Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2018 / Article

Review Article | Open Access

Volume 2018 |Article ID 7686913 | 27 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7686913

The Confrontation between Ethnopharmacology and Pharmacological Tests of Medicinal Plants Associated with Mental and Neurological Disorders

Academic Editor: Letizia Angiolella
Received14 Dec 2017
Revised16 Mar 2018
Accepted17 Apr 2018
Published02 Jul 2018

Abstract

For neurological disorders, pharmacological tests have shown promising results in the reduction of side effects when using plants with known therapeutic effects in the treatment of some types of dementia. Therefore, the goals of this study are to gather data about the major medicinal plants used in the nervous system as described in ethnopharmacological surveys from South America and Brazil and to compare this data with the results from pharmacological tests on the active principles of those same plants found in the scientific literature. After collecting the data about each plant, their respective popular indication was compared with the results found through pharmacological tests. The discrepancy rate between the effects observed by ethnopharmacological and pharmacological methods in this study is greater than 50%. In conclusion, despite the importance of ethnopharmacological data, it is important to make comparisons with pharmacological tests for the same plants, since the pharmacological studies, although few, have shown a high rate of discrepancy in the results.

1. Introduction

The knowledge of medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes originated from indigenous tribal cultures [14] or ancient civilizations such as those once found in Iran, India, or China [13, 57] and was passed from generation to generation mostly by means of oral tradition. Presently, knowledge is commonly limited to a village and rural areas or by families isolated from urban centers [8]. Most likely, original information of plants used for therapeutic purpose underwent modifications through time. This was due to their discovery by trial and error over many generations and the oral transmission of information rather than through writing.

A previous study associated culturally propagated therapeutic effects of different medicinal plants obtained by ethnopharmacological/ethnobotanical means with those found in laboratory tests, showing approximately 66% discrepancy in the results [9]. Trading and distribution mistakes [10], similarity of plant names for different species [11], presence of impurities during preparation from other plants, insects, and mushrooms [12], and unexpected reactions and interactions with the active compounds [13] are all examples of commonly encountered problems in the therapeutic use of medicinal plants.

It is not suggested that the medicinal use of plants should be banned, decreased, or hampered. However, there is a need for each procedure to be evaluated by government agencies, institutions, and specialists who understand the therapeutic use of biodiversity in societies with an increasing interest in alternative treatments [6, 14, 15] or in populations with limited or no access to other types of therapeutic resources. Medicinal plant-based therapy may offer benefits, like decreased side effects [1618], higher autonomy for individuals in caring for their own health [3], reduced or nonexistent costs, and easy access for social groups located in inaccessible areas or away from urban centers and for people in poor urban areas with limited or no access to a healthcare system [6, 14, 15, 19, 20]. Indeed, those groups rely on alternative therapeutic methods for their health care, especially those derived from local medicinal plants, which is a major issue in countries with higher income gaps.

Many ethnopharmacological surveys were performed in countries and regions representing the greatest biodiversity to identify plants used, with the aim of preserving the cultural heritage of the plant therapy [13, 57, 21, 22] and acquiring new active compounds for the pharmaceutical industry [8]. Brazil presents the largest biodiversity on the planet [23] and has a large amount of unexplored resources available for ethnopharmacological and herbal studies given that only 16% of Brazil’s medicinal plants or just 8% of Brazilian national flora [24] has been evaluated for therapeutic potential [25]. This country represents around 47% of all territories of the South American continent.

Countries in South America present important data about medicinal plants, because of their specific locations in the Andean region, close/into the Amazon Forest [8] or the pampas. Indeed, the use of some medicinal plants was first found in the population in the Andes Ridge, in the pampas, Patagonia [10], or Brazilian’s savanna (cerrado) [9]. Probably because of the large population or size, most of the studies in South America are found in Brazil, while ethnopharmacological studies are incipient in other countries in this continent [8, 10].

However, quality or reliability of medicinal plant effects cannot be ensured if ethnobotanical studies do not provide laboratory verification of the effects when prescribing compounds derived from those medicinal plants. Healthcare professionals and patients should note that studies about the correspondence or discrepancy between ethnopharmacological knowledge and laboratory tests for the same plant are lacking [9] and must be done for each class of drug.

There is a growing evidence from in vitro, animal, and clinical studies reporting that medicinal plants might be beneficial for treating various mental and neurological disorders including Alzheimer disease, depression, anxiety, and insomnia [363366]. For neurological disorders, in particular, pharmacological tests have shown promising results in the reduction of side effects when using plants with known therapeutic effects in the treatment of some types of dementia [18, 22, 367372]. Medicinal plants have been sought as an alternative therapy [18, 373375] owing to the inefficacy of some industrial medications on certain diseases, such as degenerative ones. Examples are the use of Melissa officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, and Huperzia serrata for treating the symptoms of Alzheimer disease [18, 373375].

The problem is that, especially in developing and/or populated countries, people rely on medicinal plants as primary healthcare [376]. The situation is true for mental and neurological disorders. Patient complaints associated directly or indirectly with neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders, such as headache, insomnia, amnesia, anxiety, or depression, are very common [146, 298, 377, 378], and the use of medicinal plants for these purposes is very frequent in populated countries such as Brazil, India, and China [13, 57, 22] but without support of adequate pharmacological tests.

Considering the errors in the use and sale of alternative medicines as a whole, we hypothesize that the same errors could happen with plants that act directly on the nervous system. Therefore, the goal of this study is to gather data about the major medicinal plants used in the neural system, as described in ethnopharmacological surveys from South America like in Brazil and compare this data with the results from pharmacological tests on the active principles of those same plants found in the scientific literature. Specifically, this study intends to present reliable data for the use of medicinal plants in primary healthcare and assisting conventional treatments of neurological disorders.

2. Materials and Methods

This study was done through literature review of ethnopharmacological surveys on the medicinal plants used by groups in South America (with emphasis on Brazil) found in academic databases (MEDLINE, LILACS, Scopus, SciELO, Google Academic, and Elsevier). The terms searched were ethnobotanical studies, medicinal plants, ethnopharmacology, neural system, South America, and Brazil. The search was restricted to the most recent and classical articles/books written in Portuguese, English, or Spanish. After collecting the data about each plant, their respective popular indication was compared with the results found through pharmacological tests.

For the first phase, 55 ethnobotanical survey articles were selected and then the most commonly used plants by the population for treating neural system disorders were identified. A table was prepared with data regarding family, scientific name, part of the plant utilized, preparation method, indications, and comparison with pharmacological tests.

In the second phase, 181 articles in which pharmacological tests had been performed with the chosen plants were selected. Unfortunately, scientific tests for the proposed indication or toxicity for all the plants could not be found.

Statistical analysis was done using central tendency measures such as modal frequency.

3. Results

Data on South American medicinal plants that act on the nervous system was summarized by family, scientific name, part of the plant utilized, preparation method, indications, and comparison with pharmacological tests (Table 1). The most cited families were Lamiaceae (24/138), Asteraceae (16/138), and Verbenaceae (6/138), representing 33.7% of the medicinal plants analyzed (Figure 1).


Family
Scientific name/common name
Forms of preparation/used partMedicinal effects cited by populationPharmacological testsDivergences

Acanthaceae

Hygrophila tyttha Leonard/Tame-maleInfusion/Part air plantCalmative [26]Anxiolytic effect, anticonvulsant and sedative [26]No

Justicia pectoralis Jacq./AnadorDecoction/LeafHeadache [27]Anxiolytic and depressor Neural Central System [28], analgesic and anti-inflammatory [29], estrogenic, progestagenic and anti-inflammatory effects [30], antioxidant [31]No

Alismataceae

Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Mich./Hat leatherbackDecoction/LeafAnalgesic [21]Anti-inflammatory and analgesic [32, 33], diuretic [33], antihypertensive [34, 35]No

Amaranthaceae

Alternanthera paronychioides St-Hil./AnadorNot found/Leaf, stalkAnalgesic [36]Antioxidant [37]Yes

Apiaceae

Apium graveolens L./CeleryNot found/Complete plantCalmative [36]Vasorelaxant and antihypertensive [38]Yes

Coriandrum sativum  L./CorianderInfusion/SeedHeadache [39]Antioxidant [40], anti-inflammatory [41], antibacterial [42], anxiolytic, sedative and muscle relaxant [43], antifungal [44], hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective [45], analgesic [46]No

Pimpinella anisum L./FennelInfusion/SeedCalmative [7, 27, 39, 4749]Antibacterial [50], neuroprotective and anticonvulsant [51], antiviral and immunostimulating [52], antioxidant [53], anticancer [54]No

Foeniculum vulgareMill./FennelDecoction/StalkHeadache and calmative [13, 36, 5560]Antimicrobial [61], diuretic [62], antihelminthic [63], antioxidant [64], anxiolytic [65]No

Aquifoliaceae

Ilex paraguariensis/Erva MateInfusion/leaves, branchesStimulant [66]Stimulant [66]No

Araliaceae

Didymopanax macrocarpum (C.
& S.) Seem./
Five leaves
Compress, bathe/LeafAnalgesic [67]Not foundNot found

Hedera helix/HiedraCataplasm/LeafAnalgesic, neuritis, neuralgia [68]Expectorant and antitussive [69], mucolytic and bronchodilator [70], anti-inflammatory [71]No

Aristolochiaceae

Aristolochia esperanzae O. Kuntze./Papo de peru, cipo-millhomemDecoction/Complete plantAnalgesic [67]Antiophidic activity [72], antimicrobial [73]Yes

Aristolochia gilbertii Hook/MilhomemInfusion/RootHeadache [7]Not foundNot found

Aristolochia melastoma Manso ex.
Duchtra/Capitãozinho
Decoction/Root, leafSedative [67]Not foundNot found

Asteraceae

Achillea millefolium L./Ponta-alívioDecoction/Complete plantCalmative, analgesic [21, 36, 47, 57, 74, 75]Immunostimulating [76]Yes

Achyrocline satureioides D.C./MacelaInfusion/FlowerSedative, calmative, headache [56, 67, 75, 77, 78]Anticancer [79], calmative effect, anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic [80], antiviral [81]No

Artemisia absinthium L./LosnaDecoction/LeafAnalgesic [21, 82]Anticancer [83], antifungal [84], antibacterial [85], antileishmanial [86]Yes

Artemisia camphorata Vill./CamphorInfusion/LeavesCalmative [58] antiepileptic [87]Not foundNot found

Artemisia vulgaris L./ArtemisiaNot foundHeadache [88]Antifungal [89]Yes

Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschter/CamomileInfusion/FlowerCalmative, sedative [36, 39, 48, 57, 9092]Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory [92, 93], gastroprotection [94], antihyperglycemic and antioxidant [95]Yes

Chrysanthemum parthenium Bernhadi/ArtemisiaDecoction, infusion/LeavesCalmative [78]Not foundNot found

Cynara scolymus L./ArtichokeNot foundCalmative [74]Diuretic [96], prolonged satiety sensation and hypoglycemic [97], antioxidant [98]Yes

Lactuca sativa L./LettuceIn nature, infusion/Leaves, rootCalmative, sedative [74, 99]Antioxidant [100]Yes

Matricaria chamomilla L./CamomileInfusion/LeavesCalmative [56, 75, 78, 101, 102]Antibacterial and antioxidant [103]Yes

Mikania hirsutissima DC./Cipó-cabeludoNot foundCalmative [67, 104]Antiophidic activity and antidiarrheal [105]Yes

Solidago chilensis Meyen/ArnicaCompress/Complete plantAnalgesic [106]Anti-inflammatory [107]Yes

Spilanthes oleracea/AnestesiolNot foundAnesthetic [108]Peptic antiulcer and contraception [109]Yes

Tanacetum sp./MacelinhaDecoction/Complete plantAnalgesic [23]Not foundNot found

Tanacetum vulgare L./Catinga-de-mulataDecoction, maceration/LeavesAnalgesic [23]Antibacterial and antifungal [110], antiviral [111], cytotoxic [112], treatment of infections caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis [113], immunomodulatory [114], antihelminthic [115]Yes

Vernonia cf. condensata Baker./Boldo do chileInfusion/BarkCalmative [57]Antitumor and anti-inflammatory [116], antioxidant [117]Yes

Bignoniaceae

Anemopaegma arvense/CatuabaInfusion, decoction/Root, bark, leavesNervous exhaustion [118]Increased weight and testicular parenchyma [119], antifungal [120]Yes

Bombacaceae

Eriotheca candolleana (K. Schum.)/CatuabaInfusion/RootNervous exhaustion [121]Not foundNot found

Boraginaceae

Cordia verbenacea DC./Maria pretaBathe/LeavesAnalgesic [49]Antimicrobial [122], anti-inflammatory [123]No

Brassicaceae

Coronopus didymus (L.)
Smith/Mastruz
Maceration/LeavesAnalgesic [49]Healing [124], anti-inflammatory [125]No

Bromeliaceae

Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L/Barba de velhoNot foundAntiepileptic [49]Abortion [126], antiviral [127]Yes

Buddlejaceae

Buddleja brasiliensis Jacq./VerbascoInfusion, cataplasm/Part air plantCalmative [67]Low potential hemolytic [128]Yes

Burseraceae

Commiphora myrrha (T. Nees) Engl/MyrrhInfusion/LeavesCalmative [49]Antioxidant [117], analgesic [129]Yes

Caesalpiniaceae

Bauhinia forficata Link./Pata de vacaDecoction/LeavesAnalgesic [23]Antioxidant and increased liver glycogen [130], antimutagenic [131]Yes

Bauhinia rutilans Spruce ex. Benth/Escada-de-macacoInfusion/Part air plantAnalgesic [99]Not foundNot found

Canellaceae

Capsicodendron dinissi Occhioni/PepperNot foundMigraine [104]Not foundNot found

Capparaceae

Cleome spinosa Jacq./MussambêInfusion/Complete plantHeadache [132]Cytotoxic [49], antioxidant [133], anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive [134]No

Caprifoliaceae

Sambucus nigra L./ElderberryDecoction/LeavesAnalgesic [23, 49]Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant [134], parasiticidal [135]No

Chenopodiaceae

Chenopodium ambrosioides L./Yerba Santa MariaMaceration, infusion/Leaves, bark, seedAnalgesic, calmative [23, 48, 57]Antitumor [79], hypotensive [136], antipyretic and anxiolytic [137]Yes

Compositaceae

Baccharis trimera (Less) D.C./GorseInfusion/LeavesHeadache [138]Antiulcer and antioxidant [139], anti-inflammatory [140], anti-inflammatory and analgesic [141]No

Vernonia condensata B./BoldoInfusion, decoction/LeavesCalmative [138]Antioxidant [117], analgesic [142]Yes

Cucurbitaceae

Cayaponia tayuya (Vell.) Cogn./TaiuiaInfusion, decoction/RootNeuralgia [67]Hepatotoxic [142], anti-inflammatory [143]Yes

Dilleniaceae

Davilla rugosa Poir./Vine cablocoBathe/RootSedative [67]Antioxidant [144], antiulcer [145]Yes

