Education Research International / 2019 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Transforming African Education Systems in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Using ICTs: Challenges and Opportunities

Table 3

Models for integrating ICTs for teaching and learning in education system.

ModelFocus areaElements/objectives/dimensions

Bloom’s taxonomyClassifies educational objectives structure and curricular activitiesA progression from recalling facts to producing new and original work
TPACK frameworkEmphasizes key knowledge elements required for teaching and learning with technologyTechnological pedagogical content knowledge: the TPACK describes what teachers need to know to effectively integrate technology into their teaching practice
NIMB framework [71]Describes the ways in which ICTs can be used in teaching and learning, based on integration of a number of modelsThe effect of notions of learning, ICT in Education, and models of learning design on the progression of learning as described by Bloom’s taxonomy
UNESCO frameworkUses ICT and online technologies to provide ongoing support for teachersDesign programs based on what we know about how ICT can support learning
SAMR model [20, 72]Redefining how teaching and learning should be carried out using ICTs to perform tasks that cannot be accomplished without technologyPresenting a guide when moving from substitution to redefinition of learning tasks and to switch from enhancement to transformation while exploring the massive opportunities ICTs have on teaching and learning

NIMB = notions of learning, ICT in education, model for learning design, and Bloom’s modified taxonomy framework; SAMR = substitute, augmentation, modification, and redefinition.

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