi, O. Samson, and S. K. Akindele, “In vitro biochemical investigations of the effects of Carica papaya and Fagara zanthoxyloides on antioxidant status and sickle erythrocytes,” African Journal of Biochemistry Research, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 226–236, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  335. W. M. Messmer, M. Tin‐wa, H. H. S. Fong et al., “Fagaronine, a new tumor inhibitor isolated from Fagara zanthoxyloides lam. (Rutaceae),” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 1858-1859, 1972. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  336. J. W. Ogwal-Okeng, C. Obua, and W. W. W. Anokbonggo, “Acute toxicity effects of the methanolic extract of Fagara zanthoxyloides (Lam.) root-bark,” African Health Sciences, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 124–126, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  337. M. Getie, T. Gebre-Mariam, R. Rietz et al., “Evaluation of the anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities of the medicinal plants Dodonaea viscosa, Rumex nervosus and Rumex abyssinicus,” Fitoterapia, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 139–143, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  338. M. Getie, T. Gebre-Mariam, R. Rietz, and R. H. H. Neubert, “Evaluation of the release profiles of flavonoids from topical formulations of the crude extract of the leaves of Dodonea viscosa (Sapindaceae),” Die Pharmazie, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 320–322, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  339. R. A. A. Mothana, S. A. A. Abdo, S. Hasson, F. M. N. Althawab, S. A. Z. Alaghbari, and U. Lindequist, “Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical screening of some yemeni medicinal plants,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 323–330, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  340. A. Rojas, S. Cruz, H. Ponce-Monter, and R. Mata, “Smooth muscle relaxing compounds from Dodonaea viscosa,” Planta Medica, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 154–159, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  341. L. S. Teffo, M. A. Aderogba, and J. N. Eloff, “Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of four kaempferol methyl ethers isolated from Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. var. angustifolia leaf extracts,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 25–29, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  342. A. Opoku, M. Nethengwe, P. Dludla et al., “Larvicidal and antimalarial activity of some Zulu medicinal plants,” Planta Medica, vol. 77, no. 12, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  343. G. Beretta and R. M. Facino, “Recent advances in the assessment of the antioxidant capacity of pharmaceutical drugs: From in vitro to in vivo evidence,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 398, no. 1, pp. 67–75, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  344. M. Carocho and I. C. F. R. Ferreira, “A review on antioxidants, prooxidants and related controversy: natural and synthetic compounds, screening and analysis methodologies and future perspectives,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 15–25, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  345. M. E. Kellett, P. Greenspan, and R. B. Pegg, “Modification of the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay to study phenolic antioxidants in a Caco-2 cell line,” Food Chemistry, vol. 244, pp. 359–363, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  346. K. M. Schaich, X. Tian, and J. Xie, “Reprint of "Hurdles and pitfalls in measuring antioxidant efficacy: A critical evaluation of ABTS, DPPH, and ORAC assays",” Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 18, pp. 782–796, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  347. E. Niki, “Assessment of antioxidant capacity in vitro and in vivo,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 503–515, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  348. L. T. Dalvi, D. C. Moreira, R. Andrade, J. Ginani, A. Alonso, and M. Hermes-Lima, “Ellagic acid inhibits iron-mediated free radical formation,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 173, pp. 910–917, 2017. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  349. P. M. Hanna and R. P. Mason, “Direct evidence for inhibition of free radical formation from Cu(I) and hydrogen peroxide by glutathione and other potential ligands using the EPR spin-trapping technique,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 295, no. 1, pp. 205–213, 1992. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  350. M. Valko, K. Jomova, C. J. Rhodes, K. Kuča, and K. Musílek, “Redox- and non-redox-metal-induced formation of free radicals and their role in human disease,” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 1–37, 2016. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  351. M. Mohammadpour, M. Behjati, A. Sadeghi, and A. Fassihi, “Wound healing by topical application of antioxidant iron chelators: Kojic acid and deferiprone,” International Wound Journal, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 260–264, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  352. I. A. Demyanenko, V. V. Zakharova, O. P. Ilyinskaya et al., “Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SkQ1 Improves Dermal Wound Healing in Genetically Diabetic Mice,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2017, 2017. View at: Google Scholar