Euphorbiaceae

Jatropha curcas L./Pião-bravoInfusion/SeedHeadache [102, 132]Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor [146], antibacterial, antioxidant and antitumor [147, 148], cytotoxic [149]Yes

Ricinus communis L./Castor beansInfusion/LeavesHeadache [77, 87]Antimicrobial and anticancer [150], antimicrobial [151]Yes

Fabaceae

Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex. Tul./Pau ferroNot foundAnalgesic [57]Nutritional supplementation of iron, zinc and manganese [152] anti-inflammatory and healing [153], antihyperglycemic [154], antimicrobial [155]No

Cajanus flavus De Candolle/Andu beansInfusion/LeavesHeadache [99]Not foundNot found

Erythrina falcata Benth/Surina, mulunguNot foundSedative and antiepileptic [67, 104]Depressant CNS [156]No

Indigofera anil/AnilNot foundSedative [107]Not foundNot found

Indigofera suffruticosa Mill./AnileiraDecoction, infusion/Complete plantSedative [67]Anti-inflammatory [157], lectin activity [158], antiepileptic [159], antiparasitic [160]Yes

Pterodon emarginatus/SucupiraInfusion/leaves, fruitHeadache [120]Antimicrobial [161163], analgesic and anti-inflammatory [164]; antileishmanial, anticancer, hypoglycemic [165]No

Ginkgoaceae

Ginkgobiloba/GincoDecoction, infusion/LeavesVasodilator, brain dysfunction, dizziness and concentration and memory [160]Treatment of Alzheimer disease [166], prevention of dementia [167], antioxidant, vasodilator, stimulant of SNC [168]No

Geraniaceae

Pelargonium graveolens  L’Her/
Mauve smelling
Not foundSedative [87]Anxiolytic and antidepressant [159], antibacterial [169], hypoglycemic and antioxidant [170]No

Mimosa pudica L./DormideiraInfusion/Complete plantSedative [99]Reduction of fertility [171], hepatotoxic [172], lipid-lowering [173], anxiolytic and antipyretic [137], antiophidic [174]No

Iridaceae

Calydorea sp./JabotitanaDecoction/RhizomeAnalgesic [23]Not foundNot found

Labiatae

Agastache mexicana Kunth/ToronjilNot foundSedative [102]Antihypertensive [175], vasorelaxant [176], anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive [177], antinociceptive [178], anxiolytic [179]No

Lavandula latifolia/LavandaOilStimulant [68]Anxiolytic [180], antifungal [181], antioxidant [182]Yes

Origanum vulgare/oreganoInfusion/LeafSedative [68]Antimicrobial [183] proapoptotic effect and cytotoxic [184], antiurolithic [185]Yes

Lamiaceae

Coleus barbatus Benth./Falso-boldoTisane mate/LeafHeadache, calmative [56]Hepatoprotective [186]Yes

Cunila microcephala Benth./Hortelã-miúdo, hortelã-pimenta, poejoDecoction/Complete plantAnalgesic [23, 58]Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant [187]No

Hyptis suaveolens Poit./Samba-coitéTea/LeafHeadache [188]Hypoglycemic and antioxidant [189], hepatoprotective and antioxidant [190], gastroprotective activity [191], neuroprotective and antioxidant [192], antifungal [193]Yes

Lavandula officinalis Chaix & Kitt/AlfazemaTea/Leaf, stalkCalmative [49]Antimicrobial [194], antioxidant [195], sedative and hypnotic [196]No

Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R. Br./Cordão de São FranciscoInfusion, decoction/Leaf, branchesSedative, headache [132, 138]Antimicrobial [197], anti-inflammatory [198]Yes

Melissa officinalisL./Erva-cidreira, melissaDecoction/LeafCalmative, migraine, sedative [23, 36, 55, 58, 59, 87, 89, 90, 101, 102, 138, 199]Anti-inflammatory [200], calmative [201], antioxidant [202], antigenotoxic and antimutagenic [203], neuroprotective [199, 204]No

Mentha arvensis L./Hortelã-mentolTea/LeafHeadache [188]Antibacterial [205], antifungal [206], anti-inflammatory and sedative [207], peptic antiulcer [208]Yes

Mentha cf. suaveolens Ehrh./Hortelã, hortelã-grandeDecoction, maceration/LeafCalmative, Analgesic [23, 199]Antifungal [209, 210], antioxidant [211], antibacterial [212]Yes

Mentha piperita L./Hortelã, hortelã-roxoDecoction/Complete plantAnalgesic [23, 102]Antifungal [213, 214], antioxidant [211], anthelmintic [215], hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic [216], anticancer [217] analgesic [218]No

Mentha pulegium L./PoejoDecoction/StalkCalmative, sedative [47, 56, 58, 78]Antioxidant [211], antimicrobial [219]Yes

Mentha sp./HortelãDecoction/StalkHeadache, Calmative [36, 47, 49, 5557]Anthelmintic [215]Yes

Mentha spicata L./Headache [87]Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic [216], antioxidant [220], antiemetic [221]Yes

Mentha  ×  villosa Huds./HortelãTea/LeafHeadache [188]Antifungal and antibacterial [222], antimicrobial and antioxidant [223], analgesic and antispasmodic [153]No

Ocimum basilicum L./AlfavacaDecoction, maceration/LeafCalmative, analgesic [23, 39]Antidepressant and anticonvulsant [224]Yes

Ocimum gratissimum L./l
Louro
Tea/LeafHeadache, calmative [49, 87, 188]Anticonvulsant [225, 226], antifungal [227]Yes

Ocimum minimum L./ManjericãoMaceration/LeafHeadache [94]Antiulcerogenic and antioxidant [35]Yes

Ocimum selloi Benth./AlfavacaInfusion, tea/LeafCalmative [138]Antibacterial [219], analgesic and antidiarrheal [220]Yes

Origanum majoranaL./ManjeronaDecoction/StalkCalmative [56]Antibacterial [228], antioxidant [49], antimetastatic and antitumor [229], antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic [230]Yes

Plectranthus barbatus Andr./BoldoDecoction, maceration/LeafAnalgesic [23, 57, 60]Cytotoxic [231], acetylcholinesterase inhibitor [232], antimicrobial [233]Yes

Plectranthus neochilus Schlechter/Boldo do ChileInfusion/LeafHeadache [89]Analgesic [234]No

Rosmarinus officinalis L./AlecrimDecoction/LeafAnalgesic, calmative [23, 39, 48, 58, 59, 102, 138, 235]Antibacterial [236], antioxidant [237], antifungal [238], anticancer [239], antidepressant [240], analgesic [241], antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, metal chelation [242], prevention and treatment of dementia [243], neuroprotective [244]No

Salvia lachnostachys Benth./MelissaDecoction/LeafSomniferous [23, 78]Anti-inflammatory and analgesic [244]Yes

Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl./MariselvaOil/Nervous disorders [245]Hypoglycemic [245], neuroprotective [246]No

Salvia officinalis L./Salvia, barcelonaDecoction/LeafCalmative, Analgesic [23]Antibacterial [228], anti-inflammatory [247], antidiarrheal and antispasmodic [185], analgesic and anti-inflammatory [248]No

Lauraceae

Cinnamomum zeylanicum  Breyn./CanelaInfusion, maceration/StalkCalmative [39]Antifungal [249] antimicrobial [250], antioxidant [251], antidiabetic [252]Yes

Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng.) Mez/Canela-pretaInfusion/leafCalmative [253]Anesthetic [254]Yes

Leguminosae

Acosmium subelegans (Mohlenbr) Yakovl/Perobinha do campoSedative, epilepsy and nervous exhaustion [255]Depressant effect SNC and anticonvulsant [255]No

Hymenaea courbaril L./JatobáInfusion, maceration/Bark, fruitSedative [132]Not found.Not found

Tamarindus indica/TamarindoCompress, bathe, infusion/Stalk, leaves, fruitTreatment of fever, stomach upset, diarrhea, jaundice and as skin cleansers [256], inflammation, urinary tract infection and laxative [257], headache and stress [258]Antibacterial [256], antihelminthic [257], antioxidant [259], antinociceptive [260], analgesic and anti-inflammatory [261], antihistaminic and antianaphylactic [262], antiulcer [263]No

Liliaceae

Allium sativum L./AlhoHeadache [59]Hypotensive [264], synergism with antibiotics [265], antioxidant [266]Yes

Malpighiaceae

Banisteriopsis  
caapi/Mariri, ayahuasca
Decoction, infusion/vineHallucinogen, emotional and cognitive sensory changes, psychoactive [267269] aid in treatment of abuse of other Psychoactives [270]Hallucinogen [271] inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, in addition to inhibiting MAO [272]No

Galphimia glauca/AmarillaMaceration/Part air plantsCalmative [273]Anxiolytic [273]No

Meliaceae

Cedrela fissilis/Cedro-rosaInfusion/BarkHeadache [121]Not foundNot found

Moraceae

Cannabis sativa/maconha, marijuana, cânhamoOil, inhalation/Leaves, stalk, flowersTreatment of pain, nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders, loss of appetite and eating disorders, Insomnia, anxiety and depression, neuroprotective action [274], antiemetic, appetite stimulant [275], clinical and experimental studies in the treatment of dementias [276], schizophrenia, antipsychotic, anxiety [277], antipsychotic [278]Treatment of pain, nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders, loss of appetite and eating disorders, Insomnia, anxiety and depression, neuroprotective action [273], antiemetic, appetite stimulant [274], clinical and experimental studies in the treatment of dementias [275], schizophrenia, antipsychotic, anxiety [276], antipsychotic [277], psychoactive [278]No

Dorstenia brasiliensis Lam./CarapiáCataplasm/RhizomeAnesthetic [67]Anti-inflammatory [278]Yes

Myrtaceae

Eucalyptus globulus Labill./EucaliptoInfusion, Bathe/LeafHeadache [48]Toxic effect [279], antibacterial [280, 281]Yes

Eugenia uniflora L./PitangueiraDecoction/LeafCalmative [23, 282]Antimicrobial and antioxidant [283], anti-Trypanosoma cruzi [206]Yes

Orchidaceae

Vanilla planifolia Jack. ex Andrews/BaunilhaCalmative [67]Not foundNot found

Oxalidaceae

Averrhoa Carambola L./CarambolaInfusion/LeafAnalgesic [99]Analgesic [284]No

Papaveraceae

Papaver somniferum/Planta do ópioAnalgesic and sedative [68]Not foundNot found

Passifloraceae

Passiflora alata Curtis/MaracujáFruitCalmative [55, 59, 77, 90]Sedative [285]No

Passiflora caerulea L./MaracujáInfusion/Part air plantSedative and calmative [91, 286]Anxiolytic [287]No

Passiflora edulis Sims./MaracujáTea/LeafCalmative and insomnia [39, 48, 74, 77, 78, 90, 99, 257]Anxiolytic [288]No

Passiflora miersii Mart./MaracujazinhoInfusion/LeafCalmative and antidepressant [67]Not foundNot found

Pedaliaceae

Sesamum orientale L./GergelimSeed/JuiceAnticonvulsant [99]Hypoglycemic [289]Yes

Phytolaccaceae

Petiveria alliacea L./Guiné, tira capetaDecoction/Complete plantAnalgesic [23, 74, 99, 290]Antimicrobial [291], antinociceptive, sedative, anticonvulsant and depressant [292]Yes

Piperaceae

Pothomorphe umbellata Miq./PariparobaInfusion/LeafHeadache [121]Antioxidant [293], antitumor [294], antihelminthic [295]Yes

Poaceae

Cymbopogon citratusStapf./Capim santo, capim limãoDecoction/LeafCalmative, analgesic and sedative [7, 23, 27, 36, 39, 4749, 5558, 74, 77, 78, 8890, 99, 101, 102, 138, 296]Anxiolytic, sedative and anticonvulsant [297]No

Polygalaceae

Polygala paniculata L./ArnicaDecoction/Complete plantAnalgesic [23]Analgesic and antidermatogenic [298], antinociceptive and gastric cytoprotective activity [299]No

Polygonaceae

Homalocladium platycladum Bailey/CarquejinhaDecoction/StalkAnalgesic [23]Antibacterial [300], analgesic, anti-inflammatory [301]No

Rosaceae

Rosa centifolia L./Rosa brancaDecoction/Leaf, flowerAnalgesic [23]Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic [302], antioxidant [303], antiulcer and cytoprotective [304]No

Sanguisorba minor Scop./PimpinelaTea/Leaf, flowerCalmative [102]Inhibitory action of acetylcholinesterase [305]Yes

Rubiaceae

Coffea arabica L./CaféCataplasm/LeafHeadache [101]Antioxidant [306], antioxidant and stimulant [307]Yes

Cinchona officinalis L./Decoction/BarkAnalgesic [23]Not foundNot found

Psychotria viridis/chacrona, ayahuascaInfusion/LeavesHallucinogen, emotional and cognitive sensory changes, psychoactive [267269] aid in treatment of abuse of other Psychoactives [268]Hallucinogen [308]

Alibertia sp./MarmeloDecoction, infusion/Root, fruitCalmative [118]Not foundNot found

Rutaceae (5)

Casimiroa edulis Llave & Lex./Zapote blancoSedative [102]Vasodilator [309, 310], anticoagulants and antimicrobial [310], anxiolytic [311], anxiolytic and antidepressant [312]No

Citrus aurantium L./LaranjaDecoction/BarkHeadache and calmative [36, 48, 56, 59, 78, 90, 194]Low toxicity [313], anxiolytic [314, 315]Yes

Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f./Limão-galego,Calmative and sedative [90, 194]Neuroprotective activity and anticonvulsant [316]Yes

Citrus sinensis (L.) OsbeckInfusion/LeafCalmative, analgesic and sedative [23, 27, 49, 74, 99, 138]Antioxidant, antithyroid and antihyperglycemic [317]Yes

Ruta graveolens L./ArrudaDecoction, maceration/LeafCalmative and headache [23, 39, 48, 57, 60, 102]Antimicrobial [318], antioxidant [319], antitumor [320], antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic [321]Yes

Solanaceae

Atropa belladonna L./BeladonaDecoction/LeafCalmative [23]Healing [322]Yes

Cestrum sendtnerianum Mart./Guiné-do-campoInfusion, Decoction/LeafSedative [67]Not foundNot found

Solanum americanum Mill./Maria-pretinhaDecoction/Leaf, StalkSedative, Analgesic [45, 67]Antifungal [323], antioxidant and anticancer [324]Yes

Solanum cernuum Vell/Pata de monoCalmative [87]Antiulcerogenic [325]Yes

Umbelliferae

Anethum graveolens/EneldoSedative [68]Antifungal [326], anticonvulsant [327], anti Helicabator pylori [328], decreased fertility rate [329], participates in the regulation of Diabetes Mellitus [330]Yes

Coriandrum sativum/CilantroInfusion/Leaf, fruitStimulant [68]Antioxidant [40], sedative and muscle relaxant [43], antibacterial [331], antiarthritic [332], anti-inflamatory [41], antifungal [333], hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic [334]Yes

Petroselinum hortense/Salsa da hortaSedative [107]Diuretic and hypotensive [335]Yes

Urticaceae

Urera baccifera (L.)/UrtigaLeafAnalgesic [36]Antioxidant [336], anti-inflamatory [337]No

Verbenaceae (6)

Aloysia citrodora Palau/Erva luízaCalmative [74, 286]Not found.Not found

Aloysia triphylla Royle/Cidrão/LeafSedative [55, 235]Treatment of intestinal disorders [338], anti Trypanosoma Cruzi [339], anti-Helicobacter pylori [328], antibacterial [340], spasmolytic and anti-inflammatory [341], antinociceptive [244]Yes

Lantana camara L./CamaráInfusion, Decoction/LeafHeadache [132]Antibacterial [342], antioxidant [343], anxiolytic [344]Yes

Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Br./Erva-cidreiraLeaf/InfusionHeadache and calmative [39, 49, 55, 5861, 75, 77, 94, 97]Antimicrobial [345], antispasmodic [346], anxiolytic [347], anesthetic [348]No

Lippia gracillis Schauer/Alecrim da serraInfusion/LeafHeadache [132]Antimicrobial [349], antitumor [350], anti-inflammatory and healing [351]Yes

Verbena cf. minutifolia Phil./Decoction/Complete plantAnalgesic [23]Not foundNot found

Violaceae

Viola odorata L./Sedative [87]Antitumoral [352], antioxidant and antibacterial [353], antimicrobial [354], vasodilator and antidyslipidemic [355]Yes

Zingiberaceae

Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt & Smith/ColôniaDecoction/LeafCalmative [39, 48, 49, 101]Hypotensive [356], vasodilator [357], antioxidant [358]Yes

Zingiber officinale Rosc./GengibreDecoction/rootAnalgesic and headache [23, 57, 78]Antioxidant [359], antihyperglycemic [360], antibacterial [361], androgenic [362]Yes

Costus brasiliensis Schum./Cana-de-macacoNot foundCalmative [67]Not foundNot found

is the popular name that was quoted. was not mentioned how to prepare. is the portion used or how to prepare that was quoted.

