There have been extensive studies that have investigated the favourable impacts of flipped classroom instruction regarding the introductory language/first language (i.e., L1) setting. However, there is limited research about the effect of flipped classroom instruction in foreign language backdrop in Asia, particularly in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of the undergraduate Bangladeshis learners towards the flipped learning classroom method. The current study employed an explanatory sequential design under mixed-methods among a sample of two hundred students. A questionnaire and semistructured interview as research instruments were used to collect data in this study. The results of the questionnaire revealed that the flipped learning strategy assisted students in learning grammar. Furthermore, learners had favourable conceptions and viewpoints regarding the flipped classroom instruction method. Correspondingly, the results of the interview which was semistructured in nature highlighted foursome key characteristics of the flipped classroom instruction method: collaboration, improvement of relationship, use of more technology, and favourable learning environment. This research might be of interest to English teachers, students, researchers, and other stakeholders as well.

1. Introduction

Flipped classroom instruction is considered as an education-related method, and under this approach, learning starts at home away from classroom or shifts from pairs of students to a person individually. Learners receive the classroom course materials via medium of smartphones, podcasts, videos, and hand-outs beforehand for watching, reading, and listening when they are at home. According to researchers, such as Bishop and Verleger [1], Baker [2], Lage et al. [3], and Flipped Learning Network [4], the allocated time meant for the classroom is then used for the whole class activities or group exercises. Recently, there has been an uptick in the research into the application of flipped classroom instruction concerning the introductory language acquisition (L1) as well as foreign/second language acquisition (L2). This is supported by many researchers, specifically Findlay-Thompson and Mombourquette [5], Burke and Fedorek [6], Gough et al. [7], Limniou et al. [8], Long et al. [9], Pasaribu and Wulandari [10], Campillo-Ferrer and Miralles-Martínez [11], and Öztürk and Çakıroğlu [12]. The abovementioned researchers stated that flipped learning could be considered as an advanced and novel method for teaching and learning in the classroom. Moreover, because of the active learning environment, learners reported a high degree of emotional, behavioural, cognitive, social, and reflective engagement [10].

Notably, participants also suggested that instructors or teachers should play an important role in the flipped learning approach’s implementation. Nevertheless, Doman and Webb [13], Hung [14, 15], and Lee and Wallace [16] state that barely little research has looked into the efficiency of flipped learning as well as learners’ perspectives and attitudes towards it in the setting of a second language (L2). The abovementioned researchers also revealed that the flipped learning instruction was effective as a successful method or approach for teaching and learning English language when it comes to the setting of L2. Moreover, while much research has been conducted in the general education environment, regarding the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL), notably in Bangladesh, there has been a dearth of research on the flipped instruction technique.

The use of the flipped instruction strategy in the context of teaching English as a foreign or second language has lately gained popularity. Moreover, few researches have examined the efficacy of the flipped instruction strategy in the setting of an English as a Foreign Language classroom, as well as learners’ views about it. Furthermore, because of feasibility and supporting role of e-learning, flipped classroom should be investigated [17]. Nevertheless, there are some noteworthy exceptions, such as Doman and Webb [13] and Lee and Wallace [16]. In spite of these, there are few evidences on the use of technology in language classroom [18] but the implication of flipped classroom may open a window in the horizon of English language teaching (ELT) in Bangladesh. However, in order to assess the efficacy of the flipped instructed studying strategy in EFL classes, it is necessary to carry out research on the influence or effectiveness of flipped instruction related to four skills of English language (speaking, listening, reading, and writing). More research is needed to determine whether the flipped learning method may improve learners’ grammatical competency, as well as to determine the attitudes and perceptions of the learners concerning grammar instruction under flipped instruction. In order to fill in these research gaps, the current research paper looks at the perspectives and attitudes of Bangladeshi students when learning grammar through a flipped learning technique.