  353. X. Cao, Y. Wang, C. Wu et al., “Cathelicidin-OA1, a novel antioxidant peptide identified from an amphibian, accelerates skin wound healing,” Scientific Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  354. V. Hosur, L. M. Burzenski, T. M. Stearns et al., “Early induction of NRF2 antioxidant pathway by RHBDF2 mediates rapid cutaneous wound healing,” Experimental and Molecular Pathology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 337–346, 2017. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  355. D. Son, D. Yang, J. Sun et al., “A Novel Peptide, Nicotinyl–Isoleucine–Valine–Histidine (NA–IVH), Promotes Antioxidant Gene Expression and Wound Healing in HaCaT Cells,” Marine Drugs, vol. 16, no. 8, p. 262, 2018. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  356. J. Benedí, R. Arroyo, C. Romero, S. Martín-Aragón, and A. M. Villar, “Antioxidant properties and protective effects of a standardized extract of Hypericum perforatum on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells,” Life Sciences, vol. 75, no. 10, pp. 1263–1276, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  357. D. Diallo, A. Marston, C. Terreaux, Y. Toure, B. S. Paulsen, and K. Hostettmann, “Screening of malian medicinal plants for antifungal, larvicidal, molluscicidal, antioxidant and radical scavenging activities,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 401–406, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  358. R. R. T. Majinda, P. Erasto, and G. Bojase-Moleta, “Antimicrobial and antioxidant flavonoids from the root wood of Bolusanthus speciosus,” Phytochemistry, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 875–880, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  359. B. F. Juma and R. R. T. Majinda, “Erythrinaline alkaloids from the flowers and pods of Erythrina lysistemon and their DPPH radical scavenging properties,” Phytochemistry, vol. 65, no. 10, pp. 1397–1404, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  360. G. P. P. Kamatou, A. M. Viljoen, A. B. Gono-Bwalya et al., “The in vitro pharmacological activities and a chemical investigation of three South African Salvia species,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 382–390, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  361. D. R. Katerere and J. N. Eloff, “Variation in chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activity of fresh and dried Acacia leaf extracts,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 303–305, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  362. K. P. Latté and H. Kolodziej, “Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds from Pelargonium reniforme,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 15, pp. 4899–4902, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  363. C. S. Nergard, D. Diallo, K. Inngjerdingen et al., “Medicinal use of Cochlospermum tinctorium in Mali: Anti-ulcer-, radical scavenging- and immunomodulating activities of polymers in the aqueous extract of the roots,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 96, no. 1-2, pp. 255–269, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  364. A. R. Opoku, N. F. Maseko, and S. E. Terblanche, “The in vitro antioxidative activity of some traditional Zulu medicinal plants,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. S51–S56, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  365. M. Burits and F. Bucar, “Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 323–328, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  366. M. A. Gyamfi and Y. Aniya, “Antioxidant properties of Thonningianin A, isolated from the African medicinal herb, Thonningia sanguinea,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 1725–1737, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  367. E. O. Farombi and I. A. Nwaokeafor, “Anti-oxidant mechanisms of kolaviron: Studies on serum lipoprotein oxidation, metal chelation and oxidative membrane damage in rats,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 667–674, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  368. A. Luximon-Ramma, T. Bahorun, M. A. Soobrattee, and O. I. Aruoma, “Antioxidant activities of phenolic, proanthocyanidin, and flavonoid components in extracts of Cassia fistula,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 18, pp. 5042–5047, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  369. S. Singh, V. Parasharami, and S. Rai, “Medicinal uses of adansonia digitata L.: An endangered tree species,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 14–16, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  370. F. Bucar, M. Resch, R. Bauer, M. Burits, E. Knauder, and M. Schubert-Zsilavecz, “5-methylflavasperone and rhamnetin from Guiera senegalensis and their antioxidative and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity,” Die Pharmazie, vol. 30, no. 13, 1999. View at: Google Scholar
  371. F. Bucar, I. Schneider, H. Ögmundsdóttir, and K. Ingólfsdóttir, “Anti-proliferative lichen compounds with inhibitory activity on 12(S)-HETE production in human platelets,” Phytomedicine, vol. 11, no. 7-8, pp. 602–606, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  372. I. Schneider and F. Bucar, “Lipoxygenase inhibitors from natural plant sources, part 1: medicinal plants with inhibitory activity on arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 81–102, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  373. A. A. Wube, B. Streit, S. Gibbons, K. Asres, and F. Bucar, “In vitro 12(S)-HETE inhibitory activities of naphthoquinones isolated from the root bark of Euclea racemosa ssp. schimperi,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 191–196, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  374. J. Lin, A. R. Opoku, M. Geheeb-Keller et al., “Preliminary screening of some traditional zulu medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 68, no. 1-3, pp. 267–274, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  375. A. Hiermann and F. Bucar, “Influence of some traditional medicinal plants of senegal on prostaglandin biosynthesis,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 111–116, 1994. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  376. A. K. Jäger, A. Hutchings, and J. Van Staden, “Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 95–100, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  377. L. Krenn, G. Beyer, H. H. Pertz et al., “In vitro antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory effects of Drosera rotundifolia,” Arzneimittel-Forschung/Drug Research, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 402–405, 2004. View at: Google Scholar
  378. M. Vasänge, B. Liu, C. J. Welch, W. Rolfsen, and L. Bohlin, “The flavonoid constituents of two Polypodium species (Calaguala) and their effect on the elastase release in human neutrophils,” Planta Medica, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 511–517, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  379. J. B. Calixto, M. F. Otuki, and A. R. S. Santos, “Anti-inflammatory compounds of plant origin. part i. action on arachidonic acid pathway, nitric oxide and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB),” Planta Medica, vol. 69, no. 11, pp. 973–983, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  380. E. A. Ojo-Amaize, P. Kapahi, V. N. Kakkanaiah et al., “Hypoestoxide, a novel anti-inflammatory natural diterpene, inhibits the activity of IκB kinase,” Cellular Immunology, vol. 209, no. 2, pp. 149–157, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  381. E. A. Ojo-Amaize, E. J. Nchekwube, H. B. Cottam et al., “Hypoestoxide, a natural nonmutagenic diterpenoid with antiangiogenic and antitumor activity: Possible mechanisms of action,” Cancer Research, vol. 62, no. 14, pp. 4007–4014, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  382. G. Chernishov, M. Arragie, and A. Etana, “Preliminary pharmacological studies on Mettere (Glinus lotoides). II. Effects upon the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal system,” Ethiopian Medical Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 105–110, 1978. View at: Google Scholar
  383. A. E. Mengesha, Isolation, Structural Elucidation, Quantification and Formulation of the Saponins and Flavonoids of the Seeds of Glinus Lotoides, 2005.
  384. A. Endale, B. Kammerer, T. Gebre-Mariam, and P. C. Schmidt, “Quantitative determination of the group of flavonoids and saponins from the extracts of the seeds of Glinus lotoides and tablet formulation thereof by high-performance liquid chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1083, no. 1-2, pp. 32–41, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  385. A. Endale, P. C. Schmidt, and T. Gebre-Mariam, “Standardisation and physicochemical characterisation of the extracts of seeds of Glinus lotoides,” Die Pharmazie, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 34–38, 2004. View at: Google Scholar
  386. M. El-Sayed, “Phytochemical investigation of Glinus lotoides growing in Egypt,” Egyptian journal of pharmaceutical sciences, vol. 38, no. 4-6, pp. 377–390, 1997. View at: Google Scholar
  387. D. Diallo, B. Hveem, M. Ag Mahmoud, G. Berge, B. S. Paulsen, and A. Maiga, “An ethnobotanical survey of herbal drugs of Gourma district, Mali,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 80–91, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  388. P. Sahakitpichan, W. Disadee, S. Ruchirawat, and T. Kanchanapoom, “L-(-)-(N-trans-Cinnamoyl)-arginine, an Acylamino Acid from Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC,” Molecules, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 6186–6192, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  389. J. A. O. Ojewole, “Evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. stem-bark aqueous extract in mice and rats,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 601–608, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  390. E. Agbaje, A. Tijani, and O. Braimoh, “Effects of Enantia chlorantha extracts in Laboratory-Induced Convulsion and Inflammation,” Orient Journal of Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 68–71, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  391. R. F. Atata, S. Alhassan, and S. M. Ajewole, “Effect of stem bark extracts of Enantia chloranta on some clinical isolates,” Biokemistri, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 84–92, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  392. J. O. Moody, S. F. Bloomfield, and P. J. Hylands, “In-vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. extractives,” African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 269–273, 1995. View at: Google Scholar
