Table 2: Framing questions for the public service as an agent of change.

Theoretical justifiability
What theory with an established track record is being used to interpret the proposed change? What proposed model is being considered?
Conceptual coherence
How is the change being conceived of in terms of resourcing, responsibilities, professional development and implementation timelines?
Structural integrity
In line with developmental learning theories, is content sequenced and incremental in presentation? Is the proposed change so structured that its various components sequenced and integrated?
Linguistic clarity
Can the proposed change be understood in “plain language”? Is it free of jargon, spin and embellishment? Is it accessible to the general public?
Psychometric validity
Are evaluation regimes easily comprehendible or does one have to hold a PhD in statistical analysis to understand how children are being assessed?
Empirical veracity
Prior to being adopted for system-wide implementation, have field trials shown the proposed change to be efficacious?
Courageous humility
If field-failure is evident, is there a preparedness to go back to the drawing board rather than press on regardless?