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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2010, Article ID 189561, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/189561
Review Article

LPS-Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Signaling on Expression of Protein S and C4b-Binding Protein in the Liver

1Department of Molecular Pathobiology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu-city, Mie 514-8507, Japan
2Department of Biochemistry, Mie Prefectural College of Nursing, Tsu-city, Mie 514-0116, Japan

Received 20 March 2010; Revised 19 May 2010; Accepted 7 June 2010

Academic Editor: Keigo Machida

Copyright © 2010 Tatsuya Hayashi and Koji Suzuki. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Protein S (PS), mainly synthesized in hepatocytes and endothelial cells, plays a critical role as a cofactor of anticoagulant activated protein C (APC). PS activity is regulated by C4b-binding protein (C4BP), structurally composed of seven -chains (C4BP ) and a -chain (C4BP ). In this paper, based primarily on our previous studies, we review the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling which affects expression of PS and C4BP in the liver. Our in vivo studies in rats showed that after LPS injection, plasma PS levels are significantly decreased, whereas plasma C4BP levels first are transiently decreased after 2 to 12 hours and then significantly increased after 24 hours. LPS decreases PS antigen and mRNA levels in both hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), and decreases C4BP antigen and both C4BP and C4BP mRNA levels in hepatocytes. Antirat CD14 and antirat Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 antibodies inhibited LPS-induced NF B activation in both hepatocytes and SECs. Furthermore, inhibitors of NF B and MEK recovered the LPS-induced decreased expression of PS in both cell types and the LPS-induced decreased expression of C4BP in hepatocytes. These data suggest that the LPS-induced decrease in PS expression in hepatocytes and SECs and LPS-induced decrease in C4BP expression in hepatocytes are mediated by MEK/ERK signaling and NF B activation and that membrane-bound CD14 and TLR-4 are involved in this mechanism.