  393. P. V. Tan, B. Nyasse, T. Dimo, P. Wafo, and B. T. Akahkuh, “Synergistic and potentiating effects of ranitidine and two new anti-ulcer compounds from Enantia chlorantha and Voacanga africana in experimental animal models,” Die Pharmazie, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 409–412, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  394. A. M. Koffi, C. Kanko, H. Ramiarantsoa et al., “Essentials oils phenolic and benzenic derivatives from three Uvaria (Annonaceae) of Ivory Coast: Uvaria chamae (P. Beauv), Uvaria afzelii (Sc. Elliot), and Uvaria sp. (Aké Assi),” Comptes Rendus Chimie, vol. 7, no. 10-11, pp. 997–1002, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  395. H. Ménan, J.-T. Banzouzi, A. Hocquette et al., “Antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of plants used in West African traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 105, no. 1-2, pp. 131–136, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  396. R. I. Uchegbu and D. E. Okwu, “An Evaluation of the Phytochemical and Nutrient Composition of the Seeds and Stem bark of Detarium senegalense Gmelin,” Journal of Natural Science Research, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 107–111, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  397. D. Fall, C. Gleye, X. Franck, A. Laurens, and R. Hocquemiller, “Cis-bullatencin, a linear acetogenin from roots of Uvaria chamae,” Natural Product Research (Formerly Natural Product Letters), vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 315–321, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  398. S. Philipov, N. Ivanovska, R. Istatkova, M. Velikova, and P. Tuleva, “Phytochemical study and cytotoxic activity of alkaloids from Uvaria chamae P. Beauv.,” Die Pharmazie, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 688-689, 2000. View at: Google Scholar
  399. M. Duwiejua, E. Woode, and D. D. Obiri, “Pseudo-akuammigine, an alkaloid from Picralima nitida seeds, has anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  400. I. C. Ezeamuzie, M. C. Ojinnaka, E. O. Uzogara, and S. E. Oji, “Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and anti-malarial activities of a West African medicinal plant--Picralima nitida.,” African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 85–90, 1994. View at: Google Scholar
  401. J. Betti, An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants among the Baka pygmies in the Dja biosphere reserve, Cameroon, 2004. View at: Publisher Site
  402. T. O. Fakeye, O. A. Itiola, and H. A. Odelola, “Evaluation of the antimicrobial property of the stem bark of Picralima nitida (Apocynaceae),” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 368–370, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  403. S. Papajewski, B. Vogler, J. Conrad et al., “Isolation from Cussonia barteri of 1-O-chlorogenoylchlorogenic acid and 1-o-chlorogenoylneochlorogenic acid, a new type of quinic acid esters,” Planta Medica, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 732–736, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  404. S. Roy, R. Sehgal, B. M. Padhy, and V. L. Kumar, “Antioxidant and protective effect of latex of Calotropis procera against alloxan-induced diabetes in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 470–473, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  405. N. H. Ugochukwu and N. E. Babady, “Antioxidant effects of Gongronema latifolium in hepatocytes of rat models of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,” Fitoterapia, vol. 73, no. 7-8, pp. 612–618, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  406. N. H. Ugochukwu and N. E. Babady, “Antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Gongronema latifolium leaves on glucose and glycogen metabolism in livers of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Life Sciences, vol. 73, no. 15, pp. 1925–1938, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  407. N. H. Ugochukwu, N. E. Babady, M. Cobourne, and S. R. Gasset, “The effect of Gongronema latifolium extracts on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of diabetic rats,” Journal of Biosciences, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  408. R. H. Nébié, R. T. Yaméogo, A. Bélanger, and F. S. Sib, “Composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'Ageratum conyzoïdes du Burkina Faso,” Comptes Rendus Chimie, vol. 7, no. 10-11, pp. 1019–1022, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  409. A. Shirwaikar, P. M. Bhilegaonkar, S. Malini, and J. Sharath Kumar, “The gastroprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Ageratum conyzoides,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 117–121, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  410. C. Z. Liu, S. J. Murch, M. El-Demerdash, and P. K. Saxena, “Artemisia judaica L.: Micropropagation and antioxidant activity,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 63–71, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  411. A. Popat, N. H. Shear, I. Malkiewicz et al., “The toxicity of Callilepis laureola, a South African traditional herbal medicine,” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 229–236, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  412. V. Steenkamp, M. J. Stewart, and M. Zuckerman, “Detection of poisoning by impila (Callilepis laureola) in a mother and child,” Human & Experimental Toxicology, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 594–597, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  413. J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma et al., “Bioactive compounds from some kenyan ethnomedicinal plants: myrsinaceae, polygonaceae and psiadia punctulata,” Phytochemistry Reviews, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 311–323, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  414. C. S. Nergard, D. Diallo, T. E. Michaelsen et al., “Isolation, partial characterisation and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharides from Vernonia kotschyana Sch. Bip. ex Walp,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 141–152, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  415. M. William Carey, N. V. Rao, B. R. Kumar, and G. K. Mohan, “Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic extract of Kigelia pinnata DC flower,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 