2. Literature Review

2.1. Background of the Flipped Classroom

According to a growing corpus of literature [19], Aaron Sams and Jonathan Bergmann are widely regarded as the pioneers of the flipped classroom. Aaron Sams and Jonathan Bergmann devised a novel way to assist absent students in reteaching the lesson. Surprisingly, they first recorded videos and then made them available online for those pupils who were unable to attend class so that the absent students could watch the videos at any place or home. They discovered that it was really beneficial to absent pupils. Furthermore, the pupils who attended the classes watched the videos that were recorded too since watching the videos allowed the students to study and review the instruction and lessons of the previous day. According to Tucker [20], in this way a concept known as the flipped classroom became known to the academician. The recent literature review studies on the effect of flipped instruction on students’ learning capability show that the growing body of literature has proved its significance in the global EFL contexts [2123].

2.2. Studies Related to the Flipped Instruction Method in L1 Background

In the setting of L1, there have been numerous well-documented researches that have been undertaken to determine the efficacy of the flipped learning technique, and the studies include Limniou et al. [8], Burke and Fedorek [6], Gough et al. [7], Long et al. [9], Findlay-Thompson and Mombourquette [5], Strayer [24], and Missildine et al. [25]. Earlier research has shown that flipped learning is effective for teaching in the context of L1. Burke and Fedorek [6], for example, looked into the distinctive effects of an online class, a flipped class, and traditional face-to-face lecture class on students’ classroom involvement. Ninety-three undergraduate students (final year and sophomore) took part in the study. The first group of students was taught in a traditional classroom, the second group of students in an online classroom, and the third group of students in a flipped classroom. The findings of the study demonstrated that, in comparison to the online classes and traditional face-to-face lecture sessions, learners who received flipped instruction showed more interest and involvement for learning. The essential attributes and kind of understanding lessons related to the flipped instruction may account for the noticed growth in learners’ involvement with the flipped instructed classroom. On the other hand, the research work of Findlay-Thompson and Mombourquette [5] discovered no statistically significant differences between the traditional and flipped classrooms. In comparison to the regular classroom, the students of the flipped classroom opined that their performance was better, and they had more opportunities to ask questions.

In a similar vein, the study of Limniou et al. [8] investigated the views and preferences of the students about two dissimilar learning methods, namely, flipped versus traditional learning, and two different teachers employed the two approaches in the teaching-learning materials and classroom activities. Notably, the study of Limniou et al. [8] is innovative and offers a significant contribution to methodology since both teachers employed traditional approach and flipped instruction for teaching the course that was identical. For example, one teacher used the traditional strategy for two lessons from five and the flipped learning method for three lessons from five. Correspondingly, the other teacher followed the same pattern. In addition, the researchers employed a survey questionnaire to collect information about the learning goals in the classroom and learners’ interests. Excitingly, the results of the study revealed that students of both classes preferred both traditional learning and flipped learning approach. On the other hand, students considered the contribution of a teacher to the teaching approach as a major impact on their preferences.

Till now, several studies have found that learners’ perception about the flipped instruction is favourable and that they have a positive attitude towards it. On the other hand, according to the study conducted by Missildine et al. (2013), learners were disappointed when they received flipped instruction in their classes. For the consecutive three semesters, the researchers employed a design which was quasiexperimental in nature, and five hundred eighty-nine students took part in the study. The teachers used different approaches each semester to teach the students. Nevertheless, the results of the research work revealed that students preferred lectures delivered, using flipped instruction method. In addition, the learners claimed that the flipped learning method failed to encourage the value of participatory or reciprocal learning. Instead, it necessitated a large number of tasks prior to the classroom activity.

In similar fashion, the results of the study of Strayer (2012) appear relatively counterintuitive. Regarding the study of Strayer (2012), the teachers employed two different learning approaches to teach the students. One of the approaches, namely, the traditional approach, was used for one group of students, and the other one, the flipped learning approach, was for another group of students. To assess the learning environment of these two classrooms, the researcher collected data, utilizing instruments, for instance, focus groups interviews, field notes, and the environment inventory for university and college classroom. According to the findings of the study, the experimental group’s pupils were dissatisfied after receiving the flipped instruction in their classes.

