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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 548390, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/548390
Review Article

Hepatitis C Virus Evasion from RIG-I-Dependent Hepatic Innate Immunity

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7650, USA

Received 30 March 2010; Accepted 6 November 2010

Academic Editor: Keigo Machida

Copyright © 2010 Helene Minyi Liu and Michael Gale. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Exposure to hepatitis C virus (HCV) usually results in persistent infection that often develops into chronic liver disease. Interferon-alpha (IFN) treatment comprises the foundation of current approved therapy for chronic HCV infection but is limited in overall efficacy. IFN is a major effector of innate antiviral immunity and is naturally produced in response to viral infection when viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognized as nonself and are bound by cellular pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). Within hepatocytes, RIG-I is a major PRR of HCV infection wherein PAMP interactions serve to trigger intracellular signaling cascades in the infected hepatocyte to drive IFN production and the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). ISGs function to limit virus replication, modulate the immune system, and to suppress virus spread. However, studies of HCV-host interactions have revealed several mechanisms of innate immune regulation and evasion that feature virus control of PRR signaling and regulation of hepatic innate immune programs that may provide a molecular basis for viral persistence.