179–182, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  416. Y. G. Gouda, A. M. Abdel-baky, F. M. Darwish, K. M. Mohamed, R. Kasai, and K. Yamasaki, “Iridoids from Kigelia pinnata DC. fruits,” Phytochemistry, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 887–892, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  417. J. S. Reddy, P. R. Rao, and M. S. Reddy, “Wound healing effects of Heliotropium indicum, Plumbago zeylanicum and Acalypha indica in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 249–251, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  418. J. S. N. Souza, L. L. Machado, O. D. L. Pessoa et al., “Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium indicum,” Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, vol. 16, no. 6 B, pp. 1410–1414, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  419. A. Togola, D. Diallo, S. Dembélé, H. Barsett, and B. S. Paulsen, “Ethnopharmacological survey of different uses of seven medicinal plants from Mali, (West Africa) in the regions Doila, Kolokani and Siby,” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 1, article 7, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  420. A. M. Emam, R. Elias, A. M. Moussa, R. Faure, L. Debrauwer, and G. Balansard, “Two flavonoid triglycosides from Buddleja madagascariensis,” Phytochemistry, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 739–742, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  421. L. O. A. Manguro, I. Ugi, R. Hermann, and P. Lemmen, “Flavonol and drimane-type sesquiterpene glycosides of Warburgia stuhlmannii leaves,” Phytochemistry, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 497–502, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  422. L. O. Arot Manguro, I. Ugi, P. Lemmen, and R. Hermann, “Flavonol glycosides of Warburgia ugandensis leaves,” Phytochemistry, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 891–896, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  423. A. A. Wube, F. Bucar, K. Asres, S. Gibbons, L. Rattray, and S. L. Croft, “Antimalarial compounds from Kniphofia foliosa roots,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 472–476, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  424. A. A. Wube, F. Bucar, S. Gibbons, and K. Asres, “Sesquiterpenes from Warburgia ugandensis and their antimycobacterial activity,” Phytochemistry, vol. 66, no. 19, pp. 2309–2315, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  425. B. M. Abegaz and Y. Woldu, “Isoflavonoids from the roots of Salsola somalensis,” Phytochemistry, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 1281–1284, 1991. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  426. M. P. Germanò, R. Sanogo, M. Guglielmo, R. De Pasquale, G. Crisafi, and G. Bisignano, “Effects of Pteleopsis suberosa extracts on experimental gastric ulcers and Helicobacter pylori growth,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 167–172, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  427. R. Nimenibo–Uadia, “Control of hyperlipidaemia, hypercholesterolaemia and hyperketonaemia by aqueous extract of Dioscorea dumetorum tuber,” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 183–189, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  428. E. Dagne, M. Alemua, and O. Sterner, “Flavonoids from Euclea divinorum,” Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, vol. 7, no. 2, 1993. View at: Google Scholar
  429. S. K. Adesina, O. Idowu, A. O. Ogundaini et al., “Antimicrobial constituents of the leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana and Acalypha hispida,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 371–374, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  430. K. O. Akinyemi, O. Oladapo, C. E. Okwara, C. C. Ibe, and K. A. Fasure, “Screening of crude extracts of six medicinal plants used in South-West Nigerian unorthodox medicine for anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 5, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  431. J. Gálvez, M. E. Crespo, J. Jiménez, A. Suárez, and A. Zarzuelo, “Antidiarrhoeic activity of quercitrin in mice and rats,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 157–159, 1993. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  432. J. B. Harborne and C. A. Williams, “Anthocyanins and other flavonoids,” Natural Product Reports, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 310–333, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  433. L. Bennie, J. Coetzee, E. Malan, and D. Ferreira, “(4→6)-coupled proteracacinidins and promelacacinidins from Acacia galpinii and Acacia caffra,” Phytochemistry, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 521–532, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  434. L. Bennie, J. Coetzee, E. Malan, and D. Ferreira, “Structure and stereochemistry of dimeric proteracacinidins possessing the rare C-4(C) → C-5(D) interflavanyl linkage,” Phytochemistry, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 673–678, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  435. L. Bennie, E. Malan, J. Coetzee, and D. Ferreira, “Structure and synthesis of ether-linked proteracacinidin and promelacacinidin proanthocyanidins from Acacia caffra,” Phytochemistry, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 785–793, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  436. O. A. Binutu and G. A. Cordell, “Constituents of Afzelia bella stem bark,” Phytochemistry, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 827–830, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  437. G. Bojase, C. C. W. Wanjala, and R. R. T. Majinda, “Flavonoids from the