The most common indications, according to ethnopharmacological surveys, were calmative/sedative (72/167), analgesic (39/167), and headache (35/167), representing 86,2% of all indications (Figure 2).

Ethnobotanical surveys revealed that the leaves (70/160) and the whole plant (13/160) amounted to 51.7% of all plant parts most commonly used, but, in 18% of the studied plants, there were no citations about the used part for making medicines (Figure 3).

The most common preparation methods provided in the surveys were infusion (59/167) and decoction (49/167), representing 63.7% of all the methods (Figure 4).

Common effects attributed to the plants in the ethnopharmacological surveys were antioxidant (42/401), anti-inflammatory (31/401), antibacterial (20/401), and antimicrobial (17/401), totaling 31.9% (Figure 5).

Comparison between ethnopharmacological data and pharmaceutical tests for the same plants and compounds found differences in 52.9% (73/138) of the cases and similarities in 30.4% (42/138) (Figure 6). No pharmacological tests were found for 16.9% (23/138) of the plants mentioned in the ethnopharmacological surveys (Table 1).

Table 1 shows a list of the medicinal plants analyzed in this study. The pharmacological effects including “anticonvulsant” and “anxiolytic” were considered to correspond to “calmative” in medicinal effects cited by population since both effects are attributed to the same action in the neural system, that is, inhibitory action. Furthermore, the pharmacological effect “anti-inflammatory” was also considered to correspond to “analgesic” in medicinal effects cited by population since anti-inflammatory agents are effective in treating pain diseases.

4. Discussion

The most frequent indications of medicinal plant use for neural system disorders in our survey (i.e., calmative, analgesic, headache, and insomnia) are associated with the most common occurrences seen in medical practice [7, 36, 47, 55, 68, 77, 104, 132, 235, 258] (Figure 2).

The plant families analyzed (Lamiaceae and Asteraceae) are in accordance with general ethnobotanical studies [4, 7, 379382] (Figure 1), as well as the most utilized plant parts (leaves) [1, 7, 379, 383, 384], and preparation methods (infusion and decoction) [7, 253, 379, 383, 384] (Figure 4).

Despite that, the frequency of effects observed by most pharmacological tests does not coincide with those reported for the same plants when analyzed by ethnopharmacological means, (i.e., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antimicrobial), demonstrating a high discrepancy between proven and popularly mentioned effects (Figure 6).

It is important to remember that results of pharmacological tests were not found for all the plants mentioned in the ethnopharmacological studies, although those represent a small minority (16.9%) (Figure 5).

The discrepancy rate between the effects observed by ethnopharmacological and pharmacological methods in this study is in agreement with a previous study [9] and, in both cases, a disagreement of over 50% was found. This data indicates the need for better control in the use of medicinal plants as a whole, especially in countries with a large proportion of economically backward population where such therapy is most common, such as China, India, and Brazil. However, there are possibilities that scientific studies are not enough or they are missing to corroborate the ethnopharmacological activities.

Tables like the one produced in this study can be used as a basis for the indication of medications for health professionals working in the neural area who choose to substitute alternative therapies with conventional methods. The tables can be used to maintain the patient’s health and help make these treatments more accessible to people of all economic levels [385], bring medical practice closer to the care of cultural groups [386], and expand the idea of wholeness in healthcare.

Performing pharmacological tests in the medicinal plants mentioned in ethnopharmacological studies will help avoid prescription errors based only on popular knowledge, which, despite the importance, exhibits extensive methodological shortcomings from its propagation through generations (see Introduction). Although the pharmacological tests cannot solve problems related to contamination during preparation and/or mistakes when identifying plants by unskilled people, performing those tests would decrease the problems caused by adverse effects and wrong prescriptions.

Neurological disorders present complex etiologies often with aggravating social influences, requiring special care when making prescriptions; many critically ill patients are secluded from society and require medical monitoring and medications derived from modern pharmaceutical technology since indications for complex etiologies like dementias were not addressed in the ethnopharmacological articles analyzed in this study.

In conclusion, despite the importance of ethnopharmacological data, it is important to make comparisons with pharmacological tests for the same plants, since the pharmacological studies, although few, have shown a high rate of discrepancy in the results, nevertheless, to be important to cite that the scientific studies could not be enough, or are missing, to corroborate the ethnopharmacological activities. Tables containing the plants names and their effects according to pharmacological tests should be consulted by health professionals before prescribing those medications. No medicinal plants were mentioned in ethnopharmacological data for treating complex etiology neural disorders such as dementia, indicating the need for new studies of broader geographical amplitude and pharmaceutical classes all around the world. Emphasis of these studies should occur in developing countries in order to decrease prescription errors associated with medicinal plants and increase the coverage of plant-based therapy for the global population while prioritizing people in need.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgments

Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira acknowledges CNPq, Brazil, for scholarship in productivity research.