On the other hand, the study conducted by Gough et al. [7] is different from earlier studies. The study of Gough et al. [7] investigated the perceptions of the teachers towards the flipped learning method on the basis of taught subject content and grade level. The survey included a total of 44 teachers. The findings revealed that flipped instruction method aided the students who were struggling with their courses. Furthermore, the results of the study also showed that recorded videos were extremely beneficial to the students who missed earlier classes. In the same way, Long et al. [9] administered a study which was qualitative in nature, and one of the objectives of their study was to learn the experiences and perspectives of the teachers when the flipped instruction method was employed in the classes. The findings suggested that peer assistance among teachers could be helpful in successfully implementing the flipped learning strategy.

2.3. Studies Related to the Flipped Instructed Studying Method in L2 Context

Lately, the research of flipped instruction has become more popular, and several studies on flipped instruction in the context of L2 can be identified, namely, Malaysia, China, Taiwan, and South Korea, even though these studies have not looked into the efficiency of flipped learning as well as learners’ perspectives and attitudes towards it. The studies include Lee and Wallace [16], Sun [26], Hung [14, 15, 27], Doman and Webb [13], and Zainuddin and Attaran [28]. The results of the mentioned research works show that flipped instruction strategy is a successful English language learning and teaching method in the context of L2. Lee and Wallace [16], for example, conducted research into the efficacy of flipped learning among the students of South Korea. From a South Korean university, seventy-nine students who were enrolled in intermediate English programs took part in the study. Data was collected, using three teacher’s field notes and 3 survey questionnaires. According to the results of the study, compared to the learners who received traditional instruction, learners who received flipped instruction approach scored significantly higher. Furthermore, the results of the questionnaires revealed that students enjoyed their lessons when they received the flipped instruction in their classes. The presentation task and writing assignment, however, were not shown to have statistical significance in the study where writing constituted an important component of the research. In a similar vein, the study of Doman and Webb [13] was conducted at the University of Macau and used a wide-ranging experiment, and the objective of the study was to investigate the attitudes of the learners regarding the flipped learning approach. According to the findings of the study, learners who received lessons from the flipped instruction method had a positive opinion about the method vis-à-vis learners who were not in the flipped classroom. Doman and Webb [13] did not give an account of the effect of flipped instruction on students’ achievement or differentiate students’ views even though they claimed that flipped instruction influenced the students positively.

In addition, Wu et al. [29], Webb and Doman [30], Sun [26], Hung [14, 15, 27], and Chen et al. [31] also conducted research in flipped learning in L2. The participants in these researches were asked to fill out a questionnaire about their viewpoint and conception about the flipped instruction method. The findings revealed that students were pleased after they received the flipped instruction in their classes; moreover, their viewpoint concerning the flipped instruction method was positive.

Nevertheless, because of the small number of participants, these investigations were limited in their generalizability. Furthermore, Chen et al. [31] discovered that flipped instruction had favourable effect for boosting both the drive of the learners to study idioms in the classroom and improving their idiomatic knowledge significantly.

Correspondingly, there are numerous recent studies conducted in Malaysia, and some of them include Zainuddin and Attaran [28] and Su Ping et al. [32]. In addition, the mentioned research works demonstrated that using flipped instruction method for teaching English as a second language scenario was an effective strategy. For instance, the study by Su Ping et al. [32] was conducted to investigate the experience of Malaysian students after implementing flipped learning in their classrooms. Nine boys and nine girls were among the eighteen pupils who took part in the study. The study showed some primary differences between the conventional class and flipped instructed class. Compared with the traditional classroom, the flipped classroom promoted instant feedback, self-efficacy, and interaction and enhanced students’ motivation. There were some drawbacks that were reported in the study. Out of some major limitations or drawbacks, one significant disadvantage was that only a few students from the flipped classroom took part in the interview, resulting in a small number of participants.

Correspondingly, the perceptions of the flipped classroom by the Malaysian students were explored by Zainuddin and Attaran [28]. Focus group interviews and questionnaires were used to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. According to the findings of the study, the perceptions and attitudes about the use of flipped learning in the classroom of the majority of the students were positive. Furthermore, many students suggested that flipped learning needed to be used for different classrooms and for other learners. If the mentioned two research papers had enlisted the participation of a significant number of students, they, however, would have been more appealing. In a nutshell, as evidenced by this review, students in the context of L2 viewed the flipped approach as a creative and innovative strategy to learn and teach in the class. On the contrary, students from the context of L1 expressed contradictory opinions about the flipped learning approach since not all the students were pleased with flipped learning.