stem bark of Bolusanthus speciosus,” Phytochemistry, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 837–841, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  438. C. Ito, M. Itoigawa, N. Kojima et al., “Cancer chemopreventive activity of rotenoids from Derris trifoliata.,” Planta Medica, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 585–588, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  439. A. Yenesew, J. T. Kiplagat, S. Derese et al., “Two unusual rotenoid derivatives, 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol and spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone, from the seeds of Derris trifoliata,” Phytochemistry, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 988–991, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  440. A. Yenesew, E. K. Mushibe, M. Induli et al., “7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, from the roots of Derris trifoliata,” Phytochemistry, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 653–657, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  441. S. Ragusa, R. De Pasquale, M. Flores, M. P. Germanò, R. Sanogo, and A. Rapisarda, “Micromorphological investigations on Entada africana Guill. et Perr. (Mimosaceae),” Farmaco, vol. 56, no. 5-7, pp. 361–363, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  442. R. Sanogo, M. P. Germanò, V. D'Angelo, M. Guglielmo, and R. De Pasquale, “Antihepatotoxic properties of Entada africana (Mimosaceae),” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. S157–S159, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  443. J. O. Kokwaro, Medicinal plants of east Africa, University of Nairobi press, 2009.
  444. A. Yenesew, M. Induli, S. Derese et al., “Anti-plasmodial flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina abyssinica,” Phytochemistry, vol. 65, no. 22, pp. 3029–3032, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  445. A. Yenesew, S. Derese, J. O. Midiwo, C. C. Bii, M. Heydenreich, and M. G. Peter, “Antimicrobial flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina burttii,” Fitoterapia, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 469–472, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  446. A. Yenesew, B. Irungu, S. Derese, J. O. Midiwo, M. Heydenreich, and M. G. Peter, “Two prenylated flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina burttii,” Phytochemistry, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 445–448, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  447. A. Yenesew, J. O. Midiwo, S. M. Guchu, M. Heydenreich, and M. G. Peter, “Three isoflav-3-enes and a 2-arylbenzofuran from the root bark of Erythrina burttii,” Phytochemistry, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 337–341, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  448. A. Yenesew, J. O. Midiwo, M. Miessner, M. Heydenreich, and M. G. Peter, “Two prenylated flavanones from stem bark of Erythrina burttii,” Phytochemistry, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1439–1443, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  449. A. E. Nkengfack, J. C. Vardamides, Z. T. Fomum, and M. Meyer, “Prenylated isoflavanone from Erythrina eriotricha,” Phytochemistry, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1803–1808, 1995. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  450. A. E. Nkengfack, T. W. Vouffo, J. C. Vardamides et al., “Phenolic metabolites from Erythrina species,” Phytochemistry, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 573–578, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  451. A. W. Andayi, A. Yenesew, S. Derese et al., “Antiplasmodial flavonoids from Erythrina sacleuxii,” Planta Medica, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 187–189, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  452. A. Yenesew, J. O. Midiwo, M. Heydenreich, and M. G. Peter, “Four isoflavones from the stem bark of Erythrina sacleuxii,” Phytochemistry, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 247–249, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  453. A. Yenesew, J. O. Midiwo, M. Heydenreich, D. Schanzenbach, and M. G. Peter, “Two isoflavanones from the stem bark of Erythrina sacleuxii,” Phytochemistry, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 457–459, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  454. S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J. O. Midiwo, M. Heydenreich, and M. G. Peter, “A new isoflavone from stem bark of Millettia dura,” Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 113–115, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  455. E. Dagne, W. Mammo, and O. Sterner, “Flavonoids of Tephrosia polyphylla,” Phytochemistry, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 3662-3663, 1992. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  456. B. Niassy, B.-H. Um, A. Lobstein, B. Weniger, M. Koné, and R. Anton, “Flavonoids of Tephrosia deflexa and Tephrosia albifoliolis,” Comptes Rendus Chimie, vol. 7, no. 10-11, pp. 993–996, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  457. H. Duddeck, A. Yenesew, and E. Dagne, “Isoflavonoids from Taverniera abyssinica,” Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, vol. 1, no. 1, p. pp, 1987. View at: Google Scholar
  458. B. K. Noamesi, M. Bogale, and E. Dagne, “Intestinal smooth muscle spasmolytic actions of the aqueous extract of the roots of Taverniera abyssinica,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 107–113, 1990. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  459. K. P. Latté, Phytochemische und pharmakologische Untersuchungen an Pelargonium reniforme CURT, 1999.