References

  1. T. M. B. Garlet and B. E. Irgang, “Medicinal plants used in folk medicine by rural women workers in Cruz,” Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 9–18, 2001. View at: Google Scholar
  2. N. F. Grynberg, A. Echevarria, M. A. M. Maciel, A. C. Pinto, and P. V. F. Veiga Junior, “Plantas medicinais: a necessidade de estudos multidisciplinares,” Química Nova, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 429–438, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  3. H. A. Rezende and M. I. Cocco, “The phytoterapy utilization in the rural population routine,” Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 282–288, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  4. E. Rodrigues and E. A. Carlini, “Possible effects on the Central Nervous System of plants used by two Brazilian cultures (Maroons and Indians),” Arquivos Brasileiros de Fitomedicina Científica, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 147–154, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  5. N. B. Vale, “A farmacobotânica, ainda tem lugar na moderna anestesiologia?” Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 368–380, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  6. I. S. França, J. A. Souza, R. S. Baptista, and V. R. Britto, “Medicina popular: benefícios e malefícios das plantas medicinais,” Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 201–208, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. N. P. Soares, A. Camilo Neves, T. de Abreu, G. de Abreu Pfrimer, H. Nishijo, and T. A. Aversi-Ferreira, “Medicinal plants used by the population of Goianápolis, Goiás State, Brazil,” Acta Scientiarum - Biological Sciences, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 263–271, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. H. Gómez-Estrada, F. Díaz-Castillo, L. Franco-Ospina et al., “Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview,” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 27–37, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. T. A. Aversi-Ferreira, P. P. Ribeiro, N. C. Silva et al., “Confrontation between ethnopharmacology and scientific results of the herbal medicaments from Brazil to be applied in primary health care,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 845–856, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  10. F. Cuassolo, A. Ladio, and C. Ezcurra, “Aspectos de lacomercialización y control de calidad de las plantas medicinales más vendidas en una comunidad urbana del no de la Patagonia Argentina,” Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 166–176, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  11. S. Coulaud-Cunha, R. S. Oliveira, and W. Waissmann, “Sale free Sorocea bomplandii Bailon as Espinheira Santa in the city of Rio de Janeiro-RJ,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 51–53, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  12. D. S. M. Andriolo, L. H. Cunha, A. S. Santana et al., “Investigação da presença de anorexígenos, benzodiazepínicos e antidepressivos em formulações fitoterápicas emagrecedoras,” Revista do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 148–152, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  13. G. S. Miranda, S. R. Souza, M. O. F. Amaro, M. B. Rosa, and C. A. Carvalho, “Avaliação do conhecimento etnofarmacológico da população de Teixeiras-MG,” Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 559–563, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  14. F. Q. Oliveira and L. A. Gonçalves, “Knowledge on medicinal plants and phythomedicines and potential of toxicity by users from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais,” Revista Eletrônica de Farmácia, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 36–41, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  15. M. I. Tomazzoni, R. R. B. Negrelle, and M. L. Centa, “Popular phytotherapy: the instrumental search as therapy,” Texto e Contexto de Enfermagem, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 115–121, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  16. K. S. M. Rates, “Promoting the rational use of herbal medicines: an approach to teaching pharmacognosy,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 57–69, 2001. View at: Google Scholar
  17. V. Maioli-Azevedo and V. F. Fonseca-Kruel, “Medicinal and ritual plants sold in street markets of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil,” Acta Botanica Brasilica, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 263–275, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
  18. M. D. Chaves and T. A. Aversi Ferreira, “Terapia medicamentosa da doença de Alzheimer,” Revista Eletrônica de Farmácia, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  19. M. I. Silva, A. P. Gondim, I. F. Nunes, and F. C. Sousa, “Utilização de fitoterápicos nas unidades básicas de atenção à saúde da família do município de Maracanaú (CE),” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 455–462, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  20. P. D. Albertasse, L. D. Thomaz, and M. A. Andrade, “Plantas medicinais e seus usos na comunidade da Barra do Jucu, Vila Velha, ES,” Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 250–260, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  21. R. R. B. Negrelle and K. R. C. Fornazzari, “Estudo etnobotânico em duas comunidades rurais (Limeira e Ribeirão Grande) de Guaratatuba (Paraná, Brasil),” Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 36–54, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
  22. R. H. Alabashi and M. F. Melzig, “Plectrantus barbatus: a review of phytochemistry, ethnobotanical and pharmacology - part 1,” Planta Medica, vol. 76, no. 7, pp. 653–661, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  23. T. M. Miranda and N. Hanazaki, “Conhecimento e uso de recursos vegetais de restinga por comunidades das ilhas Cardoso (SP) e de Santa Catarina (SC), Brasil,” Acta Botanica Brasilica, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 203–215, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  24. E. S. Garcia, A. C. P. Gilbert, C. B. V. Corrêa, M. V. S. Cavalheiro, R. R. Santos, and T. Tomasini, “Fitoterápicos,” Campinas: André Tosello, vol. 17, 1996. View at: Google Scholar
  25. D. D. Soejarto, “Biodiversity prospecting and benefit-sharing: Perspectives from the field,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 51, no. 1-3, pp. 1–15, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  26. S. Y. Ariza, D. C. Rueda, J. Rincón, E. L. Linares, and M. F. Guerrero, “fectos farmacológicos sobre el sistema nervioso central inducidos por cumarina, aislada de Hygrophilatyttha Leonard,” Vitae, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 51–58, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
  27. E. A. P. Franco and R. F. M. Barros, “Uso e diversidade de plantas medicinais no Quilombo Olho D’água dos Pires, Esperantina, Piauí,” Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 78–88, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  28. T. E. Venâncio, “Estudo dos efeitos comportamentais e neuroquímicos do extrato padronizado de Justicia pectoralis (chambá) em camundongos,” in Dissertação, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Faculdade de Medicina, Fortaleza, Brazil, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  29. C. S. Lino, M. L. Taveira, G. S. B. Viana, and F. J. A. Matos, “Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq and its main constituents: Coumarin and umbelliferone,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 211–215, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  30. T. D. Locklear, Y. Huang, J. Frasor et al., “Estrogenic and progestagenic effects of extracts of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. an herbal medicine from Costa Rica used for the treatment of Menopause and PMS,” Maturitas, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 315–322, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  31. G. P. Trueba, R. R. Martínez, Z. P. Ruiz, and J. R. Chanfrau, “Evaluación de la actividad antioxidant de Justicia Pectoralis,” Revissta cubana de Investigaçoes Biomedicas, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 30–33, 2001. View at: Google Scholar
  32. R. C. Dutra, C. Z. Tavares, S. O. Ferraz, O. V. Sousa, and D. S. Pimenta, “Investigação das atividades analgésica e antiinflamatória do extrato metanólico dos rizomas de Echinodorus grandiflorus,” Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 469–474, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  33. G. L. C. Cardoso, N. A. Pereira, and R. Lainetti, “Avaliação das atividades antinociceptiva, antiinflamatória e diurética do chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus grandiflorus, [Cham e Schl] Mitch, Alismataceae,” Revista Brasileira de Farmácia, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 5–7, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  34. G. F. Conceição, “Efeitos anti-hipertensivos e microcirculatórios do extrato hidro-alcóolico de Echinodorus grandiflorus (chapéus-de-couro) em ratos espontaneamente hipertensos,” in Dissertação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  35. M. A. Lessa, C. V. Araújo, M. A. Kaplan, D. Pimenta, M. R. Figueiredo, and E. Tibiriçá, “Antihypertensive effects of crude extracts from leaves of Echinodorus grandifolius,” Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 161–168, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  36. M. D. Silva, S. Dreveck, and A. L. B. Zeni, “Estudo etnobotânico de plantas medicinais utilizadas pela população rural no entorno do Parque Nacional da Serra do Itajaí - Indaial,” Revista Saúde e Ambiente, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 54–64, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  37. C.-H. Wu, H.-T. Hsieh, J.-A. Lin, and G.-C. Yen, “Alternanthera paronychioides protects pancreatic β-cells from glucotoxicity by its antioxidant, antiapoptotic and insulin secretagogue actions,” Food Chemistry, vol. 139, no. 1-4, pp. 362–370, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  38. V.-G. Jorge, J.-R. L. Ángel, T.-S. Adrián et al., “Vasorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens: Possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 776–779, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  39. V. P. Mosca and M. I. B. Loiola, “Uso popular de plantas medicinais no rio grande do norte, nordeste do Brasil,” Revista Caatinga, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 225–234, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  40. E. d. Melo, J. Mancini Filho, N. B. Guerra, and G. R. Maciel, “Atividade antioxidante de extratos de coentro (Coriandrum sativum L.),” Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 195–199, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  41. G. Zanusso-Junior, J. Melo, A. Romero et al., “Avaliação da atividade antiinflamatória do coentro (Coriandrum sativum L.) em roedores,” Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 17–23, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  42. V. Z. Pedrosa, “Atividade do Coriandrum sativum L. sobre cepas de Echerichia coli produtoras de B- lactamases de expectro estendido,” in Tese, Centro de Ciências de Saúde, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  43. M. Emamghoreishi, M. Khasaki, and M. F. Aazam, “Coriandrum sativum: Evaluation of its anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 365–370, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  44. I. A. Freires, R. M. Murata, V. F. Furletti et al., “Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander) essential oil: antifungal activity and mode of action on Candida spp., and molecular targets affected in human whole-genome expression,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1–13, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  45. S. Sreelatha and R. Inbavalli, “Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Coriandrum sativum Leaf and stem in alloxan-induced biabetic rats,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 77, no. 7, pp. 119–123, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  46. A. A. Taherian, A. A. Vafaei, and J. Ameri, “Opiate system mediate the atinociceptive effects of Coriandrum sativum in mice,” Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 679–688, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  47. W. Barrella, T. B. Breier, and G. A. Leme, “Levantamento etnobotânico do uso popular de plantas medicinais por comunidade rurais atendidas pela UBSF/Jundiaquara/ Araçoiaba da Serra/ SP,” Revista Eletrônica de Biologia, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 89–105, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  48. M. A. A. Soares, J. R. P. Braga, A. E. B. Mourão, K. M. S. Parente, and E. G. Parente, “Levantamento etnobotânico das plantas medicinais utilizadas pela população do município de Gurinhém- Paraíba,” Revista Homem, Espaço e Tempo, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 36–47, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  49. W. A. Silva, N. C. A. Fagundes, C. A. Coutinho, A. C. M. Soares, P. V. Campos, and L. S. Figueiredo, “Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais na cidade de São João da Ponte-MG,” Revista de Biologia e Farmácia, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 122–131, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  50. V. N. Trajano, E. d. Lima, E. L. Souza, and A. E. Travassos, “Propriedade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais de especiarias sobre bactérias contaminantes de alimentos,” Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 542–545, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  51. F. Karimzadeh, M. Hosseini, D. Mangeng et al., “Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum in rat brain,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 12, no. 76, pp. 1–10, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  52. J.-B. Lee, C. Yamagishi, K. Hayashi, and T. Hayashi, “Antiviral and immunostimulating effects of lignin- carbohydrate- protein complexes from Pimpinella anisium,” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 459–465, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  53. I. Gülçin, M. Oktay, E. Kireçci, and Ö. I. Küfrevıoǧlu, “Screening of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed extracts,” Food Chemistry, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 371–382, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  54. S. Kadan, M. Rayan, and A. Rayan, “Anticancer activity of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed extract,” The Open Nutraceuticals Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  55. A. H. C. Merétika, N. Peroni, and N. Hanazaki, “Local knowledge of medicinal plants in three artisanal fishing communities (Itapoá, Southern Brazil), according to gender, age, and urbanization,” Acta Botanica Brasilica, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 386–394, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  56. C. T. A. Cruz-Silva, A. P. Pelinson, and A. M. Campelo, “Abordagem etnobotânica acerca do uso de plantas medicinais na região urbana no município de Quedas do Iguaçu - Paraná,” Cultivando o Saber, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 14–25, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  57. M. A. Pilla, M. C. Amorozo, and A. Furlan, “Obtenção e uso das plantas medicinais no distrito de Martim Franscisco, Município de Mogi-Mirim, SP, Brasil,” Acta Botanica Brasilica, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 789–802, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  58. S. B. Fuck, J. C. Athanázio, C. B. Lima, and L. C. Ming, “Plantas medicinais utilizadas na medicina popular por moradores da área urbana de Bandeirantes, PR, Brasil,” Semina: Ciências Agrárias, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 291–296, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  59. N. F. L. Almeida, S. R. S. Silva, J. M. Souza, A. P. N. Queiroz, G. S. Miranda, and H. B. Oliveira, “Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais na cidade de Viçosa-MG,” Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêuticas, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 316–320, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  60. A. G. Martins, D. L. Rosário, M. N. Barros, and M. A. G. Jardim, “Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais, alimentares e tóxicas da Ilha do Combu, Município de Belém, Estado do Pará, Brasil,” Revista Brasileira de Farmácia, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 21–30, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  61. M. T. Tinoco, M. R. Martins, and J. Cruzmorais, “Atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial do Foeniculum vulgare Miller,” Revista de Ciências Agrárias, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 448–454, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  62. D. Beaux, J. Fleurentin, and F. Mortier, “Diuretic action of hydroalcohol extracts of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (D.C.) roots in rats,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 320–322, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  63. K. A. L. Wakabayashi, N. I. De Melo, D. P. Aguiar et al., “Anthelmintic effects of the essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare., Apiaceae) against Schistosoma mansoni,” Chemistry & Biodiversity, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1105–1114, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  64. E. Mansouri, W. Kooti, M. Bazvand et al., “The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Foeniculum vulgare mill on leukocytes and hematological tests in male rats,” Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  65. M. Mesfin, K. Asres, and W. Shibeshi, “Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of the essential oil of the aerial part of Foeniculum vulgare Miller in mice,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 14, no. 310, pp. 1–7, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  66. S. C. Gnoatto, V. L. Bassani, G. C. Coelho, and E. P. Schenkel, “Influência do método de estração nos teores de metilxantinas em erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensisa. St. - Hil., aquifoliaceae),” Quimica Nova, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 304–307, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  67. V. E. G. Rodrigues and D. A. Carvalho, “Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais no domínio do cerrado na região do Alto Rio Grande- Minas Gerais,” Ciência e Agrotecnologia, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 102–123, 2001. View at: Google Scholar
  68. A. C. Ortiz and M. C. M. Lombardo, “Cultivo de plantas medicinales en la provincia de Jaén,” Boletín Instituto de Estudios Giennenses, vol. 2, no. 200, pp. 195–230, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  69. F. B. Mello and J. R. B. Mello, “Avaliação dos Efeitos Antitussígenos e Expectorantes de Duas Formulações Fitoterápicas Existentes no Mercado Brasileiro,” Acta Farmeceutica Bonorence, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 64–70, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  70. B. Kiertsman and S. L. Zuquim, “O extrato seco de Hedera helix no tratamento das infecções de vias aéreas na infância,” Pediatria Moderna, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 143–149, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  71. A. Rai, “The antiinflammatory and antiarthritic properties of ethanol extract of hedera helix,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 99–102, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  72. G. I. I. Rodriguez, “Avaliação da Atividade antiofídica de Aristolochia sprucei: Isolamento e caracterização estrutural de composto bioativo,” Dissertação, Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, USP, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  73. G. A. Pacheco, “Estudo fitoquímico de Aristolochia esperanazae Kuntze (Aristolochia),” in Dissertação, Departamento de Química do Instituto de Ciências Exatas da Universidade Federal de Minas, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  74. M. R. Ritter, G. R. Sobierajski, E. P. Schenkel, and L. A. Mentz, “Plantas usadas como medicinais no município de Ipê, RS, Brasil,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 51–62, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  75. M. J. M. Sousa, F. F. Moral, G. N. L. Nascimento, N. P. Soares, and T. A. Aversi-Ferreira, “Medicinal plants used by Itamaraty community nearby Anápolis, Goiás State, Brazil,” Acta Scientiarum - Health Sciences, vol. 2, no. 32, pp. 177–184, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  76. F. Lopes, M. Placeres, R. Moreira, L. d. Santos, and I. Carlos, “Avaliação da atividade imunológica Achillea millefolium L. ('mil-folhas'),” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 11–13, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  77. M. R. Brito and L. d. Senna-Valle, “Plantas medicinais utilizadas na comunidade caiçara da Praia do Sono, Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil,” Acta Botanica Brasilica, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 363–372, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  78. A. M. Borba and M. Macedo, “Plantas medicinais usadas para a saúde bucal pela comunidade do bairro Santa Cruz, Chapada dos Guimarães, MT, Brasil,” Acta Botanica Brasilica, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 771–782, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  79. M. J. Ruffa, G. Ferraro, M. L. Wagner, M. L. Calcagno, R. H. Campos, and L. Cavallaro, “Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 335–339, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  80. A. L. Oliveira, C. D. Padilha, G. G. Ortega, and P. R. Pretrovick, Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., Asteraceae: comparative evaluation of the vegetal drug and preliminary optimization studies on extraction . Caderno de Farmßcia, vol. 17, comparative evaluation of the vegetal drug and preliminary optimization studies on extraction . Caderno de Farmácia, Asteraceae, 2001.
