Implementation of Online Teaching in Medical Education: Lessons Learned from Students’ Perspectives during the Health Crisis in Marrakesh, MoroccoRead the full article
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The Construct Validity of Vallerand’s Academic Motivation Scale (AMS)
It seems that the academic motivation structure is affected by cultural factors. Many studies have examined the factorial structure of the academic motivation scale (AMS), and the results showed different factorial structures of AMS (e.g., Taghipour Ali Hosein et al. (EL-yazidi and Louzani, 2017) concluded that the scale consists of two dimensions; Natalya and Purwanto (2018) concluded that it consists of three dimensions; Alruaili (2020) concluded that it consists of four dimensions; Abu Awad (2009) concluded that the scale consists of six dimensions). The AMS is one of the most widely used academic motivation measures across the world. It was built on the basis of the self-determination theory. The current study aimed at investigating the factorial structure of the AMS using the exploratory factor analysis (PCA) and the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The AMS was applied to a sample of 401 university students. The results of PCA suggested a three-factor solution (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and Amotivation), and CFA was conducted for three competing structures (three factors, five factors, and seven factors); the results confirmed the three-factor solution for the AMS. The results also showed that the AMS dimensions had good alpha coefficient values which were greater than the acceptable cut-off value of 0.7. In conclusion, the Jordanian version of the AMS is a valid scale that consists of 24 items loaded on three factors (intrinsic, extrinsic, and Amotivation) for measuring academic motivation.
Resumption of School amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Rapid Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Preventive Practices among Final-Year Senior High Students at a Technical Institute in Ghana
Background. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about significant challenges to Ghana’s education system, leading to the closure of schools for months. On 31 May 2020, the government of Ghana took a bold decision based on expert advice to reopen schools for final-year students amid the COVID-19 pandemic. However, data for students’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 are limited. We sought to investigate students’ level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 at Tamale Technical Institute, Ghana. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 final-year students from June to August 2020. A validated questionnaire adapted from previous studies was distributed to the students in their various classes by the researchers. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multivariate logistic regression. All analyses were significant at a value of less than 0.05. Results. The mean age of the study participants was 21.1 years (SD = 2.67), with more males (72.0%) than females participating in the study. The majority (69.7%) of the students trust traditional media sources, i.e., television and radio to receive COVID-19-related information. Awareness about COVID-19 was high (98.3%), and in total, 62.9% (n = 110) had good knowledge, 58.3% (n = 102) had positive attitudes, and 54.9% (n = 96) had good practices towards COVID-19. Factors associated with knowledge were receiving education on COVID-19 (AOR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.55) and mother level of education (AOR = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.66). Positive attitudes towards COVID-19 were 63% less likely among students who did not receive education on COVID-19 (AOR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.90). Students who received education on COVID-19 exhibited good practice towards COVID-19 than students who did not receive education on COVID-19 (p = 0.014). Conclusion. Final-year students of Tamale Technical Institute possess good knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward COVID-19. Our findings demonstrate the significant role of health education in improving students’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19. We recommend continuous and targeted health education to mitigate the widespread misconceptions about COVID-19 through the use of traditional media such as television and radio.
Current Challenges in School Leadership in Estonia and Finland: A Multiple-Case Study among Exemplary Principals
The purpose of this study was to find out what current challenges successful principals in Estonia and Finland identify in developing their schools. The strategies used in dealing with these challenges were also analyzed within the framework of “growth-mindset pedagogy” as an educational approach to school leadership. The principals were interviewed, and the resulting data were analyzed by means of both inductive and deductive content analysis. The similarities among and differences between principals from Estonia and Finland were compared and discussed in the context of high-achievement-oriented but culturally different educational systems. According to the results, the challenges are similar in both countries, relating to the principals’ professional development, as well as developments in the curriculum and the learning community. The Estonian principals identified more challenges related to developments in the learning community than their Finnish peers, although in both countries they tended to use strategies related to growth-mindset pedagogy in dealing with them. Preparation and development programs for principals should pay more attention to their mindset and their views on teaching and learning, which may have a strong impact on the whole school community.
The Effect of Using Computer Simulation on Students’ Performance in Teaching and Learning Physics: Are There Any Gender and Area Gaps?
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of using computer simulation on students’ performance in teaching and learning physical science, particularly the electrical Ohm’s law. A sample of 182 students classified into two groups–experimental (92) and control (90)–from two middle schools in Meknes city (one in the rural area and the other urban area) was the subject of a pretest and posttest evaluation. The outcomes of the administered test to both groups of students, control and experimental, were compared and analyzed using Student’s t-test and the Mann–Whitney U test with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The results obtained suggest that the experimental group register the best performances after the posttest than the control group (). While no difference, in terms of performance, was signed according to gender in the experimental group (), the urban students were more successful than the rural ones, with and without the use of simulations. In this respect, this study recommended using and practicing simulation software to improve and develop the performance of middle school students.
Working Capital Management and Its Impact on Firms’ Performance: An Empirical Analysis on Ethiopian Exporters
Companies may have their level of optimal working capital that maximizes their values through the effective management of current liabilities and assets. Previously, many studies were made on the impact of working capital management on the company’s performance in different sectors; however, its impact on the performance of firms that are engaged in export activities was not given any consideration and this particular study has attempted to investigate the fundamental impact of working capital management on the export firm’s performance in Ethiopia. To analyze this particular study, a total of 164 exporters operating in Ethiopia have been taken as a sample and both primary and secondary data collection methods were used. The data gathered from the sample of the study were analyzed using a multiple linear regression model and the result reveals that working capital management which was measured by account receivables period, cash conversion cycle, and accounts payable period has a statistically significant and positive correlation with the performance of exporting firms in Ethiopia which was measured by both return on assets and return on investment. However, working capital management which was measured by the inventory conversion period has a statistically significant and positive impact on return on investment, but it has an insignificant impact on the performance of sampled export firms in Ethiopia which was measured by return on assets. Based on the result of the study, firms may need to extend credit terms for customers, may prolong their cash conversion cycle, may need an extended payment period, and may or may not hold a high volume of inventory. All extending periods and cycles shall be made up to the extent of attaining an optimal level of working capital and better to implement a conservative policy of working capital management. Thus, it is advisable to consider the result of this study while making decisions regarding their working capital management to support their performance.
Assessment of Educational Quality and Associated Factors: The Case of Arba Minch College of Health Sciences in 2017, South Ethiopia
Introduction. Over the decades, improving the quality of education has been pronounced frequently in many studies. It became a political argument in different media across the globe and the theme of courtesy among scientists. The concern about education is not something you ignore or consider later, so the attempts to improve are increasing with the quality matter going longer and continuing to date. Thus, the primary aim of this work was to assess the quality of education and its associated factors for the future improvement in the study site. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Arba Minch College of Health Sciences (AMCHS) students and staff from all departments. Ethical clearance was received and verbal consent was secured beforehand. After processing, data was entered into Epi Info and then transferred and analyzed in SPSS 25.0. Result and Discussion. The overall quality of education in the college was 2.87 ± 1.12. Administrative services, reading places, and resources took a larger share of poor quality. Accessibility, friendliness of staffs to each other and students, availability of clear guideline of conduct, presence of effective, accurate, and promotive services, high standard administrative buildings, availability of standard catering service, availability of standard laboratories, communication, and exchanges with similar level colleges in the region, weekly time table, weekly load, distance, etc. and some sociodemographic factors were associated with poor quality of education. Thus, the college inquired to welcome the aforementioned shortcomings improvement and to provide enough solutions.