  460. H. Wagner and S. Bladt, “Cumarine aus südafrikanischen Pelargonium-arten,” Phytochemistry, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 2061–2064, 1975. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  461. S. E. Drewes, F. Khan, S. F. van Vuuren, and A. M. Viljoen, “Simple 1, 4-benzoquinones with antibacterial activity from stems and leaves of Gunnera perpensa,” Phytochemistry, vol. 66, no. 15, pp. 1812–1816, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  462. J. L. Ngondi, J. E. Oben, and S. R. Minka, “The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 4, no. 1, 12 pages, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  463. S. Vertuani, E. Braccioli, V. Buzzoni, and S. Manfredini, “Antioxidant capacity of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp and leaves,” Acta Phytotherapeutica, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 2–7, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  464. A. M. D. El-Mousallamy, “Leaf flavonoids of Albizia lebbeck,” Phytochemistry, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 759–761, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  465. B. M. Abegaz, B. T. Ngadjui, G. N. Folefoc et al., “Prenylated flavonoids, monoterpenoid furanocoumarins and other constituents from the twigs of Dorstenia elliptica (Moraceae),” Phytochemistry, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 221–226, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  466. B. M. Abegaz, B. T. Ngadjui, E. Dongo, and H. Tamboue, “Prenylated chalcones and flavones from the leaves of Dorstenia kameruniana,” Phytochemistry, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1147–1150, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  467. B. M. Abegaz, B. T. Ngadjui, E. Dongo, B. Ngameni, M. N. Nindi, and M. Bezabih, “Chalcones and other constituents of Dorstenia prorepens and Dorstenia zenkeri,” Phytochemistry, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 877–883, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  468. A. H. El-Ghorab, K. F. El-Massry, F. Marx, and H. M. Fadel, “Antioxidant activity of Egyptian Eucalyptus camaldulensisvar. brevirostrisleaf extracts,” Molecular Nutrition Food Research, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 41–45, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  469. I. C. Ezeamuzie, A. W. Ambakederemo, F. O. Shode, and S. C. Ekwebelem, “Antiinflammatory effects of Moringa oleifera root extract,” International Journal of Pharmacognosy, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 207–212, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  470. J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. Juma, K. L. Omosa, I. L. Omosa, and D. Mutisya, “Phytochemical evaluation of some Kenyan medicinal plants,” in Proceedings of the Phytochemical evaluation of some Kenyan medicinal plants. 11th NAPRECA Symposium Book of Proceedings, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 2001. View at: Google Scholar
  471. J. O. Midiwo, N. Gikonyo, D. Wanjau, J. Matasi, and P. Waterman, “Flavonoids of Polygonum senegalense (Meisn) Part II: More surface and internal tissue flavonoid aglycones,” Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, vol. 6, no. 2, 1992. View at: Google Scholar
  472. M. I. Akpanabiatu, I. B. Umoh, E. O. Udosen, A. E. Udoh, and E. E. Edet, “Rat serum electrolytes, lipid profile and cardiovascular activity on Nauclea latifolia leaf extract administration,” Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 29–34, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  473. A. Gidado, D. A. Ameh, and S. E. Atawodi, “Effect of Nauclea latifolia leaves aqueous extracts on blood glucose levels of normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 91–93, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  474. P. A. Onyeyili, C. O. Nwosu, J. D. Amin, and J. I. Jibike, “Anthelmintic activity of crude aqueous extract of Nauclea latifolia stem bark against ovine nematodes,” Fitoterapia, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 12–21, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  475. R. R. T. Majinda, M. Motswaledi, R. D. Waigh, and P. G. Waterman, “Phenolic and antibacterial constituents of Vahlia capensis,” Planta Medica, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 268–270, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  476. L. C. Katsoulis, D. J. H. Veale, and I. Havlik, “The pharmacological action of Rhoicissus tridentata on isolated rat uterus and ileum,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 460–462, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  477. R. De Paola, C. Muià, E. Mazzon et al., “Effects of Hypericum perforatum extract in a rat model of ischemia and reperfusion injury,” Shock, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 255–263, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  478. E. O. Farombi, “Mechanisms for the hepatoprotective action of kolaviron: studies on hepatic enzymes, microsomal lipids and lipid peroxidation in carbontetrachloride-treated rats,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 75–80, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  