  81. R. P. J. M. Bettega, “Avaliação da atividade antiviral de extratos nebulizados de Achyrocline saturioides (Lam) D C. Asteraceae - Marcela,” in Dissertação, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil, 2000. View at: Google Scholar
  82. J. J. Ochoa, A. H. Ladio, and M. Lozada, “Uso de recursos herbolarios entre mapuches y criollos de la comunidad campesina Arroyo Las Minas (Río Negro, Argentina),” Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 269–276, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  83. G. Shafi, T. N. Hasan, N. A. Syed et al., “Artemisia absinthium (AA): A novel potential complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer,” Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 7373–7379, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  84. D. Obistioiu, R. T. Cristina, I. Schmerold et al., “Chemical characterization by GC-MS and in vitro activity against Candida albicans of volatile fractions prepared from Artemisia dracunculus, Artemisia abrontanum, Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris,” Chemistry Central Journal, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1–11, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  85. H. R. Moslemi, H. Hoseinzadeh, M. A. Badouei, K. Kafshdouzan, and R. M. N. Fard, “Antimicrobial anctivity of Artemisia absinthium against surgical wounds infected by Staphylococcus aureus in a rat model,” Indian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 601–604, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  86. Y. Tariku, A. Hymete, A. Hailu, and J. Rohloff, “In vitro evaluation of antileishmanial activity and toxicity of essential oils of Artemisia absinthium and Echinops kebericho,” Chemistry & Biodiversity, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 614–623, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  87. D. C. Gallotte and L. F. Ribeiro, “Levantamento etnobotânico das plantas medicinais do horto da Escola Superior São Franscisco de Assis - ESFA, Santa Teresa, ES,” Natureza Online, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 19–24, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  88. V. F. S. Brito, I. C. Dantas, and G. D. S. Dantas, “Plantas medicinais utilizadas pela comissão de mulheres na zona rural no município de Lagoa Seca- PB,” Revista de Biologia e Farmácia, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 112–123, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  89. A. K. M. Oliveira, N. A. Oliveira, U. M. Resende, and P. F. R. B. Martins, “Ethnobotany and traditional medicine of the in habitants of the Pantanal Negro sub-region and the raizeiros of Miranda and Aquidauna, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil,” Brazilian Journal of Biology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 283–289, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  90. M. Giraldi and N. Hanazaki, “Uso e conhecimento tradicional de plantas medicinais no Sertão do Ribeirão, Florianópolis, SC, Brasil,” Acta Botanica Brasilica, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 395–406, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  91. M. P. Hernández, S. M. Civitella, and V. G. Rosato, “Uso medicinal popular de plantas y líquenes de la Isla Paulino, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina,” Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromaticas, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 258–268, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  92. C. Wehba, F. Fernandes, and E. Oppi, “Aplicação de pomada a base de extrato de camomila como coadjuvante na redução da sintomatologia dolorosa das lesões ulceradas da mucosa oral,” Revista Brasileira de Medicina, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 129–132, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  93. L. L. Cogo, C. L. B. Monteiro, M. D. Miguel et al., “Anti- Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders,” Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 304–309, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  94. F. H. Al-Hashem, “Gastroprotective effects of aqueous extract of chamomilla recutita against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1211–1216, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  95. M. Cemek, S. Kaǧa, N. Şimşek, M. E. Büyükokuroǧlu, and M. Konuk, “Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative potential of Matricaria chamomilla L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Journal of Natural Medicines, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 284–293, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  96. V. F. Noldin, V. Cechinel Filho, F. D. Monache et al., “Composição química e atividades biológicas das folhas de Cynara scolymus L. (alcachofra) cultivada no Brasil,” Química Nova, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 331–334, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  97. A. Zaru, P. MacCioni, A. Riva et al., “Reducing effect of a combination of phaseolus vulgaris and cynara scolymus extracts on operant self-administration of a chocolate-flavoured beverage in rats,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 944–947, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  98. R. Gebhardt, “Antioxidative and protective properties of extracts from leaves of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus C.) againt hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in cultured rat hepatocytes,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 144, no. 2, pp. 279–286, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  99. F. J. Luz, “Plantas medicinais de uso popular em Boa Vista, Roraima, Brasil,” Horticultura Brasileira, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 88–96, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  100. S. N. Harsha, K. R. Anilakumar, and M. V. Mithila, “Antioxidant properties of Lactuca sativa leaf extract involved in the protection of biomolecules,” Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 367–373, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  101. M. F. Medeiros, V. S. Fonseca, and R. H. Andreata, “Plantas medicinais e seus usos pelos sitiantes da Reserva do Rio das Pedras, Mangaratiba, RJ, Brasil,” Acta Botanica Brasilica, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 391–399, 2004. View at: Google Scholar
  102. I. M. Madaleno, “Etnofarmacología en Iberoamérica, una alternativa a la globalización de las prácticas de cura,” Cuadernos Geográficos, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 61–95, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  103. P. Owlia, I. Rasooli, and H. Saderi, “Antistreptcoccal and antioxidant activity of essential oil from Matricaria chamomilla L,” Research Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 155–160, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
  104. C. V. E. e. A. Rodrigues and D. Carvalho, “Florística de plantas medicinais nativas de remanescentes de floresta estacional semidecidual na região de Alto do Rio Grande- Minas Gerais,” Revista Cerne, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 93–112, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  105. H. R. N. Salgado, A. F. F. Roncari, and R. R. D. Moreira, “Antidiarrhoeal effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. (Asteraceae) leaf extract in mice,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 205–208, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  106. F. Assini, E. Fabrício, and K. Lang, “Efeitos farmacológicos do extrato aquoso de Solidago chilensis Meyen em camundongos,” Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 130–134, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  107. F. G. C. Costa, F. G. C. C. Nunes, and V. Peres, “Mapeamento etnofarmacológico e etnobotânico de espécies de cerrado, na microregião de Patos de Minas,” Revista do Núcleo Interdisciplinar de Pesquisa e Extensão, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 93–111, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  108. M. A. Nascimento, “Polissacarídeos e metabólitos secundários de Spilanthes olaracea L. (Jambu),” in Dissertação, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Setor de Ciências Biológicas., Universidade Federal do Paraná, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  109. G. Pessini, F. Holetz, N. Sanches, D. Cortez, B. Dias Filho, and C. Nakamura, “Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos de plantas utilizados na medicina popular,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 21–24, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  110. Á. L. Álvarez, S. Habtemariam, M. Juan-Badaturuge, C. Jackson, and F. Parra, “In vitro anti HSV-1 and HSV-2 activity of Tanacetum vulgare extracts and isolated compounds: an approach to their mechanism of action,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 296–301, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  111. S. Rosselli, M. Bruno, F. M. Raimondo et al., “Cytotoxic effect of eudesmanolides isolated from flowers of Tanacetum vulgare ssp. Siculum,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 8186–8195, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  112. P. S. Luize, T. S. Tiuman, L. G. Morello et al., “Effects of medicinal plant extracts on growth of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and Trypanossoma cruzi,” Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 85–94, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  113. G. Xie, I. A. Schepetkin, and M. T. Quinn, “Immunomodulatory activity of acidic polysaccharides isolated from Tanacetum vulgare L.,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 7, no. 13, pp. 1639–1650, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  114. L. S. Godinho, L. S. A. de Carvalho, C. C. B. de Castro et al., “Anthelmintic activity of crude extract and essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) against adult worms of schistosoma mansoni,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, Article ID 460342, 10 pages, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  115. T. Pagno, L. Z. Blind, M. W. Biavatti, and M. R. O. Kreuger, “Cytotoxic activity of the dichloromethane fraction the Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers. (Asteraceae) against Ehrlich's tumor cells in mice,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 1483–1491, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  116. C. E. Silva, R. Valota, K. S. Gebara, R. C. Silva, and E. Simionatto, “Avaliação da atividade antioxidante e o teor de compostos fenólicos em extrato metanólico obtido de folhas da Commiphora Myrrha,” Semina: Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 117–124, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  117. G. Vila Verde, J. Paula, and D. Caneiro, “Levantamento etnobotânico das plantas medicinais do cerrado utilizadas pela população de Mossâmedes (GO),” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 64–66, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  118. C. L. Chieregatto, “Efeito do tratamento crônico com extratos de Heteropterys afrodisíaca O. Mach. E Anamopaegma arvense. (Vell). Stellf. no testículo de ratos wistar adultos,” in Dissertação, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  119. C. D. G. Costanzo, V. C. Fernandes, S. Zingaretti et al., “Isolation of flavonoids from Anemopaegma arvense (Vell) Stellf. ex de Souza and their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum,” Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 559–565, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  120. N. R. Bueno, R. O. Castilho, R. B. da Costa et al., “Medicinal plants used by the kaiowá and guarani indigenous populations in the caarapó reserve, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil,” Acta Botanica Brasilica, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  121. L. d. Pinho, P. N. Souza, E. Macedo Sobrinho, A. C. Almeida, and E. R. Martins, “Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos hidroalcoólicos das folhas de alecrim-pimenta, aroeira, barbatimão, erva baleeira e do farelo da casca de pequi,” Ciência Rural, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 326–331, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  122. S. P. Pimentel, G. E. Barrella, R. C. V. Casarin et al., “Protective effect of topical Cordia verbenacea in a rat periodontitis model: immune-inflammatory, antibacterial and morphometric assays,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 12, no. 224, pp. 1–8, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  123. A. C. Nitz, J. B. Ely, A. J. D’Acampora, D. R. Tames, and B. P. Corrêa, “Estudo morfométrico no processo de cicatrização de feridas cutâneas em ratos, usando: Coronopu didymus e Calendula officinali,” Arquivos Catarinenses de Medicina, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 74–79, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  124. T. C. P. M. Busnardo, C. Padoani, T. C. Mora et al., “Anti-inflammatory evaluation of Coronopus didymus in the pleurisy and paw edema models in mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 519–525, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  125. S. N. Fracaro, T. Nakashima, and I. Deconto, “Potencial abortivo de Tillandsia usneoides L. (barba-de- pau) em coelhas gestantes- Nota prévia,” Arquivos de ciências veterinárias e zoologia da UNIPAR, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 181–185, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  126. C. R. Andrighetti-Fröhner, T. C. M. Sincero, A. C. Da Silva et al., “Antiviral evaluation of plants from Brazilian Atlantic Tropical Forest,” Fitoterapia, vol. 76, no. 3-4, pp. 374–378, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  127. D. M. S. Oliveira, F. M. M. Ocampos, T. F. Moreira et al., “Physico-Chemical assays, hemolytic, and antimicrobial activity of extracts and fractions of Buddleja stachyoides Cham and Schltdl. (Schrophulariaceae),” Visão Acadêmica, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 14–25, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  128. S. Su, T. Wang, J. Duan et al., “Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of different extracts of Chommiphora myrrha,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 251–258, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  129. D. C. Damasceno, G. T. Volpato, I. de Mattos Paranhos Calderon, R. Aguilar, and M. V. C. Rudge, “Effect of Bauhinia forficata extract in diabetic pregnant rats: Maternal repercussions,” Phytomedicine, vol. 11, no. 2-3, pp. 196–201, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  130. E. Düsman, I. V. D. Almeida, A. C. Coelho, T. J. Balbi, L. T. Düsman Tonin, and V. E. P. Vicentini, “Antimutagenic effect of medicinal plants achillea millefolium and bauhinia forficata in vivo,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 893050, 6 pages, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  131. M. G. V. Marinho, C. C. Silva, and L. H. C. Andrade, “Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais em áreas de caatinga no município de São José de Espinharas, Paraíba, Brasil,” Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 170–180, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  132. S. R. Leal, “Estudo etnofarmacológico e fitoquímico espécies medicinais Cleome spinosa Jacq, Pavonia varians Moric e Croton cajucara Benth,” in Tese, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Centro de Ciências exatas e da terra, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  133. N. Albarello, C. Simões-Gurgel, T. C. Castro et al., “Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of fieldgrowth plants and tissue culture of Cleome Spinosa (Jacq.) in mice,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. View at: Google Scholar
  134. M. Scopel, “Análise botânica, química e biológica comparativa entre flores das espécies Sambuncus nigra L. e Sambuncus australis Chan e Schltdl. avaliação preliminar de sua estabilidade,” in Dissertação, Faculdade de Farmácia, Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  135. A. Daryani, M. A. Ebrahimzadeh, M. Sharif et al., “Anti-toxoplasma activities of methanolic extract of sambucus nigra (caprifoliaceae) fruits and leaves,” Revista de Biología Tropical, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 7–12, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  136. E. N. Bum, S. Soudi, E. R. Ayissi et al., “Anxiolityc activity evaluation of four medicinal plants from Cameroon,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 130–139, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  137. L. F. Dias, E. S. Melo, L. S. Hernandes, and E. M. Bacchi, “Atividades antiúlcera e antioxidante Baccharis trimera (Less) DC (Asteraceae),” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 309–314, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  138. R. A. Lima, S. A. Magalhães, and M. R. A. Santos, “Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais utilizadas na cidade de Vilhena, Rondônia,” Revista Pesquisa e Criação, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 112–123, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  139. E. L. Paul, A. Lunardelli, E. Caberlon et al., “Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of Bacharis trimera aqueous extract on induced pleurisy in rats and lymphoproliferation In Vitro,” Inflammation, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 419–425, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  140. R. M. Gené, C. Cartañá, T. Adzet, E. Marín, T. Parella, and S. Cañigueral, “Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Bacharis trimera: identification of its active constituents,” Planta Medica, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 232–235, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  141. A. L. Valverde, G. L. C. Cardoso, N. A. Pereira, A. J. R. Silva, and R. M. Kuster, “Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of vernonioside B2 from Vernonia condensata,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 263-264, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  142. A. G. U. Batista, R. A. Lopes, M. A. Souza et al., “Hepatotoxidade de plantas medicinais. XLIX. Ação da infusão de Cayaponia tayuya (Vell.) Cong. no camundongo,” Investigação – Revista Científica da Universidade de Franca, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 7–12, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  143. S. Aquila, R. M. Giner, M. C. Recio, E. D. Spegazzini, and J. L. Ríos, “Anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids from Cayaponia tayuya roots,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 333–337, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  144. J. M. Macedo, L. G. P. Souza, V. C. T. Valenzuela, A. B. Oliveira, R. O. Castilho, and R. L. R. P. Jácome, “Variação sazonal nos teores de flavonoides, taninos e atividade antioxidante de Davilla rugosa Poir,” Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 585–590, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  145. L. Guaraldo, J. A. A. Sertiè, and E. M. Bacchi, “Antiulcer action of the hydroalcoholic extract and fractions of Davilla rugosa Poiret in thhe rat,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 191–195, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  146. C. M. Feitosa, R. M. Freitas, N. N. N. Luz, M. Z. B. Bezerra, and M. T. S. Trevisan, “Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medical plants,” Brazilian Journal of Biology, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 783–789, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  147. E. Oskoueian, N. Abdullah, S. Ahmad, W. Z. Saad, A. R. Omar, and Y. W. Ho, “Bioactive compounds and biological activities of Jatropha curcas L. kernel meal extract,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 5955–5970, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  148. O. O. Igbinosa, I. H. Igbinosa, V. N. Chigor et al., “Polyphenolic contents and antioxidant potential of stem bark extracts from jatropha curcas (Linn),” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 2958–2971, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  149. O. O. Aiyelaagbe, A. A. Hamid, E. Fattorusso, O. Taglialatela-Scafati, H. C. Schröder, and W. E. Müller, “Cytotoxic activity of crude from Jatropha species, plants used extensively in African traditional medicine,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 134954, 7 pages, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  150. V. M. F. Leite, J. B. Pinheiro, M. X. Pisani et al., “In vitro antimicrobial activity of an experimental dentifrice based on Ricinus Communis,” Brazilian Dental Journal, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 191–196, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  151. C. S. Silva, P. O. Nunes, C. S. Mescouto, R. C. S. T. Müller, D. C. Palheta, and K. G. Fernandes, “Avaliação do uso da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius como suplemento nutricuinal de Fe, Mn e Zn,” Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, vol. 3, no. 30, pp. 751–754, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  152. A. Oliveira, J. Batista, E. Paiva et al., “Avaliação da atividade cicatrizante do jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. var. ferrea) em lesões cutâneas de caprinos,” Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 302–310, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  153. V. H. Sousa, A. P. O. Barbosa, G. C. Cardoso et al., “Avaliação do potencial antidiabético decinco plantas medicinais em ratos,” Latin American Journal of Pharmacy. View at: Google Scholar
  154. L. S. Magalhães, C. G. Pussente, L. R. Azevedo, and J. M. R. S. Crespo, “Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana do extrato de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius e desenvolvimento de uma formulação fitocosmética,” Revista Científica da Faminas, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 27–43, 2015. View at: Google Scholar