There are a few studies [37, 38] that investigated flipped classroom learning among EFL students in the context of Bangladesh. Khan and Abdou [38] probed two research questions, and one of the research questions dealt with flipped classroom learning. The research question related whether the prevalent flipped classroom method was appropriate for proceeding with teaching and learning throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of the study suggest a path forward (framework), and by the help of the framework, the higher educational institutions of developing countries would get an opportunity to carry on teaching and learning without the need for external funding. Moreover, the study of Mahmuda Akter [37] investigated flipped classroom and JiTT (Just-in-Time Teaching) among 33 EFL students of undergraduate level. The objective of her study was to look into the possibilities of flipped classrooms and JiTT at university level. According to the findings, the flipped classrooms and JiTT helped complete more topics in a short period of time while improving the participation and interaction of the students. With regard to the abovementioned studies in the context of Bangladesh, it is observed that there has been a lack of studies that attempted to investigate the viewpoints and conceptions of the students about flipped instruction method employed for learning grammar.

The researchers formulated two research questions in order to determine the conceptions and viewpoints of the students about the flipped instructed studying method in the process of grammar learning. The two research questions are the following:(1)What kinds of perceptions and attitudes do the learners show after receiving the flipped instruction method?(2)What kinds of important motifs emerge as a result of using the flipped instruction strategy?

3. Methodology

The current study adopts an explanatory sequential design, which part of the mixed-methods research design that combines both quantitative and qualitative methods. For collecting data and answering the research questions, the researchers of this study employed semistructured interviews and a questionnaire.

Mixed-methods research design is a study that combines quantitative and qualitative data in one study for understanding the research problem better and answering the research questions [40, 41].

3.1. Setting and the Participants

The research was carried out in one of the private universities in Bangladesh. The participants were first-year undergraduate students, and there were 200 learners in all in this study. Out of them, 88 were female students, and 112 students were male students. The age of the students ranged from 19 to 23 years. The students have been learning English for the last 12 years, starting from Class I (primary level) to Class XII (higher secondary level). From the preprimary level to the higher secondary school level, English is regarded as the predominant subject for the students. The students who participated in this study were studying an Intermediate level of English I course.

For conducting quantitative research, the authors employed purposive sampling first and then random sampling as second step for the inclusion and exclusion criteria of study subjects. One of the authors of this research paper had access/permission to the university authority to conduct the research; out of 30 English sections/classes, 5 sections/classes (each section consisted of 40 students) were selected randomly. Thus, concerning quantitative data collection, the total number of students in this research was 200.

For collecting qualitative data, the authors employed an interview that was semistructured. In addition, for conducting the interviews among the students, the researchers selected the learners, administering the technique of purposive sampling until the saturation point was reached [37]. The saturation point reached when the researchers interviewed students no. 5. The interview session was conducted to get an in-depth idea about the items (i.e., 20) provided in the adapted questionnaire of quantitative data analysis and the items of questionnaires that were identical of the interview questions are given in Tables 1 and 2. The interview was conducted in the premise of the mentioned university, and the researchers conducted the interviews. The interview took about 15–20 minutes to complete.

3.2. The Description of the Course

The students learned grammar via the flipped learning approach until the middle of the semester. The researchers designed ten lesson plans under 12 classes on the basis of the flipped learning instruction so that the grammar proficiency of the students could be improved. The students of this study attended English classes two times a week, and the duration of the class hour was for one hour and thirty minutes. Overall, the learners attended twenty-four classes in one semester during the duration of this research. The teacher took two classes for completing one grammatical topic; that is to say, every new grammatical topic was covered in a week (i.e., 12 weeks in a semester). After every two classes, the teacher introduced and taught new grammatical topics (Table 3), following the flipped learning technique. Before starting every next class, students had the chance to read the PowerPoint presentations and articles and watch the videos. The learners actively took part in peer and group activities at the time of attending their classes.

