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Education Research International
Volume 2011, Article ID 915326, 10 pages
Review Article

A Review of the Relationship between Parental Involvement and Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement

1Department of Educational Psychology and Learning Systems, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
2Research and Development, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ 08541, USA
3Intelligent Automation, Inc., Rockville, MD 20855, USA

Received 24 October 2010; Revised 6 February 2011; Accepted 7 March 2011

Academic Editor: L. Kyriakides

Copyright © 2011 Valerie J. Shute et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between parental involvement (PI) and academic achievement, with special focus on the secondary school (middle and high school) level. The results first present how individual PI variables correlate with academic achievement and then move to more complex analyses of multiple variables on the general construct described in the literature. Several PI variables with correlations to academic achievement show promise: (a) communication between children and parents about school activities and plans, (b) parents holding high expectations/aspirations for their children's schooling, and (c) parents employing an authoritative parenting style. We end the results section by discussing the findings in light of the limitations of nonexperimental research and the different effects of children's versus parents' perspectives on academic achievement.