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Education Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 3947046, 15 pages
Research Article

The Road Less Traveled in Elementary Physical Education: Exploring Human Relationship Skills in Adventure-Based Learning

1Department of Kinesiology, California State University San Marcos, University Hall 318, 333 S. Twin Oaks Valley Rd., San Marcos, CA 92096-0001, USA
2McAuliffe Elementary School, Oceanside, CA, USA
3The College at Brockport, State University of New York, 350 New Campus Drive, Brockport, NY 14420, USA
4Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, 305 West 17th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1221, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Paul T. Stuhr; ude.msusc@rhutsp

Received 25 September 2017; Accepted 22 January 2018; Published 26 February 2018

Academic Editor: Filipe M. Clemente

Copyright © 2018 Paul T. Stuhr et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Teachers who are looking for ways to develop social and emotional learning with their students can use a curriculum model called Adventure-Based Learning (ABL). ABL consists of structured physical activities (cooperative in nature) with periods of reflection. The purpose of this study was to explore elementary physical education students’ lived experience with intrapersonal and interpersonal relationship skills (IIRS) from an ABL unit of instruction. The aim of this study was to determine the credibility of an existing ABL student learning outcome model for use at the elementary school level in the United States. Findings indicated that the elementary students were able to connect, value, develop, and transfer the four IIRS over the course of the ABL unit. The findings provide plausible evidence that IIRS outcomes from the implementation of an ABL unit of instruction are possible to achieve at the elementary school level. Studies that further investigate student outcomes from participation in ABL at the elementary school level are recommended.