Table 3 shows how each lesson’s flipped learning approach was structured. Each lesson lasted 90 minutes; out of 90 minutes, 60 minutes were devoted to classroom presentations and activities, and a pretask took 15 minutes, and a posttask took 15 minutes. As previously stated, each session lasted 90 minutes, and there was a total of twelve sessions. The teacher used the first session to introduce topics, course materials, and the concept of flipped learning. Ten grammar topics are illustrated in Table 3. The researchers chose the grammar topics on the basis of the syllabus of English I, which was approved by the University Grants Commission of Bangladesh. The teacher employed the last session/class for evaluating course, filling up the questionnaire, and conducting focus group interview.

3.3. Flipping the Course

The reading materials and videos that were used were recycled or adapted from the existing videos rather than developing new ones for the course. Before coming to class, the teachers asked the students to read the articles or watch the videos. Each video was between ten and fifteen minutes long. Students were expected to participate fully in class activities at the time of attending classes. The teacher spent fifteen minutes introducing the lesson and questioned about the prereading videos and materials. Group and individual activities took up the following sixty minutes, and the activities included presentation and group project, group discussion, and answering the questions. The next last fifteen minutes were spent on the conclusion of the session and follow-up activity (Table 4).

3.4. Collection of Data

As has been already mentioned, the semistructured interview and questionnaire were used to collect the data for this study. The researchers adapted the questionnaire from the study of Thaichay [38]. This study employed a questionnaire which comprised 20 items on a five-point Likert scale. Strongly agree, slightly agree, neither agree nor disagree, slightly disagree, and strongly disagree were the five-point Likert scales. The purpose of items 1–10 of the questionnaire was to learn about the conceptions and viewpoints of the students about applying the flipped instruction strategy to teach grammar in the classroom. In addition, items 11–20 of the questionnaire were designed to determine the attitudes and perceptions of the students towards the flipped learning technique. The Cronbach alpha coefficient was determined to determine the questionnaire’s reliability, and the value was r = .87.

The questionnaire was piloted before being used to collect the data to ensure its reliability and validity. Additionally, the researchers forwarded the questionnaire to two English teachers who had the same backgrounds, and they requested two teachers to look through it and commented on it. The experts offered feedback on the questionnaires’ content and language. This stage aided in the rewriting of the ambiguous language as well as to remove unnecessary items. Besides, it helped confirm that the questionnaire’s items or questions were appropriate for measuring the study’s objectives as well as that the subject matter was easily understood by students.

Secondly, the conceptions of the learners towards the adoption of flipped instruction were investigated, using the semistructured interview for this research article. In addition, the researchers conducted the semistructured interview to discover the various themes which arise from the instruction received out of flipped classroom learning. They adapted Doman and Webb [13] interview questions. Two males and three girls were among the five students that took part in the semistructured interview. The interview took about 20 to 30 minutes to complete.

3.5. Analysis of the Data

In this study, the survey questionnaire was analysed quantitatively and the semistructure interview was analysed qualitatively. The researchers used SPSS 24 to analyse the quantitative data. Descriptive statistics, such as standard deviation and mean, were used to analyse the data. On the contrary, the researchers transcribed the interview, and they used NVIVO-12 to code, subcode, and categorize the data in order to develop themes [37]. At the time of analysing qualitative data, they employed four steps; they were transcribing of the data, importing the data, coding the data, and interrater checking. In addition, they found four themes on the basis of the conceptions and viewpoints regarding the application of flipped instruction. A favourable studying environment, increased use of technology, a stronger association, and cooperation are all significant elements that arise out of the flipped instructed class lessons. Phrases as well as keywords used by the students in their answers to the dissimilar questions given in the interview were used to identify these themes.

4. Results

Research Question 1 is “What kinds of perceptions and attitudes do the learners show after learning by the flipped learning methods?.” As shown in Table 1, the flipped learning method aids students in improving their grammatical skills. Items, for example, “I watch the video tasks on a regular basis” (mean = 4.9500; SD = .53452), “I am occupied with several activities (e.g., discussion, writing, and reading)” [mean = 4.9046; SD = .76490], and “By teaching and studying in a flipped classroom, I am more driven to understand the rules of English language” (mean = 4.8672; SD = .64391) express that students were able to improve their grammatical abilities because of the flipped instructed class lessons.

