Education Research International / 2018 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

The Assessment of Written Phrasal Constructs and Grammar of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students with Varying Expressive Language Abilities

Table 2

Assessment measures, definitions, and examples.

Assessment measureDefinitionExample

T-unitAn independent clause and all subordinate clausesThe boy is running
WER IPerfect T-unit: no grammatical errorsThe boy is running
WER IIFlawed T-unit: contains all the main critical structures but has one or more surface errors (e.g., tense errors, subject-verb agreement, article error, plurality errors, and incorrect prepositions)The boy is run
WER IIIPerfect word string: 3+ consecutive words within a T-unit not deemed perfect or flawedThe boy is running an girl (4-word perfect word string)
Phrasal error (PE)Confused statements that were unintelligible in English or ASLCat you ah is so is pay so is you is you yes is pay yes
Total # of wordsAll words in the writing sampleThe boy is running to the store (7 words)
Total # of unique wordsAll unduplicated words in a writing sample (includes base, derived, and inflected words)The boy is running to the store (6 unique words)