  155. S. A. Dias, A. E. O. Neves, A. B. F. de Ferraz, J. N. Picada, and P. Pereira, “Neuropharmacological and genotoxic evaluation of ethanol extract from Erythrina falcata leaves, a plant used in Brazilian folk medicine,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 335–341, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  156. T. Chen, H. Sun, H. Yao et al., “Suppressive effects of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill extracts on lipopolysaccharide- induced inflammatory responses in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 55, no. 55, pp. 257–264, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  157. J. L. P. Alejo, R. Miranda, and G. Rodríguez, “Actividad anticonvulsivante (antiepleptica) del extracto fluido de Indigofera suffruticosa (anil cimarron),” Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinais, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 7–10, 1996. View at: Google Scholar
  158. T. G. Calixto, M. E. R. Gonzalez, M. C. P. Wiltshire et al., “Tratamiento eficaz con tintura de añil 5 % de una paciente infestada por Pediculus capitis,” Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical y Parasitología, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 275–277, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  159. G. M. Coelho, “Óleos essenciais para aromaterapia,” in Dissertação, Departamento de Biologia da Escola de Ciências, Universidade do Minho., 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  160. J. G. Melo, V. T. Nascimento, E. L. Amorim, C. S. Andrade Lima, and U. P. Albuquerque, “Avaliação da qualidade de amostras comerciais de boldo (Peumus boldus Molina), pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp.) e ginco (Ginkgo biloba L.),” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 111–120, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  161. I. D. Silva, F. S. Takatsuka, M. R. Rocha, and M. G. Cunha, “Efeito do extrato de sucupira (Pterodon emarginatus Vog.) sobre o desenvolvimento de fungos e bactérias fitopatogênico,” Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 109–115, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  162. A. P. Santos, D. T. Zatta, W. F. Moraes et al., “Composição química, atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial e ocorrência de esteróides nas folhas de Pterodon emarginatus Vogel, Fabaceae,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 891–896, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  163. K. G. L. Bustamante, A. D. F. Lima, M. L. Soares et al., “Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do extrato etanólico bruto da casca da sucupira branca (Pterodon emarginatus Vogel)—fabaceae,” Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 341–345, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  164. W. F. De Moraes, L. G. De Matos, M. V. Mariano Nascimento et al., “Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of Pterodon emarginatus stem bark alcohol extract,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 146–150, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  165. J. Hoscheid and M. L. Cardoso, “Sucupira as a potential plant for arthritis treatment and other diseases,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 2015, pp. 1–12, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  166. B. S. Oken, D. M. Storzbach, and J. A. Kaye, “The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer disease,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 1409–1415, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  167. S. T. DeKosky, J. D. Williamson, A. L. Fitzpatrick et al., “Ginkgo biloba for prevention of dementia: a randomized controlled trial,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 300, no. 19, pp. 2253–2262, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  168. C. S. Passos, M. D. Arbo, S. M. K. Rates, and G. L. von Poser, “Terpenóides com atividade sobre o Sistema Nervoso Central (SNC),” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 140–149, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  169. M. Bigos, M. Wasiela, D. Kalemba, and M. Sienkiewicz, “Antimicrobial activity of geranium oil against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 10276–10291, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  170. M. Boukhris, M. Bouaziz, I. Feki, H. Jemai, A. El Feki, and S. Sayadi, “Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 11, no. 81, pp. 1–10, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  171. J. Arroyo, Y. Almora, M. Condorhuamán et al., “Efecto del extracto alcohólico de Mimosa pudica (mimosa) sobre la fertilidad en ratas,” Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 265–270, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  172. N. E. G. Trujillo, I. C. D. Toro, Y. C. Anido, T. R. Gra, L. S. Ojeda, and T. R. Graña, “Hepatotoxicidad aguda de la decocci≤n de la planta Mimosa pudica em ratas Sprague Dawley,” Correo Cientifico Medico, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 25–32, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  173. R. Rajendran and E. Krishnakumar, “Hypolipidemic activity of chloroform extract of Mimosa pudica leaves,” Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 215–221, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  174. F. Y. Sia, J. Vejayan, A. Jamuna, and S. Ambu, “Efficacy of tannins from Mimosa pudica and tannic acid in neutralizing cobra (Naja kaouthia) venom,” Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 42–48, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  175. O. Hernández-Abreu, P. Castillo-España, I. León-Rivera et al., “Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of tilianin isolated from Agastache mexicana are mediated by NO/cGMP pathway and potassium channel opening,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 54–61, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  176. O. Hernández-Abreu, L. Durán-Gómez, R. Best-Brown, R. Villalobos-Molina, J. Rivera-Leyva, and S. Estrada-Soto, “Validated liquid chromatographic method and analysis of content of tilianin on several extracts obtained from Agastache mexicana and its correlation with vasorelaxant effect,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 138, no. 2, pp. 487–491, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  177. A. González-Ramírez, M. E. Gonzalez-Trujano, F. Pellicer, and F. J. Lopez-Munoz, “Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the Agastache mexicana extracts by using several experimental models in rodents,” Journal os Ethnopharmacology, vol. 142, no. 3, pp. 700–705, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  178. J. Verano, M. E. González-Trujano, M. Déciga-Campos, R. Ventura-Martínez, and F. Pellicer, “Ursolic acid from Agastache mexicana aerial parts produces antinociceptive activity involving TRPV1 receptors, cGMP and a serotonergic synergism,” Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, vol. 110, pp. 255–264, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  179. M. E. González-Trujano, H. Ponce-Muñoz, S. Hidalgo-Figueroa, G. Navarrete-Vázquez, and S. Estrada-Soto, “Depressant effects of Agastache mexicana methanol extract and one of major metabolites tilianin,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 185–190, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  180. L. R. Chioca, “Avaliação do mecanismo de ação do efeito tipo ansiolítico da inalação do óleo essencial de lavanda em camundongos,” Tese, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  181. L. Silva, “Ocorrência, diagnóstico molecular e resistência a antifúngicos de Candida sp. de infecções vaginais em Portugal e Cabo-Verde,” in Dissertação, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  182. R. Sariri, S. Seifzadeh, and R. H. Sajedi, “Anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activity of Lavandula sp. extracts,” Pharmacologyonline, vol. 3, pp. 319–326, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  183. A. d. Pereira, M. d. Cardoso, L. R. Abreu, A. R. Morais, L. G. Guimarães, and A. P. Salgado, “Caracterização química e efeito inibitório de óleos essenciais sobre o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli,” Ciência e Agrotecnologia, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 887–893, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  184. I. Savini, R. Arnone, M. V. Catani, and L. Avigliano, “Origanum vulgare Iinduces apoptosis in human colon cancer caco2 cells,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 381–389, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  185. A. Khan, S. Bashir, S. R. Khan, and A. H. Gilani, “Antiurolithic activity of Origanum vulgare is mediated through multiple pathways,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 11, article no. 96, pp. 1–16, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  186. A. P. R. Battochio, K. L. R. Coelho, M. S. Sartori, and C. A. R. Coelho, “Hepatoprotective effect of water soluble extract of Coleus barbatus on cholestasis on young rats,” Acta Cirurgica Brasileira, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 220–229, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  187. S. Felisbino, “Análise Farmacognóstica de Cunila microcephala Benth,” in Monografia, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciúma , Brazil, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  188. R. D. C. Paulino, G. P. D. S. A. Henriques, O. N. S. Moura, M. D. F. B. Coelho, and R. A. B. Azevedo, “Medicinal plants at the Sítio do Gois, Apodi, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 29–39, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  189. S. B. Mishra, A. Verma, A. Mukerjee, and M. Vijayakumar, “Anti-hyperglycemic activity of leaves extract of Hyptis suaveolens L. Poit in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 689–693, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  190. H. Ghaffari, B. J. Ghassam, and H. S. Prakash, “Hepatoprotective and cytoprotective properties of Hyptis suaveolens against oxidative stress-induced damage by CCl4 and H2O2,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 868–874, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  191. C. Vera-Arzave, L. C. Antonio, J. Arrieta et al., “Gastroprotection of suaveolol, isolated from hyptis suaveolens, against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in wistar rats: Role of prostaglandins, nitric oxide and sulfhydryls,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 8917–8927, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  192. H. Ghaffari, B. J. Ghassam, S. Chandra Nayaka, K. Ramachandra Kini, and H. S. Prakash, “Antioxidant and neuroprotective activities of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 323–331, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  193. Í. J. A. Moreira, M. P. N. Moreno, M. F. G. Fernandes et al., “Vasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, dichloromethane extract on rat mesenteric artery,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 762–766, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  194. R. Novacosk and R. S. A. Torres, “Atividade antimicrobiana sinérgica entre óleos essenciais de lavanda (Lavandula officinalis), melaleuca (Melaleuca alternifolia), cedro (Juniperus irginiana), tomilho (Thymus vulgaris) e cravo (Eugenia caryophylatta),” Revista Analytica, vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 36–39, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  195. Z. Rabiei and M. Rafieian-Kopaei, “Neuroprotective effect of pretreatment with Lavandula officinalis ethanolic extract on blood-brain barrier permeability in a rat stroke model,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. S421–S426, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  196. R. Alnamer, K. Alaoui, E. H. Bouidida, A. Benjouad, and Y. Cherrah, “Sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco,” Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 2012, Article ID 270824, pp. 1–5, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  197. H. Gopal, S. Vasanth, and S. V. Vasudevan, “Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Leonotis nepetaefolia,” Ancient Science of Life, vol. 14, pp. 68–70, 1994. View at: Google Scholar
  198. H. Parra-Delgado, G. G. Ruiz, A. N. Camacho, and M. Martínez-Vázquez, “Anti-inflammatory activity of some extracts and isolates from Leonotis nepetaefolia on TPA-induced edema model,” in Revista de la Sociedad Química de México, vol. 48, pp. 293–295, 2004. View at: Google Scholar
  199. A. L. Cadena-González, M. Sørensen, and I. Theilade, “Use and valuation of native and introduced medicinal plant species in Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, Boyacá, Colombia,” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, article no. 23, pp. 1–34, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  200. D. P. Müzell, A. Lunardelli, C. E. Leite et al., “Nephroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. on acetaminophen-induced and pleurisy-induced lesions in rats,” Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 383–392, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  201. K. Feliú-Hemmelmann, F. Monsalve, and C. Rivera, “Melissa Officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser,” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 444–451, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  202. L. Barros, M. Dueñas, M. I. Dias, M. J. Sousa, C. Santos-Buelga, and I. C. F. R. Ferreira, “Phenolic profiles of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial samples of Melissa officinalis L. infusions,” Food Chemistry, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  203. N. C. de Carvalho, M. J. F. Corrêa-Angeloni, D. D. Leffa et al., “Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice,” Genetics and Molecular Biology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 290–297, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  204. M. Bayat, A. A. Azami Tameh, M. H. Ghahremani et al., “Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo,” DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 20, article 42, pp. 1–10, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  205. M. Johnson, E. G. Wesely, M. S. Kavitha, and V. Uma, “Antibacterial activity of leaves and inter-nodal callus extracts of Mentha arvensis L,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 196–200, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  206. K. K. A. Santos, E. F. F. Matias, C. E. S. Souza et al., “Anti-Candida activity of Mentha arvensis and Turnera ulmifolia,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 322–324, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  207. S. M. Verma, H. Arora, and R. Dubey, “Antiinflamatory and sedative hypnotic activity of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Mentha arvensis,” Ancient Science of Life, vol. 23, article 2, pp. 95–99, 2003;. View at: Google Scholar
  208. R. L. Londonkar and P. V. Poddar, “Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals,” World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 82–88, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  209. A. Stringaro, E. Vavala, and M. Colone, “Effects of Mentha suaveolens essential oil alone or in combination with other drugs in Candida albicans,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 125904, 9 pages, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  210. D. Pietrella, L. Angiolella, E. Vavala, A. Rachini, F. Mondello, and R. Ragno, “Beneficial effect of Mentha suaveolens essential oil in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis assessed by real-time monitoring of infection,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 11, article 8, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  211. V. López, S. Martín, M. P. Gómez-Serranillos, M. E. Carretero, A. K. Jäger, and M. I. Calvo, “Neuroprotective and neurochemical properties of mint extracts,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 869–874, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  212. H. Oumzil, S. Ghoulami, and M. Rhajaoui, “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils of Mentha suaveolens,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 727–731, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  213. M. C. Pereira, G. R. Vilela, L. M. Costa et al., “Inibição do desenvolvimento fúngico através da utilização de óleos essenciais de condimentos,” Ciência e Agrotecnologia, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 731–738, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  214. C. d. Carretto, J. C. Junqueira, R. B. Almeida, M. R. Furlan, and A. O. Jorge, “Antimicrobial activity of Mentha piperita L. against Candida sp,” Brazilian Dental Science, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 4–9, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  215. M. A. Maggiore, A. A. Albanese, L. B. Gende, M. J. Eguaras, G. M. Denegri, and M. C. Elissondo, “Anthelmintic effect of Mentha spp. essential oils on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes,” Parasitology Research, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 1103–1112, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  216. S. M. Barbalho, F. M. V. F. Machado, E. L. Guiger et al., “Espécies de Mentha podem auxiliar na redução de fatores de risco vascular em pacientes diabéticos,” Revista Saúde e Pesquisa, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 387–392, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  217. D. Jain, N. Pathak, S. Khan et al., “Evaluation of cytotoxicity and anticarcinogenic potential of Mentha leaf extracts,” International Journal of Toxicology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 225–236, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  218. Y. A. Taher, “Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice,” Libyan Journal of Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  219. M. Mahboubi and G. Haghi, “Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Mentha pulegium L. essential oil,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 325–327, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  220. P. Arumugam, N. G. Priya, M. Subathra, and A. Ramesh, “Anti-inflammatory activity of four solvent fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata L. investigated on acute and chronic inflammation induced rats,” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 92–95, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  221. Z. Tayarani-Najaran, E. Talasaz-Firoozi, R. Nasiri, N. Jalali, and M. K. Hassanzadeh, “Antiemetic activity of volatile oil from Mentha spicata and Mentha × piperita in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting,” ecancermedicalscience, vol. 7, no. 1, article no. 290, pp. 1–6, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  222. T. A. Arruda, R. M. Antunes, R. M. Catão et al., “Preliminary study of the antimicrobial activity of Mentha x villosa Hudson essential oil, rotundifolone and its analogues,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 307–311, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  223. A. V. L. Freitas, R. A. B. Azevedo, Y. B. Pereira, E. C. Freitas Neto, and M. F. B. Coelho, “Uses of medicinal plants in Rio Grande do Norte,” Journal of Global Biosciences, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 749–762, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  224. J. S. Oliveira, L. A. Porto, C. S. Estevam et al., “Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant property of Ocimum basilicum leaf essential oil,” Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromaticas, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 195–202, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  225. C. V. Nakamura, T. Ueda-Nakamura, E. Bando, A. F. Negrão Melo, D. A. Garcia Cortez, and B. P. Dias Filho Filho, “Antibacterial activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil,” Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 675–678, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  226. H. Amagase, B. L. Petesch, H. Matsuura, S. Kasuga, and Y. Itakura, “Intake of garlic and its bioactive components,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 955–962, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  227. J. De Aquino Lemos, X. S. Passos, O. D. F. Lisboa Fernandes et al., “Antifungal activity from Ocimum gratissimum L. towards Cryptococcus neoformans,” Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 55–58, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  228. K. S. Haida, L. Parzianello, S. Werner, D. R. Garcia, and C. V. Inácio, “Avaliação in vitro da atividade antimicrobiana de oito espécies de plantas medicinais,” Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde da UNIPAR, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 185–192, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
  229. Y. Al Dhaheri, S. Attoub, K. Arafat et al., “Anti-metastatic and anti-tumor growth effects of Origanum majorana on highly metastatic human breast cancer cells: inhibition of NFκB signaling and reduction of nitric oxide production,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 7, Article ID e68808, pp. 1–17, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  230. B. P. Pimple, P. V. Kadam, and M. J. Patil, “Comparative antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of Origanum majorana extracts in NIDDM rats,” Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 41–50, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  231. M. C. Costa and S. C. Nascimento, “Atividade citotóxica de Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Lamiaceae),” Revista Acta Farmacêutica Bonaerense. View at: Google Scholar