As shown in Table 2, after employing the flipped instructed strategy in the classes, the conceptions and viewpoints of the learners about the flipped classroom method were affirmative. Items, for example, “The video lesson is something I enjoy viewing” (mean = 4.9262; SD = .50000), “In this class, I believe that the utilization of new instruments is assisting me learning” (mean = 4.9021; SD = .55791), and “I believe that flipped instructed lessons have aided me improving grammar” (mean = 4.8516; SD = .51701) demonstrate that the flipped instructed concept has been positively received by the students.

Research Question 2 is “What types of the key themes arise after the use of the flipped learning strategy?.” The following are the findings of the semistructured interview. Collaboration, improvement of relationship, use of more technology, and a favourable learning environment are the four major elements that arose out of the flipped instructed studying method.

4.1. Collaboration

Because the majority of flipped learning activities are participatory group and pair work type, employing them in the classroom can help foster cooperation. The majority of learners believe that flipped instructed studying can help students collaborate more effectively in classes. For instance, a single interviewee expressed, “Yes, we have more opportunity to perform more collaborative group and pair work under the flipped teaching style.” In similar fashion, another student remarked, “The major part of the classroom activities is performed in groups or pairs, which requires group members to collaborate.” In conclusion, the flipped learning method aids learners in improving or developing cooperation skills.

4.2. Improvement of Relationship

One of the advantages mentioned by the students after applying the flipped learning technique was the improvement of relationship amongst the classmate. One of the students expressed, “The flipped learning method assisted us in maintaining a stronger bond with our peers since we conducted all the class tasks cooperatively”. Similarly, another student responded, “The flipped learning technique necessitates a greater contact among classmates, which eventually fosters a better relationship.”

4.3. Increased Technology Use

The students were inquired about the increased technology use in the flipped instructed classes, and some of them mentioned new gadgetry, such as laptops, smartphones, and computers. One of the participants said, “We would like to take advantage of using more technology outside or inside of the classrooms for gaining deep understanding.” In similar fashion, one of the students commented, “Usage of technology outside classes would give us additional advantages at the time of our study.”

4.4. Favourable Learning Environment

Learners discovered that the flipped instructed class lessons studying technique produced a suitable studying setting in which they could study the video lessons from anywhere provided they have a reliable Internet connection. Furthermore, students felt at ease while using technologies. One of the students remarked, “Yes, the lessons and activities of the flipped classroom were suitable for grammar learning since the tasks forced us to work out and apply our personalized talents, and the lessons and activities provided high advantages to each of us.” Additionally, one of the learners mentioned, “In place of teachers’ teaching all the time, we become more interested and we learn new things if we are exposed to the flipped instructed studying approach.” Thus, this finding demonstrates that the flipped instructed studying method fosters a favourable studying backdrop or setting.

5. Discussion

The goal of this study is to investigate what students think and feel after adopting the flipped instructed class lessons as well as what major motifs come out of the flipped instructed class lessons. According to the findings of the interview which was semistructured in nature and questionnaire, learners have positive viewpoints concerning flipped instructed class lessons and consider it as one of the procedures for developing grammatical proficiency. In similar fashion, students rekindled their enthusiasm by implying that flipped classroom learning can be used with the help of more technology, both outside and within the classroom.

The results based on the questionnaire reveal that the participants had favourable perceptions and attitudes towards the flipped instructed studying technique. The findings of the current research paper are in line with the findings reported by Samiei and Ebadi [39], Sosa Díaz et al. [40], Lee and Wallace [16], Kim [41], and Doman and Webb [13] whose students also demonstrated a favourable and rejuvenated attitude about the flipped learning technique. These results matched the study of Zainuddin and Attaran [28], which discovered that learners favoured more the flipped classes than the traditional regular classrooms and that the majority of learners provided favourable viewpoint concerning flipped instructed classroom lessons. Furthermore, the results of the study by Sun [26] show that the learners had favourable conceptions and viewpoints about flipped instructed classroom studying in terms of understanding the topic and gaining information. In this study, learners stated that grasping the material (rules of language) prepreparatory measures, for example, viewing video tasks, assisted the students to energetically take part in the flipped instructed classes. Moreover, students showed motivation to master the grammar of English through learning as well as teaching in the flipped classroom since mastering the grammar of English in the flipped instructed classes allows them to communicate with different learners more effectively. According to Samiei and Ebadi [39], students have the positive attitudes developing reading comprehension skills in the flipped classroom.

