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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 618260, 7 pages
Review Article

TLRs in Hepatic Cellular Crosstalk

1Malaria Program, Seattle BioMed, 307 Westlake Avenue North, Suite 500, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
2Department of Immunology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195, USA

Received 18 April 2010; Accepted 24 June 2010

Academic Editor: Ekihiro Seki

Copyright © 2010 Amelie E. Bigorgne and Ian Nicholas Crispe. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed on all major subsets of liver cells. Both exogenous ligands derived from pathogens, and endogenous ligands that are products of cellular injury, engage these receptors and activate aspects of innate immunity. These receptors play a role in viral and parasitic infections of the liver, in ischemia-reperfusion injury, and in toxic liver damage, promoting antipathogen immunity but also hepatocellular injury and fibrogenesis. However, TLRs may also participate in negative feedback that limits tissue injury. In the complex environment of the liver, TLRs participate in pathologic cascades involving multiple cell types, manifesting their effects both through cell-autonomous actions, and via cellular crosstalk. In this paper we survey the involvement of TLRs in these diverse processes.