  232. P. L. Falé, P. J. Madeira, M. H. Florêncio, L. Ascensão, and M. L. Serralheiro, “Function of Plectranthus barbatus herbal tea as neuronal acetylcholinesterase inhibitor,” Food and Function, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 130–136, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  233. R. Santos Veríssimo, T. Lins, M. Assis Bastos et al., “Antimicrobial activity of Plectranthus barbatus (Lamiacea),” BMC Proceedings, vol. 8, no. Suppl 4, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  234. N. S. Silva, P. I. N, M. L. Marinho, C. C. Santana, M. B. Assis, and P. I. Nóbrega Neto, “Utilização do extrato hidroalcoólico de Plectranthus neochilus no controle da dor pós-operatória em gatas,” Revista Verde, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 34–40, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  235. A. C. P. Cavalcante and A. G. Silva, “Levantamento etnobotânica e utilização de plantas medicinais na comunidade Moura, Bananeiras-PB,” Revista Monografias Ambientais, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 3225–3230, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  236. M. A. S. Silva, M. A. Silva, J. S. Higino, M. S. Pereira, and A. A. T. Carvalho, “Atividade antimicrobiana e antiaderente in vitro do extrato de Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. sobre bactérias orais planctônicas,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 236–240, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  237. L. M. Gauch, S. S. Pedrosa, R. A. Esteves et al., “Antifungal activity of Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. Essential oil against Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei,” Revista Pan-Amazônica de Saúde, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 61–66, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  238. W. Wang, N. Li, M. Luo, Y. Zu, and T. Efferth, “Antibacterial activity and anticancer activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to that of its main components,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 2704–2713, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  239. D. G. MacHado, M. P. Cunha, V. B. Neis et al., “Antidepressant-like effects of fractions, essential oil, carnosol and betulinic acid isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis L.,” Food Chemistry, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 999–1005, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  240. R. Lucarini, W. A. Bernardes, D. S. Ferreira et al., “In vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Rosmarinus officinalis aqueous extracts, rosmarinic acid and its acetyl ester derivative,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 1087–1090, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  241. S. Habtemariam, “The therapeutic potential of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Diterpenes for Alzheimer's Disease,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2016, Article ID 2680409, pp. 1–15, 2016. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  242. M. Ozarowski, P. L. Mikolajczak, A. Bogacz et al., “Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf extract improves memory impairment and affects acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in rat brain,” Fitoterapia, vol. 91, pp. 261–271, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  243. T. Satoh, K. Kosaka, K. Itoh et al., “Carnosic acid, a catechol-type electrophilic compound, protects neurons both in vitro and in vivo through activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway via S-alkylation of targeted cysteines on Keap,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 1116–1131, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  244. A. C. Piccinelli, D. Figueiredo de Santana Aquino, P. N. Morato et al., “Anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic activities of ethanolic extract and fruticulin a from salvia lachnostachys leaves in mice,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 835914, pp. 1–8, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  245. J. Jimenez, S. Risco, T. Ruiz, and A. Zarzuelo, “Hypoglycemic activity of Salvia lavandulifolia,” Planta Medica, vol. 4, pp. 260–262, 1986. View at: Google Scholar
  246. M. Porres Martínez, M. P. Gómez-Serranillos, and M. E. Carretero Accame, “Neuroprotective activity of Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl. Essential oil,” Ars Pharmaceutica, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 657–675, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  247. A. Tosun, S. Khan, Y. S. Kim, A. Calín-Sánchez, and X. Hysenaj, “Essential oil composition and anti-inflammatory activity of Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) in murin macrophages,” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 111–116, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  248. E. Y. Qnais, M. Abu-Dieyeh, F. A. Abdulla, and S. S. Abdalla, “The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Salvia officinalis leaf aqueous and butanol extracts,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1149–1156, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  249. I. O. Lima, R. A. G. Oliveira, E. O. Lima, N. M. P. Farias, and E. L. Souza, “Atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais sobre espécies de Candida,” Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 197–201, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  250. J. M. Freire, M. G. Cardoso, L. R. Batista, and M. A. Andrade, “Essential oil of Origanum majorana L., Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume: Chemical and antimicrobial characterization,” Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 209–214, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  251. A. Ranjbar, S. Ghasmeinezhad, H. Zamani et al., “Antioxidative stress potential of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in humans: A comparative cross-sectional clinical study,” Thérapie, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 113–117, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  252. M. Tailang, B. K. Gupta, and A. Sharma, “Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaves in alloxon induced diabetic rats,” Peoples Journal of Scientific Research, no. 1, pp. 9–11, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  253. E. O. Alves, J. H. Mota, T. S. Soares, M. C. Vieira, and C. B. Silva, “Levantamento etnobotânico e caracterização de plantas medicinais em fragmentos florestais de Dourados-MS,” Ciência e Agrotecnologia, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 651–658, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  254. J. S. M. Tondolo, L. P. De Amaral, L. N. Simões et al., “Anesthesia and transport of fat snook snook Centropomus parallelus with the essential oil of Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng.) Mez,” Neotropical Ichthyology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 667–674, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  255. R. A. Vieira, A. J. Lapa, and T. C. Lima, “Evaluation of the central activity of the ethanolic extract of Acosmium subelegans (Mohlenbr) in mice,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 12, supplement 1, pp. 50-51, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  256. J. H. Doughari, “Antimicrobial activity of Tamarindus indica Linn,” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 597–603, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  257. A. H. Teixeira, M. M. Bezerra, H. V. Chaves, D. R. Val, S. M. P. Filho, and A. A. R. Silva, “Conhecimento popular sobre o uso de plantas medicinais no município de Sobral-Ceará, Brasil,” Sanare. View at: Google Scholar
  258. M. D. Souza, R. R. Fernandes, and M. C. Pasa, “Estudo etnobotânico de plantas medicinais na comunidade São Gonçalo beira rio, Cuiabá, MT,” Revista Biodiversidade, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 91–100, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  259. G. A. B. Canuto, A. A. O. Xavier, C. N. Leandro, and M. T. de Benassi, “Physical and chemical characterization of fruit pulps from Amazonia and their correlation to free radical scavenger activity,” Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 1196–1205, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  260. S. Khalid, W. M. Shaik Mossadeq, D. A. Israf et al., “In vivo analgesic effect of aqueous extract of tamarindus indica L. fruits,” Medical Principles and Practice, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 255–259, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  261. A. A. Suralkaz, K. N. Rodge, R. D. Kamble, and K. S. Maske, “Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Tamarindus indica seeds,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 213–217, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  262. P. M. Tayade, B. Jadhav, S. S. Angadi et al., “Anti-histaminic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Tamarindus indica Linn,” Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 273–277, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  263. P. Kalra, S. Sharma, and S. K. Suman, “Antiulcer effect of the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indicaseeds in different experimental models,” Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 236–241, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  264. G. Singi, D. Damasceno, E. D'Andréa, and G. Silva, “Efeitos agudos dos extratos hidroalcólicos do alho (Allium sativum L.) e do capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf) sobre a pressão arterial média de ratos anestesiados,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 94–97, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  265. G. D. Almeida, E. P. Godoi, E. C. Santos, L. R. P. Lima, and M. E. Oliveira, “Extrato aquoso de Allium sativum potencializa a ação dos antibióticos vancomicina, gentamicina e tetraciclina frente Staphylococcus aureus,” Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 487–492, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  266. S. A. Tope, O. F. Sunday, and A. T. Gabriel, “Mechanisms of antiulcerogenic effect of garlic (Allium sativum) in albino rats,” European Journal of Medicinal Plants, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 571–578, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  267. J. Riba, S. Romero, E. Grasa, E. Mena, I. Carrió, and M. J. Barbanoj, “Increased frontal and paralimbic activation following ayahuasca, the pan-amazonian inebriant,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 186, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  268. R. G. Santos, C. C. Moraes, and A. Holanda, “Ayahuasca e redução do uso abusivo de psicoativos: eficácia terapêutica?” Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 363–370, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  269. A. P. S. Pires, C. D. R. Oliveira, and M. Yonamine, “Ayahuasca: a review of pharmacological and toxicologia aspects,” Revista de Ciências Farmacêutica Básica e Ampliada, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 15–23, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  270. L. S. G. D. Motta, “Toxicidade aguda, neurotoxicidade reprodutiva e embriotoxicidade do chá ayahuasca (Banisteriopsis caapi e Psychotria viridis) em ratas wistar,” in Dissertação - Mestrado em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade de Brasilia, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  271. J. Tortoriello, A. Herrera-Arellano, M. L. Herrera-Ruiz, G. Rojas-Bribiesca, A. Zamilpa, and V. Gonzáles, “PL04 Aplicación clinica de um ansiolítico obtenido de Galphimia glauca,” Revista de Fitoterapia, vol. 6, supplement 1, pp. 37–40, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  272. J. A. C. Ribeiro, “A Cannabis e suas aplicações terapêuticas,” in Dissertation, Faculdade de Ciênias da Saúde, Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Porto, Portugal, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  273. K. M. Honório, A. Arroio, and A. B. Silva, “Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa,” Química Nova, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 318–325, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  274. A. J. Hill, C. M. Williams, B. J. Whalley, and G. J. Stephens, “Phytocannabinoids as novel therapeutic agents in CNS disorders,” Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 79–97, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  275. A. W. Zuardi, J. A. S. Crippa, J. E. C. Hallak, F. A. Moreira, and F. S. Guimarães, “Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 421–429, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  276. J. F. Pedrazzi, A. C. Pereira, F. V. Gomes, and E. D. Bel, “Perfil antipsicótico do canabidiol,” Medicina, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 112–119, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  277. J. A. C. Ribeiro, A cannabis e suas aplicações terapêuticas, Dissertatiom, Universidade Fernando Pessoa. Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude., Porto, Portugal, 2014.
  278. B. M. Ruppelt, E. F. Pereira, L. C. Gonçalves, and N. A. Pereira, “Pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as anti-snake venom - I. analgesical and anti-inflamatory activities,” Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 86, supplement 2, pp. 203–205, 1991. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  279. R. O. Arise, S. O. Malomo, J. O. Adebayo, and A. Igunnu, “Effects of aqueous extract of Eucalyptus globulus on lipid peroxidation and selected enzymes of rat liver,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 77–81, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  280. R. G. Bachir and M. Benali, “Antibacterial activity of the essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 739–742, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  281. B. Damjanović-Vratnica, T. Đakov, D. Šuković, and J. Damjanović, “Antimicrobial effect of essential oil isolated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. from Montenegro,” Czech Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 277–284, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  282. E. O. Alves, J. H. Mota, T. S. Soares, M. C. Vieira, and C. B. Silva, “Levantamento etnobotânico e caracterização de plantas medicinais em fragmentos florestais de Dourados-MS,” Ciência e Tecnologia, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 651–658, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  283. M. T. Auricchio, A. Bugno, S. B. M. Barros, and E. M. Bacchi, “Atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante e toxicidade de Eugenia uniflora,” Latin American Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 1, no. 26, pp. 78–81, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  284. B. N. Das and M. Ahmed, “Analgesic activity of fruit extract of Averrhoa carambola,” International Journal of Life Sciences Biotechnology and Pharma Research, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 22–26, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  285. C. V. Romanini, M. W. Machado, M. W. Biavatti, and R. M. W. Oliveira, “Avaliação da atividade ansiolítica e antidepressiva do extrato fluido e fração aquosa de folhas de Passiflora alata Curtis em camundongos,” Acta Scientarum Health Sciences, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 159–164, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  286. A. Pirondo, J. P. Coulleri, H. A. Keller, and M. S. Ferruci, “Influencia de factores externos sobre La comercialización de plantas medicinales em um medio urbano: el caso de vendedores criollos e indígenas en Corrientes, Argentina,” Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromaticas, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 553–569, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  287. C. Wolfman, H. Viola, A. Paladini, F. Dajas, and J. H. Medina, “Possible anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a central benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Passiflora coerulea,” Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 1994. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  288. M. Coleta, M. T. Batista, M. G. Campos et al., “Neuropharmacological evaluation of the putative anxiolytic effects of Passiflora edulis Sims, its sub-fractions and flavonoid constituents,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1067–1073, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  289. A. S. Figueiredo and J. Modesto-Filho, “Efeito do uso da farinha desemgordura do Sesamum indicum L nos níveis glícemicos em diabetics tipo 2,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 77–83, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  290. S. C. C. S. Pantojas, N. A. S. Sul, and N. N. N. Miguel, “Levantamento etnobotânico de Petiveria alliacea L. (phytolaccaceae) comercializadas no mercadão de Madureira – RJ,” Revista Eletrônica Novo Enfoque, vol. 17, no. 17, pp. 184–190, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  291. R. C. M. Guedes, N. G. P. Nogueira, A. M. F. Almeida, C. R. Souza, and W. P. Oliveira, “Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos brutos de Petiveria alliacea L,” Latin American Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 520–524, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  292. Gomes B. P., “Avaliação dos efeitos centrais e atinociceptivos das frações isoladas da raiz de Petiveria alliacea (TIPI) em camundongos,” in Dissertação, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Faculdade de Medicina, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  293. K. S. Fernandes, A. H. M. Silva, S. A. Mendanha, K. R. Rezende, and A. Alonso, “Antioxidant effect of 4- nerolidylcatechol and α-tocopherol in erythrocyte ghost membranes and phospholipid bilayers,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 780–788, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  294. J. L. Sacoman, K. M. Monteiro, A. Possenti, G. M. Figueira, M. A. Foglio, and J. E. Carvalho, “Cytotoxicity and antitumoral activity of dichloromethane extract and its fractions from Pothomorphe umbellate,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 411–415, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  295. L. Ferreira, P. Castro, F. Suzelei, and B. Rene, “In vitro anthelmintic activity of Pothomorphe umbellata (L.) Miq. (Piperaceae) against gastrointestinal parasites from sheep,” BMC Proceedings, vol. 8, article 155, supplement 4, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  296. G. S. Miranda, S. R. Souza, M. O. F. Amaro, M. B. Rosa, and C. A. Carvalho, “Avaliação do conhecimento etnofarmacológico da população de Teixeiras- MG, Brasil,” Brasil. Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 559–563, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  297. M. M. Blanco, C. A. R. A. Costa, A. O. Freire, J. G. Santos Jr., and M. Costa, “Neurobehavioral effect of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in mice,” Phytomedicine, vol. 16, no. 2-3, pp. 265–270, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  298. F. Nogueira, S. Fernandes, G. Reis et al., “Atividade analgésica e antiedematogênica de Polygala paniculata L. (Poygalaceae) selvagem e obtida por micropigmentação,” Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 310–315, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  299. R. F. Lapa, “Avaliação da atividade antinociceptiva, antiinflamatória e protetora gástrica do extrato hidroalcoólico bruto da Polygala paniculata L,” in Dissertação, Departamento de Farmacologia, Setor e Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  300. M. C. Nuria, “Antibacterial activities from Jangkang (Homalocladium platycladum (F. Muell) Bailey) Leaves,” Mediagro, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 9–15, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  301. F. F. Perazzo, G. H. B. Souza, W. Lopes et al., “Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of water–ethanolic extract from Pothomorphe umbellata (Piperaceae) aerial parts,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 215–220, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  302. R. Kumar, V. Nair, Y. K. Gupta, and S. Singh, “Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of aqueous extract of Rosa centifolia in experimental models in rats,” International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, 2015. View at: Google Scholar
  303. C. T. Selvan, S. Velavan, and M. C. J. Milton, “Antioxidant activity of Rosa centifolia flowers,” International Journal of Research in Plant Science, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 68–71, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  304. S. Chandragopal, S. Kumar, and B. Archana, “Evaluations of anti-ulcer activity of Rosa centifolia (Linn) flowers in experimental rats,” Journal of Natural Remedies, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 22–29, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  305. A. Ferreira, C. Proença, M. L. M. Serralheiro, and M. E. M. Araújo, “The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 31–37, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  306. S. K. Andrade, “Avaliação das técnicas de extração e do potencial antioxidante dos estratos obtidos a partir de casca e de borra de café (Coffea arábica),” Dissertação, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Programa de Pó-Graduação em Engenharia de Alimentos, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  307. Motta, “Luciana Soares Gueiros da. Toxicidade aguda, neurotoxicidade reprodutiva e embriotoxicidade do chá ayahuasca (Banisteriopsis caapi e Psychotria viridis) em ratas wistar,” Dissertação, Universidade de Brasília, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  308. V. L. Santos, V. B. M. Costa, M. F. Agra, B. A. Silva, and L. M. Batista, “Pharmacological studies of ethanolic extracts of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae) in animal models,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 336–342, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