Collaboration, improvement of relationship, use of more technology, and favourable learning environment are several key concepts which arise out of the flipped instructed classroom method. At the beginning, since the flipped instructed classroom method established a suitable studying setting, it greatly aided students in actively participating in classroom activities. This result has been also confirmed by Adnan [42] and Adnan [42] who discovered that learners that were using the flipped classroom learning method showed more ease and confidence with little stress in the classroom. These findings are also similar to the study of Chen et al. [31]; and the study discovered that students who received flipped instructed lessons enjoyed carrying out tasks in groups as well as pairs since flipped learning produced a favourable learning environment.

Secondly, the results of this study indicated that learners would like to use more technology outside and inside the class. In addition, the findings obtained from the interview suggested that the lesson could be flipped in the future by implementing PowerPoint, mobile phones, Whatsapp, WeChat, and other resources. The results of this study corroborate many of Doman and Webb’s [13] previous findings. The current research work discovered that technology had an important part or function in flipped instructed classes. Furthermore, the present study shows that employing several technological platforms was successful, and learners enjoyed it because it provided them with a range of options.

Thirdly, according to the findings of this study, since the major part of the flipped instructed class tasks were administered in peers and partnership, activities in flipped instructed classes motivated the learners to create more acceptable associations with teachers as well as among group members. These findings support the findings of Su Ping et al. [32]; and the results of the study of Su Ping et al. [32] revealed that flipped instructed studying strategy gave the adequate opportunity for learners to engage and interact in the classes, allowing them to form more acceptable relations.

Finally, the results of this study revealed that students could team up with their fellow friends to finish the activity within the time limit. The majority of the exercises in the classroom were interactive. Accordingly, students could acquire collaborative abilities by the utilization of the flipped instructed studying strategy. These findings are consistent with those of Karabulut-Ilgu et al. [43]; and the study of Karabulut-Ilgu et al. [43] found that the flipped instructed studying strategy assisted the students in solving problems collaboratively. In addition, the students offered favourable feedback in connection with flipped classroom approach. The results of the study can be applied in other EFL or ESL contexts around the world, particularly in Asia.

6. Limitations

Nevertheless, the majority of the English as a foreign language study administered in actual classroom background undertaken with a small sample show some drawbacks. The research design was the first main shortcoming of this study. The researchers did not compare the students’ opinions and attitudes, nor did they evaluate the flipped instructed studying strategy’s effect on the competence of the grammar. A future study could differentiate the perceptions and attitudes of the students and might evaluate the long-lasting impacts of the flipped instructed studying strategy on the competence of the grammar of the students. Secondly, the duration of conducting this research was constrained due to other extracurricular activities and the university calendar that curtailed the current research. More research should be conducted over a longer period of time with a bigger number of participants in order to get reliable and accurate findings. Finally, the flipped learning strategy was used to examine how it affected the grammatical skills of the learners. To gain a better understanding of the efficacy of the flipped instructed studying strategy on a variety of language competencies, future research could investigate the impacts of flipped instructed studying method on additional language abilities, like listening, reading, writing, and speaking.

7. Conclusion

The goal of this study was to learn about the students’ conceptions and viewpoints after applying the flipped instructed studying approach as well as several important motifs that emerged out of the flipped instructed studying method. The findings concerning the survey form indicated that learners improved their grammatical proficiency after employing the flipped instructed class lessons, and the perception and attitude of the students towards the flipped instructed studying method showed favourable feedback after the ending of the semester. Moreover, the findings of the question-and-answer session revealed crucial motifs, for example, collaboration, improvement of relationship, use of more technology, and favourable learning environment. [4042]

Data Availability

The dataset is available upon request from the first author.

Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Authors’ Contributions

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by Md. Kamrul Hasan and Prodhan Mahbub Ibna Seraj. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Md. Kamrul Hasan, Prodhan Mahbub Ibna Seraj, Abdul-Hafeed Fakih, and Blanka Klimova. All authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.