CALL-Enhanced L2 Vocabulary Learning: Using Spaced Exposure through CALL to Enhance L2 Vocabulary RetentionRead the full article
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Study of the Prevalence of Burnout in University Professors in the Period 2005–2020
The purpose of this research is to carry out a systematic review of the existing scientific literature on the prevalence of Burnout in university professors in the time period 2005–2020. For that purpose, an exploratory review through the Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus related to this psychosocial syndrome under the PRISMA methodology has been made. After the application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a final group of 12 studies were obtained. The results show the presence of high levels of Burnout in a sample of 2,841 university professors in the period studied, which makes it necessary to implement psychosocial intervention programs to prevent this syndrome and promote the personal and professional accomplishment of teachers.
Automation of Function Assignment in the Models of Speech Production and Second Language Acquisition
This article explores the concept of function assignment in first language (L1) and second language (L2) speech production, compares automation of function assignment in L1 and L2 speech production, pursues factors hampering automation of function assignment in L2 speech production, and discusses how to improve automation of function assignment in L2 speech production. Grammatical encoding, of which function assignment is one of the subordinate processes, is also one of the processes in L2 speech production. While function assignment in L1 speech production is mostly automatic, it demands much attentional resources and is executed under conscious supervision in L2 speech production. L2 learners’ incomplete knowledge of the target language and their limited working memory resources hamper automation of function assignment in L2 speech production. Furthermore, as per generative models of learning, to improve automation of function assignment, teachers can either adopt strategies or improve instructional designs targeting this subprocess. Together, this conceptual paper gives a comprehensive overview of automation of function assignment, explores its impact on second language acquisition (SLA), and reveals that it is feasible to facilitate automation of function assignment in L2 speech production by improving instructional designs, especially the presentation methods of sentence elements.
Relationship between Learning Styles and Academic Performance among Virtual Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. The lack of attention of nursing professors to students’ learning styles can cause academic failure. The results of studies on the relationship between students’ learning style and academic achievement are contradictory. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between VARK learning styles and academic performance among virtual nursing students. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 237 virtual nursing students were enrolled by the convenience sampling method. The VARK learning styles questionnaire was used for data collection. The basis for determining academic performance was the grade point average(s) (GPA) of the previous semester(s). Students were divided into two groups based on their GPA, including strong (GPA ≥15) and weak (GPA ≤14.99) groups. Results. In both strong and weak groups, most of the subjects were unimodal (with a frequency of 92.9% and 78.5%, respectively), and the rest were multimodal. The most common learning styles in strong and weak students were kinesthetic (57.1%) and auditory (37.2%), respectively. The results of chi-square test did not show statistically significant differences between learning styles and academic performance of strong and weak students. Conclusion. There was no significant relationship between the dominant learning styles and academic performance of strong and weak students. However, nursing professors need to adapt their teaching methods to the students’ learning styles. More studies are recommended to shed more light on this area of research.
Parental Involvement or Interference? Rural Teachers’ Perceptions
This research explored rural state school teachers’ perceptions concerning parental involvement in children’s education in a developing country context. The data were collected through thematic interviews with teachers of public schools situated in the rural areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. The study findings revealed teachers’ frustration and disappointment regarding parental involvement. Teachers believed that susceptible socioeconomic circumstances and adherence to local customs hindered many parents from participating in their children’s education. In line with this, teachers frequently held negative perceptions regarding children’s parents, and these perceptions have the potential to adversely affect parent–teacher communion and children’s learning. We offered several policy implications for enhancing parents’ roles and teachers’ competency in supporting parental involvement, which could also be practical in other developing countries sharing similar impediments, such as widespread illiteracy, poverty, and a lack of qualified teachers.
Utilizing DEMATEL for Value-Embedded e-Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Lockdowns of various forms have prompted higher education institutions (HEIs) to suddenly shift from physical face-to-face classes to e-learning environments on an unprecedented scale in recent history. This sudden shift promotes the continuity of the teaching-learning process in HEIs despite the COVID-19 pandemic, at most on the positive side, while bringing forth challenges related to individual learners and academics. This work is based on a recently reported Values-Enhanced Technology Adoption (VETA) model, which incorporates individual values in technology acceptance modeling. Despite offering crucial insights into academics in evaluating e-learning adoption, the current literature suffers from drawbacks. Motivated by addressing these limitations, this work reevaluates the nine constructs of the VETA model using the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL). Results indicate that effort expectancy, hedonic motivation, price value, habit, security, tradition, conformity, achievement, power, and hedonism constructs cause performance expectancy, behavioral intention, and social influence. The DEMATEL captures and models the causal relationships between these constructs within an analytical framework, which induces some variations of the recent empirical findings. Finally, the perception of self-achievement among academics drives the intention to adopt e-learning. The findings offered in this work are crucial to the evolving literature of COVID-19 on education, particularly in informing the design of initiatives and measures to enhance e-learning.
Medical Interns’ Perceptions about Disclosing Medical Errors
Background. Honest and timely reporting of medical errors is the professional and ethical duty of any physician as it can help the patients and their families to understand the condition and enable the practitioners to prevent the consequences of the error. This study aims to investigate the viewpoints of medical interns regarding medical error disclosure in educational hospitals in Shiraz, Iran. Methods. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for data collection. The survey consisted of questions about the medical error disclosure, the willingness to disclose an error, the interns’ experiences and intentions of reporting the medical error, and two scenarios to assess the students’ response to a medical error. Results. Medical interns believed that a medical error must be reported for the sake of conscience and commitment and prevention of further consequences. The most important cause of not reporting an error was found to be inappropriate communication skills among the students. The results indicated that the willingness to disclose the hypothetical error among females was more than males (R < 0.005), but in practice, there was no difference between males and females (R > 0.005). The willingness to disclose minor and major hypothetical errors had a positive correlation (, R = 0.848). Conclusion. More ethical training and education of communication skills would be helpful to persuade physicians to disclose medical errors.