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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 537263, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/537263
Review Article

Toll-Like Receptors in Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion and Transplantation

Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 200 Lothrop St., Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA

Received 28 April 2010; Accepted 8 July 2010

Academic Editor: Ekihiro Seki

Copyright © 2010 John Evankovich et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) function as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that respond to a myriad of highly conserved ligands. These substrates include pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for the recognition of invading pathogens, as well as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) for the recognition of endogenous tissue injury. While the functions of TLRs are diverse, they have received much attention for their roles in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the liver and other organs. The TLRs play central roles in sensing tissue damage and activating the innate immune system following I/R. Engagement of TLRs by endogenous DAMPs activates proinflammatory signaling pathways leading to the production of cytokines, chemokines and further release of endogenous danger signals. This paper focuses on the most recent findings regarding TLR family members in hepatic I/R injury and transplantation.