  309. R. Bertin, A. Garcia-Argaéz, M. Martnez-Vzquez, and G. Froldi, “Age-dependent vasorelaxation of Casimiroa edulis and Casimiroa pubescens extracts in rat caudal artery in vitro,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 934–936, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  310. G. Froldi, R. Bertin, E. Secchi, G. Zagotto, M. Martínez-Vázquez, and A. García-Argaéz, “Vasorelaxation by extracts of Casimiroa spp. in rat resistance vessels and pharmacological study of cellular mechanisms,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 637–643, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  311. M. Molina-Hernández, N. P. Tellez-Alcántara, J. Pérez García, J. I. O. Lopez, and M. T. Jaramillo, “Anxiolytic-like actions of leaves of Casimiroa edulis (Rutaceae) in male Wistar rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  312. S. Mora, G. Diaz-Veliz, H. Lungenstrass et al., “Central nervous system activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Casimiroa edulis in rats and mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 191–197, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  313. D. M. Arbo, “Avaliação toxicológica de p-sinefrina e extrato de Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae),” in Dissertação, Faculdade de Farmácia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticcas, UFRGS, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  314. C. A. R. A. Costa, T. C. Cury, B. O. Cassettari, R. K. Takahira, J. C. Flório, and M. Costa, “Citrus aurantium L. essential oil exhibits anxiolytic-like activity mediated by 5-HT1A-receptors and reduces cholesterol after repeated oral treatment,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 13, no. 42, pp. 1–10, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  315. M. Akhlaghi, G. Shanamian, M. Rafieian-Kopaei, N. Parvin, M. Saadat, and M. Akhlaghi, “Flor de Citrus aurantium e ansiedade pré-operatória,” Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia, vol. 61, pp. 702–712, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  316. L. M. L. Campêlo, A. A. C. de Almeida, R. L. M. de Freitas et al., “Antioxidant and antinociceptive effects of Citrus limon essential oil in mice,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2011, Article ID 678673, 8 pages, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  317. H. S. Parmar and A. Kar, “Antiperoxidative, antithyroidal, antihyperglycemic and cardioprotective role of Citrus sinensis peel extract in male mice,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 791–795, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  318. J. C. Nogueira, M. d. Diniz, and E. O. Lima, “Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de produtos vegetais em otite externa aguda,” Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 118–124, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  319. F. C. Asolini, A. M. Tedesco, S. T. Carpes, C. Ferraz, and S. D. Alencar, “Atividade antioxidante e antibacteriana dos compostos fenólicos dos extratos de plantas usadas como chás,” Brazilian Journal of Food Technology. View at: Google Scholar
  320. K. C. Preethi, G. Kuttan, and R. Kuttan, “Anti-Tumour activity of Ruta Graveolens extract,” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 439–443, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  321. F. Loonat and G. J. I. Amabeoku, “Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the leaf methanol extract of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) in mice and rats,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementtary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 173–181, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  322. P. Gál, T. Toporcer, T. Grendel et al., “Effect of Atropa belladonna L. on skin wound healing: Biomechanical and histological study in rats and in vitro study in keratinocytes, 3T3 fibroblasts, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells,” Wound Repair and Regeneration, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 378–386, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  323. M. J. M. Guerra, M. L. Barreiro, Z. M. Rodríguez, E. B. Rodríguez, and A. I. Hernádez, “Actividad antimicrobiana e irritabiliadad vaginal e dérmica de estractos acuosos de hojas secas de Solanum americanum Mill,” Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales, vol. 14, pp. 1–8, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  324. A. M. Aboul-Eneim, F. A. El-Ela, E. A. Shalaby, and H. A. El-Shemy, “Potent anticancer and antioxidant activities of active ingredients separated from Solanum nigrum and Cassia italica extracts,” Journal of Arid Land Studies, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 145–152, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  325. C. E. P. Araújo, R. F. O. Rodrigues, F. Oliveira, and L. Schreiner, “Análise preliminar da atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato hidroalcoólico de Solanum cernuum Vell,” Acta Farmacéutica Bonaerense, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 283–286, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  326. H. Zeng, J. Tian, Y. Zheng et al., “In vitro and in vivo activities of essential oil from the seed of Anethum graveolens L. against Candida spp,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 659704, 8 pages, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  327. A. Arash, M.-Z. Mohammad, M. S. Jamal, T. A. Mohammad, and A. Azam, “Effects of the aqueous extract of anethum graveolens leaves on seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole in mice,” Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 23–30, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  328. M. M. Masadeh, A. S. Alkofahi, K. H. Alzoubi, H. N. Tumah, and K. Bani-Hani, “Anti-Helicobactor pylori activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 566–569, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  329. M. Monsefi, M. Zahmati, M. Masoudi, and K. Javidnia, “Effects of Anethum graveolens L. on fertility in male rats,” The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 488–497, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  330. B. B. Panda, K. Gaur, M. L. Kori et al., “Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Jatropha gossypifoliain experimental animal models,” Global Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  331. P. Lo Cantore, N. S. Iacobellis, A. De Marco, F. Capasso, and F. Senatore, “Antibacterial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. vulgare (miller) essential oils,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 26, pp. 7862–7866, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  332. C. U. Rajeshwari, S. Siri, and B. Andallu, “Antioxidant and antiarthritic potential of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) leaves,” Clinical Nutrition Espen, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 223–228, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  333. F. Silva, S. Ferreira, A. Duarte, D. I. Mendona, and F. C. Domingues, “Antifungal activity of Coriandrum sativum essential oil, its mode of action against Candida species and potential synergism with amphotericin B,” Phytomedicine, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  334. A. Aissaoui, S. Zizi, Z. H. Israili, and B. Lyoussi, “Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Coriandrum sativum L. in Meriones shawi rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 652–661, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  335. K. E. Campos, A. P. C. Balbi, and M. J. Q. D. F. Alves, “Diuretic and hipotensive activity of aqueous extract of parsley seeds (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm.) in rats,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 41–45, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  336. A. L. Gindri, M. Silva, M. B. Marchi, L. S. Brum, M. L. Athayde, and S. C. S. M. Hoelze, “Análise fitoquímica das cascas e do miolo da raiz de Urera baccifera (L.) Gaudich (Urticaceae),” Saúde, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 63–70, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  337. B. Badilla, G. Mora, A. J. Lapa, and J. A. S. Emim, “Anti-inflammatory activity of Urera baccifera (Urticaceae) in Sprague-Dawley rats,” Revista de Biología Tropical, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 365–371, 1999. View at: Google Scholar
  338. F. Calzada, R. Arista, and H. Pérez, “Effect of plants used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders on charcoal-gum acacia-induced hyperperistalsis in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 49–51, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  339. J. Rojas, H. Solís, and O. Palacios, “Evaluación in vitro de la actividad anti Trypanosoma cruzi de aceites esenciales de diez plantas medicinales,” Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 161–165, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  340. T. V. Parodi, A. P. de Castagna Vargas, C. Krewer et al., “Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Aloysia triphylla (L'Hérit) Britton Extracts Obtained by Pressurized CO2 Extraction,” Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 283–292, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  341. H. Ponce-Monter, E. Fernández-Martínez, M. I. Ortiz et al., “Spasmolytic and anti-inflammatory effects of Aloysia triphylla and citral, in vitro and in vivo studies,” Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 309–319, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  342. J. G. M. Costa, E. O. Sousa, F. F. G. Rodrigues, S. G. de Lima, and R. Braz-Filho, “Composição química e avaliação das atividades antibacteriana e de toxicidade dos óleos essenciais de Lantana camara L. e Lantana sp,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 710–714, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  343. B. Mahdi-Pour, S. L. Jothy, L. Y. Latha, Y. Chen, and S. Sasidharan, “Antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of different parts of Lantana camara,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 960–965, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  344. I. Kazmi, M. Afzal, B. Ali, Z. A. Damanhouri, A. Ahmaol, and F. Anwar, “Anxiolytic potential of ursolic acid derivative-a stearoyl glucoside isolated from Lantana camara L. (verbanaceae),” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 433–437, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  345. J. M. Barbosa-Filho, K. C. P. Medeiros, M. F. F. M. Diniz et al., “Natural products inhibitors of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 258–285, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  346. M. A. Blanco, G. A. Colareda, C. Van Baren, A. L. Bandoni, J. Ringuelet, and A. E. Consolini, “Antispasmodic effects and composition of the essential oils from two South American chemotypes of Lippia alba,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 803–809, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  347. V. Y. Hatano, A. S. Torricelli, A. C. C. Giassi, L. A. Coslope, and M. B. Viana, “Anxiolytic effects of repeated treatment with an essential oil from Lippia alba and (R)-(-)-carvone in the elevated T-maze,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 238–243, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  348. D. G. Sousa, S. D. G. Sousa, R. E. R. Silva et al., “Essential oil of Lippia alba and its main constituent citral block the excitability of rat sciatic nerves,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 697–702, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  349. V. C. N. Bitu, H. D. T. F. Fecundo, J. G. M. Costa et al., “Chemical composition of the essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer leaves and its potential as modulator of bacterial resistance,” Natural Product Research (Formerly Natural Product Letters), vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 399–402, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  350. R. P. C. Ferraz, D. S. Bomfim, N. C. Carvalho et al., “Cytotoxic effect of leaf essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae),” Phytomedicine, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 615–621, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  351. K. R. Riella, R. R. Marinho, J. S. Santos et al., “Anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing activities of thymol, a monoterpene of the essential oil from Lippia gracilis, in rodents,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 143, no. 2, pp. 656–663, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  352. S. L. Gerlach, R. Rathinakumar, G. Chakravarty et al., “Anticancer and chemosensitizing abilities of cycloviolacin O2 from Viola odorata and psyle cyclotides from Psychotria leptothyrsa,” Peptide Science, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 617–625, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  353. M. Akhbari, H. Batooli, and F. J. Kashi, “Composition of essential oil and biological activity of extracts of Viola odorata L. from central Iran,” Natural Product Research (Formerly Natural Product Letters), vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 802–809, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  354. M. Zarrabi, R. Dalirfardouei, Z. Sepehrizade, and R. K. Kermanshahi, “Comparison of the antimicrobial effects of semipurified cyclotides from Iranian Viola odorata against some of plant and human pathogenic bacteria,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 367–375, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  355. H. S. Siddiqi, M. H. Mehmood, N. U. Rehman, and A. H. Gilani, “Studies on the antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic activities of Viola odorata leaves extract,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1–12, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  356. F. F. Barcelos, M. L. Oliveira, N. P. B. Giovaninni et al., “Estudo químico e da atividade biológica cardiovascular do óleo essencial de folhas de Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B. L. Burtt & R. M. Sm. em ratos,” Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 48–56, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  357. F. A. Emiliano, “Efeito vasodilatador do extrato hidroalcóolico da Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt e Smith no leito vascular mesentérico,” in Dissertação, Departamento de Fisiopatologia Clinica e Experimental, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  358. J. Chompoo, A. Upadhyay, M. Fukuta, and S. Tawata, “Effect of Alpinia zerumbet components on antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 12, no. 106, pp. 1–9, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  359. H. B. Beal, “Atividade antioxidante e identificação dos ácidos fenólicos do gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe),” in Dissertação, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  360. U. Bhandari, R. Kanojia, and K. K. Pillai, “Effect of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale on dyslipidaemia in diabetic rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 227–230, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  361. J.-F. T. K. Akoachere, R. N. Ndip, E. B. Chenwi, L. M. Ndip, T. E. Njock, and D. N. Anong, “Antibacterial effect of Zingiber officinale and Garcinia kola on respiratory tract pathogens,” East African Medical Journal, vol. 79, no. 11, pp. 588–592, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  362. P. Kamtchouing, G. Y. M. Fandio, T. Dimo, and H. B. Jatsa, “Evaluation of androgenic activity of Zingiber officinale and Pentadiplandra brazzeana in male rats,” Asian Journal of Andrology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 299–301, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  363. J. Sarris, “Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a systematic review,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 703–716, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  364. J. Sarris, A. Panossian, I. Schweitzer, C. Stough, and A. Scholey, “Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 841–860, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  365. T. S. Anekonda and P. H. Reddy, “Can herbs provide a new generation of drugs for treating Alzheimer's disease?” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 361–376, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  366. A. Dey, R. Bhattacharya, A. Mukherjee, and D. K. Pandey, “Natural products against Alzheimer's disease: Pharmaco-therapeutics and biothecnological interventions,” Biothecnology Advances, vol. 35, pp. 178–216, 2017. View at: Google Scholar
  367. W. Mota, M. Barros, P. Cunha et al., “Avaliação da inibição da acetilcolinesterase por extratos de plantas medicinais,” Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 624–628, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  368. R. B. Carvalho, A. A. Almeida, R. M. Freitas et al., “Composição química e atividade anticolinesterásica de uma fração ativa do extrato de folhas de Citrus limon (L.) Burm,” Química Nova, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 1375–1379, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  369. M. T. S. Trevisan, F. V. V. Macedo, M. V. Meent, I. K. Rhee, and R. Verpoorte, “Seleção de plantas com atividade anticolinasterase para tratamento da doença de Alzheimer,” Química Nova, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 301–304, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  370. E. Rodrigues, B. Gianfratti, R. Tabach, G. Negri, and F. R. Mendes, “Preliminary investigation of the central nervous system effects of 'Tira-capeta' (Removing the Devil), a cigarette used by some Quilombolas living in pantanal wetlands of Brazil,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1248–1255, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  371. M. Giorgetti, G. Negri, and E. Rodrigues, “Brazilian plants with possible action on the central nervous system-A study of historical sources from the 16th to 19th century,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 338–347, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  372. R. D. Otsuka, J. H. G. Lago, L. Rossi, J. C. F. Galduróz, and E. Rodrigues, “Psychoactive plants described in a brazilian literary work and their chemical compounds,” Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 218–237, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  373. S. Akhondzadeh and S. H. Abbasi, “Herbal medicine In the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease,” American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 113–118, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  374. J. Barnes, “Cognitive Deficiency and dementia,” The Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 269, pp. 160–162, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  375. P. J. Houghton and M.-J. Howes, “Natural Products and Derivates affecting Neurotransmission relevant to Alzheimer's e Parkinson's disease,” Neurosignals, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 6–22, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  376. M. Ekor, “The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety,” Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 4, pp. 1–10, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  377. D. P. Veloso, P. Guidini, R. M. Comério, and A. G. Silva, “Plantas utilizadas em fitomedicamentos pra os distúrbios do sono,” Natureza on Line, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 29–35, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  378. C. V. Romanini, M. W. Machado, M. W. Biavatti, and M. W. Rúbia, “Avaliação da atividade ansiolítica e antidepressiva do extrato fluido e fraçao aquosa de folhas de Passiflora alata Curtis em camundongos,” Acta Scientiarum Health Sciences, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 159–164, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  379. M. C. Pasa, J. J. Soares, and G. Guarim Neto, “Estudo etnobotânico na comunidade de Conceição-Açu (alto da bacia do rio Aricá Açu, MT, Brasil),” Acta Botanica Brasilica, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 195–207, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  380. S. E. G. A. Vendrúscolo and L. Mentz, “Levantamento etnobotânicodas plantas utilizadas como medicinais por moradores do bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil,” Iheringia Série Botânica, vol. 61, no. 1-2, pp. 83–103, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  381. C. S. P. Silva and C. E. B. Proença, “Uso e disponibilidade de recursos medicinais no município de Ouro Verde de Goiás, GO, Brasil,” Acta Botanica Brasilica, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 481–492, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  382. F. Leitão, V. S. Da Fonseca-Kruel, I. M. Silva, and F. Reinert, “Urban ethnobotany in Petrópolis and Nova Friburgo (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil),” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 19, no. 1 B, pp. 333–342, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  383. M. C. Amorozo, “Uso e diversidade de plantas medicinais em Santo Antonio do Leverger, MT, Brasil,” Acta Botanica Brasilica, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 189–203, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  384. Z. V. Pereira, R. M. Mussury, A. B. de Almeida, and A. Sangalli, “Medicinal plants used by Ponta Porã community, Mato Grosso do Sul State,” Acta Scientiarum - Biological Sciences, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 293–299, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  385. A. R. Alves and M. J. Silva, “The use of phytotherapy in the care of children up to 5 years of age in urban and suburban areas of São Paulo city-brazil,” Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 85–91, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  386. T. Ceolin, R. M. Heck, R. L. Barbieri, E. Schwartz, R. M. Muniz, and C. N. Pillon, “Plantas medicinais: transmissão do conhecimento nas famílias de agricultores de base ecológica no Sul do RS,” Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 47–54, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2018 Giovanna Felipe Cavalcante e Costa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


More related articles

1157 Views | 575 Downloads | 0 Citations
 PDF  Download Citation  Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at help@hindawi.com to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.