479. E. O. Farombi, B. F. Adepoju, O. E. Ola-Davies, and G. O. Emerole, “Chemoprevention of aflatoxin B1-induced genotoxicity and hepatic oxidative damage in rats by kolaviron, a natural biflavonoid of Garcinia kola seeds,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 207–214, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  480. M. A. Gyamfi and Y. Aniya, “Medicinal herb, Thonningia sanguinea protects against aflatoxin B1 acute hepatotoxicity in Fischer 344 rats,” Human & Experimental Toxicology, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 418–423, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  481. E. O. Farombi, M. C. Alabi, and T. O. Akuru, “Kolaviron modulates cellular redox status and impairment of membrane protein activities induced by potassium bromate (KBrO3) in rats,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 63–68, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  482. J. A. O. Ojewole, “Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties of Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (Hypoxidaceae) corm [‘African Potato’] aqueous extract in mice and rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 126–134, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  483. J. A. O. Ojewole, “Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. (family: Anacardiaceae) stem-bark extracts in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 85, no. 2-3, pp. 217–220, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  484. J. A. O. Ojewole, “Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. BR. (Lamiaceae) leaf aqueous extract in mice and rats,” Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 257–264, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  485. O. A. Olajide, S. O. Awe, J. M. Makinde et al., “Studies on the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of Alstonia boonei stem bark,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 71, no. 1-2, pp. 179–186, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  486. N. Kabiri, S. Asgary, H. Madani, and P. Mahzouni, “Effects of Amaranthus caudatus l. extract and lovastatin on atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 355–361, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  487. L. Selloum, L. Arrar, B. Medani, A. Khenchouche, and H. Bisker, “Effect of Cleome arabica leaves extract on inflammatory cells response in rat,” Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 23, no. 4, p. 609, 1995. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  488. B. M. Mohammed, B. J. Fisher, D. Kraskauskas et al., “Vitamin C promotes wound healing through novel pleiotropic mechanisms,” International Wound Journal, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 572–584, 2016. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  489. J. M. Larrosa, V. Polo, T. Ramirez, I. Pinilla, L. E. Pablo, and F. M. Honrubia, “Alpha-tocopherol derivatives and wound healing in an experimental model of filtering surgery,” Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 131–135, 2000. View at: Google Scholar
  490. I. Süntar, E. K. Akkol, H. Keles, E. Yesilada, and S. D. Sarker, “Exploration of the wound healing potential of Helichrysum graveolens (Bieb.) Sweet: isolation of apigenin as an active component,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 149, no. 1, pp. 103–110, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  491. S. Lodhi and A. K. Singhai, “Wound healing effect of flavonoid rich fraction and luteolin isolated from Martynia annua Linn. on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 253–259, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  492. E. Park, S. M. Lee, I.-K. Jung, Y. Lim, and J.-H. Kim, “Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 410, no. 3, pp. 514–519, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  493. V. R. Yadav, S. Prasad, B. Sung, and B. B. Aggarwal, “The role of chalcones in suppression of NF-κB-mediated inflammation and cancer,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 295–309, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  494. E. I. O. Ajayi, G. Popoola, and E. Ojediran, “Wound healing potential of Nauclea latifolia and Manihot esculenta leaf extracts in type 1 diabetic rats,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2016. View at: Google Scholar
  495. C. Agyare, Y. D. Boakye, E. O. Bekoe, A. Hensel, S. O. Dapaah, and T. Appiah, “Review: African medicinal plants with wound healing properties,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 177, pp. 85–100, 2016. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  496. R. H. Tuhin, M. Begum, S. Rahman et al., “Wound healing effect of Euphorbia hirta linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in alloxan induced diabetic rats,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, article no. 423, 2017. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2018 Mary Gulumian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


More related articles

3426 Views | 835 Downloads | 2 Citations
 PDF  Download Citation  Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at help@hindawi.com to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.